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This section provides detailed performance reporting on the commitments stated in the 2007–2008 Canada Border Services Agency Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP). The performance reporting is based on the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS)-approved Program Activity Architecture for the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) in 2007–2008. See Table 2.1. As per TBS guidelines, the analysis of the Corporate Management and Direction program activity is provided in Section IV.

Table 2.1: The CBSA’s Strategic Outcome and Program Activity Architecture for 2007–2008

Strategic Outcome: Efficient and effective border management that contributes to the security and prosperity of Canada.
Program Activity: Access
Program Sub-activities
  • Trade
  • Goods
  • People/Travellers
  • Recourse
Program Activity: Security
Program Sub-activities
  • Intelligence
  • Enforcement
Program Activity: Science- and Technology-based Innovation
Program Sub-activities
  • Business Solutions/Projects
  • Information Technology Infrastructure and Operations
  • Laboratory and Scientific Services
Program Activity: Corporate Management and Direction
Program Sub-activities
  • Corporate Direction
  • Human Resources
  • Comptrollership


Program Activity: Access

The access program activity ensures the lawful flow of people and goods while promoting compliance with border legislation and regulations.

The Access program activity contributes to the prosperity of Canada by ensuring the flow of lawful people and goods, promoting compliance with border legislation and ensuring a level playing field for legitimate trade and travellers. It includes the regional border operations and headquarters and support services involved in managing the access of people and goods into Canada. Through the Access program activity, the CBSA continually reviews its operating environment and procedures to identify innovative ways of improving the processing of people and goods without compromising national security or public safety.

Financial and Human Resources

Table 2.2: Access Program Activity — Financial Resources

 (Thousands of dollars)
Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
661,688 729,244 687,378

Table 2.3: Access Program Activity — Human Resources

 (Full-time equivalents)
Planned Actual Difference
7,923 8,888 (965)

The $42 million difference between total authorities and actual spending is mainly the result of the following:

  • $20 million, mainly related to the following projects:
    • the Canada Post Corporation handling fee account (the resulting lapse is attributed to the reduced volume of items processed where duty applies); and
    • the difficulties experienced in identifying accommodations needed to house CBSA staff in the National Capital Region.
  • a $22 million lapse in capital expenditures, mainly related to delays in construction projects at ports of entry, such as St. Stephen, N.B., Douglas, B.C., and Lacolle, Que.

The Access program activity consists of four program sub-activities: Trade, Goods, People/Travellers and Recourse.

Program Sub-activity: Trade

A significant part of the CBSA’s border management responsibilities is the administration of a facilitative and transparent trade program that supports the competitiveness of Canadian business. The Trade program sub-activity includes the development and delivery of national programs and policies relating to the administration of international trade agreements and domestic legislation with respect to the trade of commercial goods. Specific activities include reviewing tariff classifications, conducting valuation and origin reviews and audits, administering trade incentives, refusing entry of prohibited importations, collecting duties and taxes, taking anti-dumping and countervailing actions, and conducting verification activities to ensure compliance with the law.
Implementing the Trade Programs Directorate Fundamental Review

The Trade Programs Directorate Fundamental Review (2005–2006), a comprehensive examination of the various internal trade programs (tariff policy, origin, valuation and anti-dumping and countervailing), resulted in recommendations to better focus resources towards key activities and to increase flexibility in responding to changing priorities.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to the continued implementation of the recommendations of the Trade Programs Directorate Fundamental Review to optimize the delivery and increase the flexibility of the programs. The Agency further planned to acquire and maintain subject-matter experts in each of the program areas. To meet the CBSA’s objectives, compliance resources were to be realigned and consolidated in two phases to focus on cross-program activities that have common or similar processes. Phase I, the realignment of anti-dumping and countervailing compliance, was to occur in 2007–2008 while Phase II, the consolidation of other trade programs’ compliance activities, was planned for the following fiscal year.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • Key recommendations that were implemented to deliver programs more effectively and efficiently included the following:
    • compliance activities in the Anti-dumping and Countervailing Program were
      consolidated to enable more efficient delivery;
    • dedicated policy development units were established for each program to
      respond more effectively to changing priorities; and
    • increased consultations took place with the CBSA regions on tariff, origin and
      valuation issues. This will result in fewer challenges arising from inconsistencies or the inequitable treatment of Canadians.
Free trade agreements

The CBSA continues to assist Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) in the negotiation of Canada’s free trade agreements (FTAs). Advantage Canada, the Government of Canada’s economic plan released in November 2006, stated that through the Global Commerce Strategy, Canada would pursue regional and bilateral trade agreements to ensure that Canadian businesses can fully participate in global market opportunities.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to continuing to provide key input to negotiations on customs procedures that form part of each FTA. During the implementation of the agreements, the CBSA was to ensure that any amendments to the relevant legislation and regulations accurately reflect the provisions of the FTAs. The Agency would further be responsible for communicating with domestic stakeholders on the import and export requirements established in each of these agreements. Subject to the finalization of FTA negotiations, the CBSA was to develop and deliver associated regulatory requirements and communication packages for relevant stakeholders.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • Negotiations were completed in support of FTAs with Korea and Colombia. The CBSA was responsible for the negotiation of the Customs Procedures chapters of these FTAs, which establish procedures to administer the rules used to determine whether a good is eligible for preferential tariff treatment under the terms of the FTA.
  • Negotiations on FTAs were initiated with the Dominican Republic and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The CBSA was responsible for the negotiation of the Customs Procedures chapters of these FTAs and provided input on the development of the Trade Facilitation chapter. FTAs with these countries have the potential to deliver commercial benefits to many sectors of the Canadian economy and provide opportunities for Canadian exporters. In addition, an FTA with the Dominican Republic would also mean more security and predictability for Canadian investment in that country.
  • The CBSA initiated legislative and regulatory amendments for the implementation of FTAs with Peru and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). The CBSA was responsible for the negotiation of the Customs Procedures chapters of these FTAs and provided input on the development of the Trade Facilitation chapters. An FTA with Peru will stimulate the growth of Canada’s commercial bilateral relationship with this country, help level the playing field for Canadian businesses and promote a more stable and predictable investment environment in key sectors of interest. The EFTA member countries continue to be significant economic partners for Canada.
Other international trade agreements initiatives

Canada’s ongoing participation in a number of international forums, including the committees of the World Customs Organization (WCO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO), is essential to Canada’s economic interests.

RPP Commitment

The CBSA committed to continue to provide assistance to DFAIT in presenting and defending Canada’s position with respect to international agreements such as the WTO agreements concerning customs valuation, anti-dumping and countervailing duty measures, as well as at WTO trade dispute panels.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • Expert representation, advice, support and analysis was provided to the Department of Finance Canada and DFAIT in presenting and defending Canada’s position at the WTO Doha Round trade rules negotiations, at the WTO trade dispute panels and at meetings of the WTO committees on Anti-dumping Practices and on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. The WTO rules govern the trade relations of the organization’s 150 members. Canada seeks a broad and ambitious outcome to the Doha Round in order to secure a good deal for Canadian producers, manufacturers and service providers and to provide a more level playing field for Canadian exporters competing in global markets, while increasing Canadian and global economic growth, prosperity and development.
  • The CBSA participated in the WCO-hosted meetings of the Harmonized System Committee, the Harmonized System Review Sub-Committee, the Technical Committee on Rules of Origin and the Technical Committee on Customs Valuation. Participation in these committees helps ensure that Canada contributes to international policies with respect to these issues, and ensures the consistent application of trade programs worldwide to the benefit of both Canadian importers and exporters.
Developing an Agency-wide Compliance Management Plan

The Compliance Management Plan (CMP) is an integrated business plan that will help the CBSA manage compliance activities across the organization. The CMP will include the development of a comprehensive, integrated strategy for planning and reporting on compliance activities conducted across the Agency, at the border, after release and within client service environments. It will also allow the CBSA to accurately report on compliance levels and risks in a timely manner, to incorporate Agency priorities into one integrated strategy, and to produce useful information for resource allocation decisions based on compliance priorities and the results of compliance activities.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to tasking a working group with conducting a thorough and inclusive review of the existing CMP in order to give consideration to expanding its scope to address all legacy functions and to work towards developing a national strategy. Ultimately, this strategy will identify priorities for compliance activities and be used to assess compliance risks, analyze results and re-evaluate priorities.

Performance Highlights and Results

As part of its review, the working group identified key CMP inputs, including the following:

  • compliance priorities for stakeholder branches;
  • export and other government department (OGD) activities; and
  • integrated CBSA priorities and strategic activities.

Program Sub-activity: Goods

By managing the entry of hundreds of thousands of trucks, ships, rail containers and aircraft carrying millions of dollars in goods arriving at Canada’s border each day, the CBSA plays a vital role in ensuring the access of legitimate goods to the Canadian economy. In support of the ever-increasing volumes of trade, the Agency develops and delivers national programs and policies related to the admissibility and processing of goods. Through the Goods program sub-activity, the Agency provides information and assistance to importers and exporters and works with multiple federal partners to administer an extensive variety of legislation. CBSA officers working in the highway, air, marine and rail modes, as well as in postal and courier processing centres, conduct examinations and inspections to ensure compliance with all border laws.
Movement of Goods Framework

A key initiative of the CBSA is the development of the Movement of Goods Framework, an integrated policy framework for border processes that supports the effective delivery of programs and services. This all-inclusive framework ensures that field operations and clients receive consistent and effective policy interpretation and guidance, and supports OGD programs that are administered at the border.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to focusing its efforts on the development of the Movement of Goods Framework. Work towards this integrated policy framework was to comprise enhancements to the commercial process mapping system, including the postal and courier processes; internal and external consultations on commercial policies requiring priority updating; ongoing work to update, revise and publish policies; continued work with OGD partners to promote an electronic data interchange (EDI) interface with clients towards the goal of a single-window interface; an implementation plan to modernize the CBSA’s Administrative Monetary Penalty System (AMPS); a preliminary report for the postal, broker and account security reviews; and the launch of the courier review.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The commercial process mapping system (including postal and courier processes) was made available on the CBSA intranet. By having these processes available online, program areas can consistently update their models, review the complete commercial flow of goods and determine how changes may or may not impact the programs. This mapping system is a training tool for CBSA employees and can be used to develop future policies and programs. As such, all users, including border services officers, have a better understanding of the commercial process and have access to a “one-stop shop” to view the various commercial flows. The mapping system shows how all of the programs affecting the movement of goods work together and identifies potential gaps in CBSA processes.
  • The Courier/Low-Value Shipment (LVS) Program Review is on track. The program was mapped and an initial analysis was completed by researching international best practices and conducting consultations with other customs administrations. The review team also consulted with internal and external stakeholders to identify current process issues related to the Courier/LVS program, including the threshold for LVS shipments and the proper process for duty and tax payments. As a result of these consultations, short-, medium- and long-term recommendations were identified that will promote more efficient reporting and accounting processes and enhanced targeting capabilities. The recommendations include exploring the feasibility of introducing the CBSA’s EDI interface into the current program, as well as developing more effective targeting methods. By using more intelligence-based targets, low-risk shipments will be released more quickly, which will help ensure the most efficient use of program resources, improve program delivery to CBSA clients and stakeholders, enhance border security and support trade facilitation.
  • Phase I (needs analysis) of the Postal Program Review was successfully completed. Gaps, such as infrastructure constraints, outdated technology and lack of advance information, were identified and options for an effective, efficient and modernized Postal Program were explored, including the use of advance information in the postal stream.
  • The development of the CBSA’s new long-term Commercial Vision began. This included extensive research and consultation and planning sessions with external and internal stakeholders such as the Border Commercial Consultative Committee (BCCC), academia, CBSA commercial program and policy groups, as well as CBSA senior management. The Commercial Vision will guide planning and investment in commercial programs over the next 10 years, which will help ensure that anticipated trade trends and border challenges are met and that all programs work together to achieve the CBSA’s strategic goals.
  • Under the Broker Licensing and Account Security Program Review, a preliminary proposal for short-term changes was presented to and supported by the BCCC, which included changes to the Goods and Services Tax Option and the Importer Direct Option programs to simplify and streamline the administrative processes, and an expanded mandate for the Licensing Advisory Committee.
  • A modernization plan for AMPS was put into place, policy proposals were developed and consultations were conducted. The plan addresses internal and external stakeholder concerns about the lack of consistency in penalty structures, amounts and application. This is helping the CBSA to streamline the existing AMPS regime because the plan simplifies and clarifies penalties and reduces the number of penalties by collapsing current contraventions where feasible based on risk assessments.
Building and maintaining program expertise

Over the next three years, a major focus for the CBSA is building and maintaining program expertise and understanding to ensure the effective delivery of programs and services.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to undergoing a review of the skill sets required for the delivery of the food, plant and animal (FPA) program related to imports. Under the review, the CBSA was to identify best practices, needs and gaps in FPA program service delivery and enable the Agency to work towards national consistency in the delivery of the FPA program.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The CBSA completed an analysis and evaluation of the skill sets required for CBSA officers to administer and deliver the FPA program, which involved extensive internal and external consultations.
  • Training modules on core FPA and traveller agriculture and agri-food administrative monetary penalties were developed and rolled out nationally, three FPA program sessions were delivered in the Northern Ontario Region, and work continued with the CBSA’s training and learning teams on specialized in-service training modules.
  • Core equivalency testing for legacy CBSA officers was developed to ensure that all officers have the expertise necessary to effectively deliver FPA inspection programs and services.
  • Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for FPA program activities were developed and are based on Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) policies. These procedures assist CBSA officers in their day-to-day duties by ensuring that they have the necessary information to issue penalties and can educate Canadians on the importance of compliance to protect Canada’s natural resources and economy.
  • The integration of the redress process for administrative monetary penalties into the Recourse mandate was completed and the appropriate expertise was acquired. This will ensure a consistent approach to the review of all administrative monetary penalty appeals at the CBSA.

Program Sub-activity: People/Travellers

The CBSA develops and delivers national programs and policies related to the admissibility and processing of people/travellers and their goods including customs processing and the processing of plant, animal and food products accompanying individuals at the border. The Agency also develops the policies, procedures, alliances and working partnerships needed to maintain immigration border control, while facilitating the entry of lawful people. CBSA officers are responsible for examining foreign nationals seeking entry into Canada and for making appropriate decisions regarding their status. Through the People/Travellers program sub-activity, the CBSA is working to explore all options to simplify and accelerate the entry process for eligible individuals, including alternative inspection programs and low-risk traveller programs such as the NEXUS program in the land, air and marine modes.
Movement of People Framework

The Movement of People Framework aims to develop a long-term strategy for the movement of people across Canada’s border. This framework is a combination of strategic visioning and program review of CBSA business processes. The goal is to deliver a vision for improved processing and streaming of persons arriving at the border that expedites the flow of low-risk travellers and places a heightened focus on high-risk travellers based on best practices in customs, immigration and food inspection programs. 

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to reviewing the gaps and opportunities identified in studies of the primary and secondary inspection line functions, the travellers program and the results of internal and external consultations. These reviews will serve as a basis for developing a vision for the future processing of people.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The program review phase of the Movement of People Framework was successfully completed. The strengths and weaknesses of the people-related processes were identified, initiatives to integrate and streamline these processes were reported on, and gaps in data collection in the primary and secondary inspection line functions were documented. By documenting these gaps, the CBSA has been able to take steps to improve the quality of the information collected.
  • An automated and interactive presentation describing the people-related processes was completed, which will help develop the long-term Movement of People Vision and serve as a valuable training tool for CBSA employees.
  • With the successful completion of these key milestones, the Agency is ready to launch the next phase in 2008–2009, the development of a new Movement of People Vision.
Core Services Review

The CBSA is faced with growing demands from stakeholders, particularly in the air industry, for publicly funded international passenger clearance services. The Agency is unable to provide additional services with its current resource levels without affecting other programs or wait times. A key challenge for the CBSA is how to respond to increasing demands for border services while simultaneously strengthening its corporate infrastructure. To address these issues, the CBSA launched a Core Services Review, a multi-year initiative, in 2005.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to conducting consultations with external stakeholders in the air mode with a view to developing an operational model and various policy options for this mode.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The Core Services Review was mandated to develop options for review by the Government of Canada to address increasing pressures related to the expansion of passenger clearance services, particularly in the air mode. Key milestones in 2007–2008 included the following:
    • consultations were conducted with air industry stakeholders from across Canada;
    • an extensive data collection exercise was conducted in the air and marine (cruise ship and ferry) modes for 2005–2006 and 2006–2007. Data will be collected on an ongoing basis and reported annually to assess trends in international passenger volumes at airports and marine ports across Canada; and
    • the initial phase of the Core Services Review in the air mode was completed.
  • Together, these achievements will help the CBSA develop policy options, evaluation criteria and an operational model that will provide a fair and transparent means of assessing service requests.

Program Sub-activity: Recourse

Fair treatment and a commitment to the rights of individuals and groups with whom the CBSA interacts are fundamental pillars of the Agency’s relationships and operations. Through the Recourse program sub-activity, the CBSA develops recourse-related programs and policies and delivers the administrative review of CBSA decisions related to trade programs and enforcement sanctions. The goal is to provide clients with the fair, impartial and timely resolution of disputes. The CBSA’s recourse programs provide policy and procedural clarification on border management matters not only to the importing and exporting community but also to federal and international partners. Through this sub-activity, the Agency ensures a level playing field for travellers and traders and manages the appeals process for disputes before the Canadian International Trade Tribunal (CITT), the Canadian Human Rights Commission and the courts.
Administrative reviews

The Recourse program is responsible for providing clients with a fair and impartial review of the decisions and actions taken in support of border services legislation. The CBSA is committed to ensuring that the recourse process is accessible and transparent. The recourse framework is an ongoing initiative at the CBSA that will continue to identify the various forms of redress provided by the Agency.

RPP Commitment

Although no specific RPP commitment was stated, the CBSA focused on making and supporting timely and consistent recourse decisions that contribute to the security, protection and economic prosperity of Canada.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The CBSA continued to provide a fair and impartial review mechanism for importers and travellers in cases of a dispute concerning actions taken in support of border services legislation. In 2007–2008,
    • over 4,100 requests were received for the review of enforcement sanctions and other actions (e.g. administrative reviews of enforcement sanctions that have been appealed further to the Federal Court as well as reviews of complaints before the Canadian Human Rights Commission); and
    • over 1,900 requests were received for the review of trade program decisions (e.g. trade administration disputes [re-determinations]) and CITT and Federal Court appeals of trade administration decisions.
  • Figures 2.1 and 2.2, respectively, show the intake and disposal comparisons over a three-year period for the administrative reviews of enforcement sanctions, including appeals to the Federal Court, complaints before the Canadian Human Rights Commission and trade program decisions, including CITT appeals.
Figure 2.1: Number of Administrative Reviews of Enforcement Sanctions and Other Actions: Intake and Disposal Comparison (2005–2006 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.1

The total number of decisions rendered (disposable) decreased in 2007-2008 when compared to previous years. This is due to significant staffing challenges in recent years, including the retirement of experienced adjudicators, the advancement of other experienced staff to senior program advisor or management positions, and the difficulty in retaining new and experienced resources. In order to address these program limitations, the CBSA is hiring and training new adjudicators.

Figure 2.2: Number of Administrative Reviews of Trade Program Decisions: Intake and Disposal Comparison (2005–2006 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.2

The continued downward trend is due to an improved process for capturing administrative reviews of trade program decisions. The new process enables importers, when possible, to file one claim for a multitude of transactions, where in the past, each one had to be submitted individually. This has resulted in a streamlined process for importers and improved service to the public by reducing the paper burden.

  • Figure 2.3 shows that the average age of inventory has increased over the past three fiscal years because the ability to provide a timely response to an administrative review is sometimes beyond the CBSA’s control. There continued to be instances when a request could not be processed while the Agency awaited a court decision or other information. This increases the time it takes to resolve a dispute and may have a negative impact on the clients’ perception of the redress process.
Figure 2.3: Average Age of Inventory (2005–2006 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.3 shows the average age of inventory (average age of inventory is measured in days) over the past three fiscal years. In 2007-2008, the age of inventory for requests for review of enforcement sanctions and trade program decisions increased by 33 percent and 3 percent, respectively, when compared to 2006-2007.

  • Over the last three fiscal years, approximately 12 percent of the reviews of trade program decisions and approximately 2 percent of the reviews of enforcement sanctions were appealed further to the CITT or the Federal Court. The CBSA was successful in 64 percent of these cases.
  • The number of overturned decisions decreased from 35 to 8 decisions in three years and now represents only approximately 13 percent of appeals. The fact that the CITT and the Federal Court are overturning fewer cases is an indication that the original decisions taken by the CBSA were accurate. See Figure 2.4 for the breakdown of the appeal outcomes for the past three fiscal years.


Figure 2.4: Outcomes of Appeals to the CITT and the Federal Court (2005–2006 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.4

Figure 2.4 shows the outcomes of appeals to the CITT and the Federal Court over the past three fiscal years.


Program Activity: Security

Within the context of the Government’s security agenda, and through effective and efficient border management, ensure the safety and security of Canadians.

The Security program activity contributes to the achievement of the CBSA’s strategic outcome, encompassing the CBSA functions that ensure the safety and security of Canadians. It includes most of the CBSA’s international operations, some border operations and headquarters and support services. Through the Security program activity, the CBSA continually examines its operating environment and processes to identify new ways of improving border security without impeding the cross-border movement of legitimate trade and travellers.

Financial and Human Resources

Table 2.4: Security Program Activity — Financial Resources

 (Thousands of dollars)
Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
402,529 480,758 383,530

Table 2.5: Security Program Activity — Human Resources

 (Full-time equivalents)
Planned Actual Difference
4,069 3,472 597

The $97 million difference between total authorities and actual spending is mainly the result of the following:

  • $60 million, mainly related to the following projects:
    • the arming of CBSA officers and efforts to address work-alone situations, specifically the staffing and procurement delays;
    • the Container Security Initiative – Advance Interdepartmental Reporting (the agreements with participating nations were not consummated within originally planned time frames);
    • the procurement of specialty equipment for purposes such as radiation detection (the procurement was extremely challenging due to the limited number of qualified suppliers); and
    • the difficulties experienced in identifying accommodations needed to house CBSA staff in the National Capital Region.
  • a $37 million lapse in capital expenditures, mainly related to delays in the following:
    • the arming of CBSA officers and efforts to address work-alone situations (specifically the construction delays at the Learning Centre in Rigaud, Que., and certain regions requiring facility upgrades to eliminate work-alone situations);
    • the construction projects at ports of entry, such as St. Stephen, N.B., Douglas, B.C., and Lacolle, Que.; and
    • the procurement of speciality equipment for purposes such as radiation detection (the procurement was extremely challenging due to the limited number of qualified suppliers).
The Security program activity consists of two program sub-activities: Intelligence and Enforcement.

Program Sub-activity: Intelligence

The CBSA relies on intelligence-based decision-making to identify high-risk travellers and contraband goods bound for Canada. In accordance with its multiple borders approach, the CBSA screens people and goods at several points along the travel continuum: at the earliest opportunity overseas, in transit and upon arrival at the Canadian border. Receiving and reviewing documentation in advance improves the Agency’s ability to target and interdict inadmissible people and goods, and acts as a deterrent to those contemplating illegal immigration activities or the importation of goods that pose a threat to public health and safety.

The Intelligence program sub-activity includes initiatives related to the collection, analysis, distribution and sharing of intelligence regarding threats to national security, including terrorism, war crimes, organized crime, smuggling, fraud and irregular migration. It also includes guiding and coordinating the CBSA’s intelligence operations across Canada and abroad, and providing direct support to the Agency’s front-line officers.

Migration integrity officers

The migration integrity officer (MIO) program encompasses intelligence gathering, analysis and reporting related to visa or immigration application fraud, organized crime, irregular migration, public security and terrorism, war crimes and crimes against humanity. It aims to protect the integrity of the Canadian immigration selection system, the refugee determination process and the safety, security and good order of Canadian society, including the interdiction of persons inadmissible to Canada.

At present, the CBSA has 44 MIOs and three intelligence liaison officers located in
39 key locations abroad. Information is gathered from and training is provided to a network of contacts with host-country officials, officials from other governments in the designated region, airline personnel and law-enforcement agents, and the information is used by CBSA senior management, operational staff and OGDs.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to continuing work with Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) and DFAIT to support its employees abroad. The Agency was to enhance the information-sharing protocols used by its officers abroad, the CBSA’s National Risk Assessment Centre, CBSA Headquarters (HQ) and OGDs. The success of these commitments was to be measured by the number of improperly documented travellers intercepted before departure, reports from MIOs, feedback from partners and statistical information in monthly activity reports.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The CBSA led two successful overseas interdiction exercises with international partners in Seoul, Korea, and in Hong Kong. Eighteen immigration liaison officers from 10 countries took part and were supported by the Hong Kong Immigration Service and Korean immigration authorities. These exercises provided immigration liaison officers with a forum to share best practices and information to successfully prevent fraud and irregular migration.
  • Canadian Experience Class (CEC) funding was obtained for 12 new positions and preparations were started for mid-2008 deployment. This will enhance the Agency’s anti-fraud detection efforts. The CEC is a new economic immigration initiative that aims to facilitate the transition for temporary residents with Canadian work experience to become permanent residents.
  • MIO training was expanded through the availability of new and enhanced training modules, which enhanced program delivery.
  • MIOs delivered training sessions to over 9,000 individuals, including representatives from airlines and local law-enforcement agencies, to help improve the ability of these partners to identify and intercept improperly documented travellers.
  • Successful interdiction activities, increased intelligence capacities and more consistent procedures for MIOs helped “push the border out” and prevent inadmissible persons from coming to Canada.
  • As shown in Figure 2.5, the CBSA’s interception rate abroad (i.e. the percentage of improperly documented people seeking to fly to Canada that were intercepted abroad) has remained relatively constant and high: 69 percent in 2007–2008, 67 percent in 2006–2007 and 69 percent in 2005–2006, despite the fact that MIOs increasingly need to divert resources to manage additional tasks related to the CBSA’s mandate.
  • The number of interceptions and improperly documented arrivals decreased this past fiscal year as a result of several factors, including the following:
    • enhanced deterrence measures used by the MIO network are helping to make air routes to Canada less attractive for inadmissible persons who are seeking other options (such as land borders or inland routes, or choosing final destinations other than Canada);
    • other airline liaison officer (ALO) networks deployed by like-minded countries are helping to deter improperly documented persons from using air routes; and
    • the lack of interception reporting by airlines and other partners due to high staff turnover and competing priorities. MIOs made significant efforts to increase their liaison visits with airlines and provided continual support to airlines (giving training, being a physical presence at the airport, handling telephone calls, etc.) and developed relationships that have been key to airline reporting.


Figure 2.5: Number of Interceptions and Improperly Documented Arrivals (2005–2006 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.5

In 2007-2008, the number of interceptions and improperly documented arrivals decreased. This is due to several factors including enhanced deterrence measures, other ALO networks and the lack of interception reporting by airlines and other partners facing more challenging environments.

Container Security Initiative

Canada continues to partner with the United States on the Container Security Initiative (CSI) that aims to protect containerized shipping, the primary system of global trade, from being exploited or disrupted by terrorists. This multinational program is designed to safeguard global maritime trade while allowing cargo containers to move faster and more efficiently through the supply chain at seaports worldwide.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to providing continued support for its partnership with the United States on the CSI. As part of this partnership, and in accordance with the Agency’s multiple borders strategy of “pushing the border out,” the CBSA was to focus on deploying officers to foreign countries. There the officers would work with local authorities to target and verify shipping containers and identify high-risk containers before they are loaded onto vessels destined for North America.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • A comprehensive training program was established for new CSI officers, equipping them with the knowledge and tools required to execute their duties in a safe and efficient manner.
  • A memorandum of cooperation (MOC) was negotiated and signed with the South African Revenue Service committing Canada and South Africa to work together to identify, screen and seal high-risk containers at the earliest opportunity and to implement the CSI. Two CBSA officers were assigned to South Africa in January 2008.
  • A MOC was negotiated and signed with Panama and a plan was developed for
    2008–2009 to implement the CSI and deploy CBSA officers to Panama. Discussions were also initiated on the development of MOCs with Japan, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore.
War Crimes Program

Canada has affirmed that it is not and will never become a safe haven for persons involved in war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide, regardless of when or where the events occurred. This is consistent with domestic legislation as well as with Canada’s commitment to international justice. The CBSA, the RCMP, the Department of Justice (DOJ) and CIC coordinate Canada’s War Crimes Program. Under the program, the CBSA focuses on post-World War II cases (i.e. modern-day war crimes).

Under the provisions of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), the CBSA takes a three-pronged approach to deal with modern-day war criminals:

  • prevent suspected war criminals from reaching Canada by providing recommendations to CIC officials in order for them to make final determinations on immigrant, refugee and visitor visa applications from abroad;
  • exclude war criminals from the refugee determination process in Canada; and
  • remove, through the immigration admissibility hearing process, war criminals who have already entered Canada.
RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA and its War Crimes Program partners committed to continue providing a highly effective service to protect Canadian values. The Agency’s focus was to remain on two key components of the program: operational coordination and allegation management. The CBSA was to measure its success in terms of the number of persons complicit in war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide who were determined to be inadmissible to Canada, excluded from the refugee determination process as a result of their prior actions or removed from Canada. Also, the Agency was to focus on continuing to enhance partnerships with other like-minded countries to share information and best practices and maximize program effectiveness.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • As noted in the 2006–2007 10th War Crimes Program annual report, the activities of War Crimes Program partners prevented 361 persons complicit or involved in war crimes or crimes against humanity from coming to Canada.
  • CBSA immigration hearing officers intervened on behalf of the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration at hearings held by the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada in 82 cases, resulting in the exclusion of 31 cases from the refugee determination process. In addition, 35 persons involved or complicit in war crimes or crimes against humanity were removed from Canada.
  • The processing of war crimes cases was streamlined by enhancing existing triage processing of cases to boost efficiency and reduce backlogs. This was facilitated by the creation of an inventory management team and by establishing standardized case processing times for refugees in collaboration with CIC. Moreover, the quality of war crimes referrals was improved through outreach and training initiatives conducted with CIC.
  • The CBSA and the DOJ war crimes sections co-developed and delivered their annual war crimes training workshop in March 2008, which was attended by CBSA representatives and OGDs. These annual workshops facilitate the sharing of knowledge on modern war crimes and increase awareness of the War Crimes Program by key Government of Canada partners.
  • Outreach and training to Canadian missions overseas continued, including war crimes training to officers working at the Canadian mission in Damascus, Syria.
  • The Agency continued to maintain a close working relationship with war crimes units in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States under the Four Country Conference Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) With Respect to Investigations Relating to Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, which was signed in April 2007.

Program Sub-activity: Enforcement

A primary function of CBSA front-line officers is to identify and take appropriate enforcement action to minimize the risks of dangerous people and goods entering and remaining in Canada. Through the Enforcement program sub-activity, the CBSA provides guidance in the enforcement of all border legislation and ensures enhanced national security by developing appropriate policies and procedures and by equipping border services officers with the tools they need to do their jobs. This work also includes building key partnerships with domestic and international law-enforcement agencies, promoting partnerships and sharing information. Additional responsibilities related to this program sub-activity include the investigation of individuals who commit offences counter to Canadian border legislation; the making of recommendations for prosecution; and the detention and removal of people who have no legal right to remain in Canada, especially those who pose a threat to Canadian society.
Illegal firearms seizures and trafficking

The CBSA places a high priority on the detection and interdiction of illegal firearms and prohibited weapons. All non-reported firearms are seized and forfeited to the Crown.

In 2004, the Government of Canada approved the Investments to Combat the Criminal Use of Firearms (ICCUF) Initiative. Funding was dedicated annually to improve the collection, analysis and sharing of intelligence and other information related to firearms. This resulted in the national placement of nine regional intelligence firearms liaison officers (RIFLOs), whose primary objective is to liaise with partners (e.g. the RCMP and other Canadian law-enforcement agencies, and the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives) and gather intelligence to combat illicit firearms smuggling. CBSA RIFLOs provide subject matter expertise to border services officers at ports of entry and Canadian mail processing centres, particularly with respect to the identification of firearms and weapons that may be encountered at the land border, at airports and in the postal stream.

RPP Commitment

Although no RPP commitment was stated, the CBSA was to focus on the prevention of illegal firearms trafficking by organized criminals and gangs by seizing firearms and improving the collection, analysis and sharing of intelligence and other information related to firearms.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The CBSA seized a total of 671 firearms in 2007–2008: 148 non-restricted firearms (similar to last year), 323 restricted firearms (a 45 percent increase from last year) and 200 prohibited firearms (a 44 percent increase from last year).
  • The CBSA worked closely with other law-enforcement agencies in joint forces operations such as the Ontario Provincial Weapons Enforcement Unit and the Toronto Police Service’s Guns and Gangs Task Force, as well as with international partners. These efforts helped to complete a detailed analysis of intelligence and enforcement actions in order to develop a better understanding of the nature of firearms trafficking.
  • The CBSA provided intelligence and other support to law-enforcement partners in Canada in order for them to conduct firearms trafficking investigations related to organized crime.
  • The CBSA improved its own intelligence capacity in cooperation and coordination with ICCUF partners, providing actionable and timely intelligence to increase seizures of firearms at Canada’s border.

In Budget 2006, the CBSA received approximately $90.5 million to start the process of arming CBSA officers. The Agency continues its efforts to ensure that its Arming Initiative is implemented properly, professionally and without unnecessary delay. The CBSA also remains dedicated to transparency and consultation with key stakeholders, including union representatives, throughout the planning and implementation phases.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to continuing consultations with other federal and provincial departments and agencies, as well as with other governments that have undertaken similar arming initiatives. The Agency recognizes the importance of ensuring that its Arming Initiative is comprehensive and appropriate and will work towards developing and revising related human resources (HR) and operational policies and processes in addition to ensuring that adequate training is put in place before implementation.

To ensure a smooth process and an effective transition, the CBSA was to identify six key activities for 2007–2008, which are the following: the selection of a CBSA duty firearm, training development, policy development, information technology (IT) support, the construction and renovation of facilities and other infrastructure, and the establishment of an implementation strategy. By March 31, 2008, the CBSA was to have a minimum of 250 officers trained and equipped with duty firearms. With this in mind, the Agency was to begin training CBSA officers in July 2007, deploy the first set of armed officers in August 2007 and move forward to train and equip a total of 4,800 officers.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • Through competitive procurement processes, the Agency procured the Beretta Px4 Storm 9mm as the CBSA duty firearm, as well as holsters, ammunition and other supporting equipment. To ensure the proper tracking and control of these assets, information systems and processes were developed and implemented. In addition, 49 ports of entry and inland offices were upgraded to ensure safe storage facilities.
  • During the first year of the Arming Initiative, ending on March 31, 2008, 20 CBSA trainers were hired and certified, 13 CBSA duty firearm courses were held and 294 CBSA officers were armed and deployed to 24 land border ports of entry and 12 inland offices.
  • In July 2007, the first CBSA duty firearm courses were piloted, resulting in the first deployment of armed officers in August 2007. The selection of officers for training was based on traffic volumes at ports of entry and an analysis of risk, and included land border ports of entry and inland enforcement offices.
  • The CBSA continued to work closely with the RCMP, most notably in developing and delivering the three-week CBSA Duty Firearm Course tailored to the Agency’s work environment and in training use-of-force trainers to deliver the course. Partnerships with other law-enforcement organizations were explored to identify opportunities to collaborate in delivering training and re-certification, sharing facilities and streamlining procurement.
  • Training courses took place at interim facilities in Chilliwack, British Columbia, and Ottawa, Ontario. Once the expansion of the CBSA Learning Centre in Rigaud, Quebec, is completed in 2009–2010, recruits will be trained in the use of the duty firearm at this facility which, in turn, means more armed officers will be deployed to the regions.
  • The Corporate Administrative System was enhanced to ensure that CBSA officers have all of the prerequisites before attending training and that armed officers maintain their proficiency levels within the required time frames. With these enhancements, the validity of all prerequisites (e.g. Possession and Acquisition Licence, first aid certificate, medical assessments) will be tracked electronically to ensure compliance with related policies.
  • Supporting operational and HR policies were implemented in July 2007, including a duty to accommodate strategy and a policy on employee support programs. To help the organization manage the change from having an unarmed to an armed workforce, awareness sessions were delivered to over 350 regional managers. A network of regional coordinators has also been established to provide support to the regions and to provide regional input on the implementation of the Arming Initiative.
  • A communications strategy and a cohesive approach to Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) in the workforce were developed, along with CISM SOPs that are comparable to those of other Canadian enforcement agencies. Training is ongoing for peer volunteers in International Critical Incident Stress Foundation (ICISF) intervention techniques. Internal trainers were certified by the ICISF to deliver training to the peer volunteers. Given the complexities surrounding the management of critical incidents, CISM awareness training packages were developed for CBSA officers attending duty firearms training to ensure that they are aware of the procedures to follow during a critical incident.
  • As of March 31, 2008, there were nine incidents across the country where a duty firearm was drawn; however, a duty firearm was never discharged.
Ending work-alone situations

In Budget 2006, the CBSA received approximately $4.5 million to eliminate work-alone situations. The Agency continues to ensure that its Doubling-up Initiative to end work-alone situations is implemented properly, professionally and without unnecessary delay.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the Agency committed to continuing its efforts to eliminate work-alone situations for border services officers by conducting a review of priority sites where “doubling up” is required and assessing the operational and HR impacts of this initiative. The Agency also committed to continuing consultations with the unions, the regions and branches to highlight areas of concern and identify solutions to potential issues before implementation. Plans were also under way to take on 400 new permanent officers, with a minimum of 50 officers hired and trained by March 31, 2008.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The target of staffing a minimum of 50 new border services officers in 2007–2008 was exceeded. As of March 31, 2008, 99 officers were hired to eliminate work-alone situations at 48 of the 138 affected locations. See Figure 2.6 for the regional distribution of the new officers.
  • The plan to eliminate work-alone situations was developed in consultation with the CBSA regions and branches and representatives of the Customs Excise Union (CEUDA).
  • To accommodate a second officer at some facilities, the CBSA started a review of the infrastructure requirements. The Agency identified a minimum of nine ports of entry that cannot accommodate an additional officer without significant renovation, expansion or replacement.
  • The recruitment and subsequent retention of potential officers was identified as a challenge. Staffing at some remote locations is difficult because it is hard to attract potential recruits to these ports of entry. When the requirement to double up is factored in, the challenge becomes even greater. This will be addressed in 2008–2009 with the issuance of a new process specifically for staffing at remote ports of entry.


Figure 2.6: Regional Distribution of Border Services Officers Hired in 2007–2008

Figure 2.6

This figure shows the distribution of the new border services officers at CBSA sites in six of its eight regions.

Document analysis

The CBSA continues to work on document fraud analysis by delivering products and training to ensure that its officers are able to detect document fraud, pursue enforcement actions and keep pace with an international environment that is highly adaptive in the exploitation of documents and fraud-detection programs.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to continuing its work on document analysis by producing a full range of training packages, document alerts and tools related to travel document fraud and document security issues. These products were to be distributed to CBSA officers overseas, OGDs, airlines and international migration control partners in order to combat irregular migration, including smuggling and trafficking, and to increase the detection and prevention of document and identity fraud.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • A one-day basic document examination course was developed and delivered to all border services officer recruits to assist them in detecting document fraud. A five-day intermediate document examination course was also developed and delivered to document trainers and experienced regional CBSA officers who already possess some document knowledge.
  • Intermediate-level document training was delivered to two provincial driver’s licence agencies in connection with the rollout of enhanced driver’s licence programs. This training is also being delivered to key CBSA employees and partner agencies in preparation for the 2010 Winter Olympics in order to increase the ability of the CBSA and its partners to identify fraudulent documents.
  • Nine document information bulletins on new documents and 24 document alerts on fraudulent documents were issued and distributed within the Agency and to partners in Canada and abroad. These bulletins and alerts increase the ability of the CBSA and its partners to interdict improperly documented travellers.
  • The Document Examination Network, comprising HQ and regional intelligence document specialists, continues to build a consistent and uniform approach to document assessment and analysis in order to enhance document expertise within the Agency.
  • Document examination technical tools were deployed to the CBSA regional document examination centres to enhance examination and imaging capacities nationally.
Partners in Protection Program

The Partners in Protection (PIP) program enlists the cooperation of private industry in efforts to enhance border security, combat organized crime and terrorism, increase awareness of customs compliance issues, and help detect and prevent contraband smuggling. Under this program, the CBSA has developed strategic partnerships with private industry to secure the flow of low-risk, legitimate goods and travellers across the border. The PIP program continues to undergo an evaluation to assess its effectiveness, to ensure its compliance with the WCO’s Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade and to identify possible avenues to make the program more compatible with its U.S. counterpart, the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism program.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to re-examining and upgrading the PIP program’s membership requirements, regional delivery capacity, officer training, operational and administrative support and enforcement measures in order to provide a stronger and more effective security program. This was to include drafting and negotiating the minimum security standards for all modes of transportation, conducting internal and external consultations with the trade supply industry and other relevant partners, and negotiating joint training and on-site security validations.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • A security profile document was drafted and SOPs were developed for the suspension, cancellation and re-instatement of PIP memberships and appeals of these decisions. This provided a more secure and efficient application process for the PIP program and clearly articulated the rights and obligations of PIP members should a breach of the program agreement occur.
  • Extensive consultations to develop the upgraded PIP program were conducted with industry and existing PIP members, which helped to increase acceptance and adoption of the revised PIP program among the target community.
  • The preliminary results of a Marketing Works study conducted in 2007–2008 indicated that PIP membership (currently at 2,200 members) is expected to more than double in the next two years due to the anticipated and significant growth in the marine, air and rail modes.

The CBSA’s removal priorities continue to be individuals who pose a threat to the security of Canada, such as those involved in terrorist activities, organized crime and crimes against humanity, followed by failed refugee claimants and other inadmissible persons. The Agency removes those under removal orders as soon as possible, ensuring that appropriate measures are taken to remove persons securely while respecting human rights.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the Agency committed to the continued exploration of collaborative means for removals, in addition to tracking the number of removals of persons who have no legal right to remain in Canada. The CBSA was to make the most effective and efficient use of its resources by focusing on the removal of high-risk individuals wherever possible. Also, the Agency was to assess its success through the number of inadmissibility reports written, arrests made and removals concluded.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • 12,315 persons were removed in 2007–2008 (see Figure 2.7) of which 1,724 were high-priority removals, demonstrating the CBSA’s continued emphasis on removing those who pose a threat to the security of Canada.
  • The CBSA participated in two charter removals with the United States, removing
    28 people from Canada; removals to China increased from 238 to 315.
  • The timing of pre-removal risk-assessment processing and removals were better
    coordinated with CIC, which increased program efficiency and resulted in a more effective removal process for high-priority cases and a more realistic removals inventory.
  • The implementation of standardized financial coding for removals as well as closer teamwork between the regions, HQ and the Agency’s overseas missions resulted in improved efficiency in removals and in tracking removal costs.
  • The CBSA participated in international forums such as the G8, the Four Country Conference and the Intergovernmental Consultations on Migration, Asylum and Refugees to share best practices related to removals and encourage countries of origin to accept the return of their nationals.
Figure 2.7: Number of Persons Removed from Canada (2005–2006 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.7

For the second consecutive year, the CBSA removed more than 12,000 persons from Canada.

Criminal investigations

The safety of Canadians is enhanced by the investigation and prosecution of border security offences, such as the use of fraudulent documents to gain access to Canada and the smuggling or unlawful import/export of controlled, regulated or prohibited goods. Pursuing crimes related to the movement of goods promotes economic security, ensures the business community maintains confidence in Canada’s trade and border legislation, and promotes a level playing field for Canadian businesses. Pursuing crimes related to the illicit movement of persons across the border supports Canada’s immigration program and deters others from seeking unlawful entry into Canada.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to the continued expansion of its border-related investigative activities by working with internal partners to enhance enforcement activities pursuant to the Proceeds of Crime (Money Laundering) and Terrorist Financing Act amendments made through Bill C-25. In this respect, the integration of the CBSA’s main lines of business (customs, immigration and food, plants and animals) into the criminal investigations program continued. The CBSA was to gauge the success of its investigative work by the number of cases investigated and the number of prosecution recommendations made to and pursued by the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The CBSA continued the implementation of its new IRPA prosecution responsibilities in support of Canada’s immigration program, and enhanced its internal and external partnerships through the signing of an annex to the MOU with the CFIA and through the resultant prosecutions.
  • The CBSA further integrated its main lines of business, which resulted in an increased workload on the criminal investigations program. However, the overall program results (i.e. the number of criminal investigations and prosecutions) remained on target and the number of charges laid for offences was consistent with previous years and within the identified targets for 2007–2008. See Figures 2.8 and 2.9.


Figure 2.8: Number of Criminal Investigative Cases (2006–2007 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.8

2007-2008 was the first full fiscal year in which the CBSA exercised its IRPA criminal investigation responsibilities in addition to those for customs offences. Approximately 1,100 charges were laid in over 490 investigative cases.

Figure 2.9: Number of Cases Concluded and Conviction Rates (2005–2006 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.9

In 2007-2008, the Agency saw a slight increase from 90 percent to 91 percent in the conviction rate for cases concluded in criminal court.

Note: In 2007–2008, the conviction rate included data on overall criminal investigations for the three business lines (customs, immigration and food, plants and animals). Overall criminal investigation rates were not provided for 2006–2007; the 95 percent reported last year was only for IRPA convictions.

Business resumption planning

The CBSA remains committed to responding to any potential threats to the well-being and safety of Canadians. As part of the Agency’s strategy to identify and mitigate these threats, it is working proactively with the United States to develop coordinated business resumption protocols, security technology and disaster recovery systems at the border in the event of an unexpected disaster or increased alert. These efforts will support the continuity of border operations in the event of an emergency.

In January 2007, the Government of Canada announced an investment in the CBSA of $12 million over two years for business resumption planning. Another $24 million over five years was provided through Treasury Board submissions.

This funding is being used to further harmonize and strengthen Canada–U.S. plans, to help ensure that plans are in place to enable the lawful flow of trade and travel during an emergency, to enable the Agency to provide IT infrastructure and application services at ports of entry and to maintain the integrity of information and the information flow to and from the United States when under various threat situations.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to providing continued support for the Canada–U.S. business resumption planning partnership. This was to include participating in joint training and joint planning exercises on incident response and recovery with U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). These cross-border activities were to further ensure that throughout 2007–2008, emergency response plans continued to be tested, evaluated and adapted to secure Canada’s readiness in the event of an emergency.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • Partnerships and relationships with other departments and agencies, including the RCMP, the Department of National Defence, Transport Canada and U.S. CBP were established, fostered through the development of emergency response plans and validated through tabletop exercises.
  • The CBSA–U.S. CBP working group developed a draft joint communication and coordination plan for business resumption that formalizes the process for inter-agency communications and communications with industry. This joint plan was validated in tabletop exercises held in April 2007 in Vancouver, British Columbia, and tested the capacity to exchange information between the two border agencies and with industry during an emergency. The CBSA President and the Commissioner of U.S. CBP approved the plan in August 2007, which now serves as a model for other bilateral protocols.
  • Identified action items were further developed in support of bilateral protocols, including the prioritization of various types of goods and cargo during an emergency. Having plans and protocols in place will help ensure that the CBSA can respond rapidly and efficiently during a high-volume and/or high-risk emergency at the border. As the closure or restriction of access to a port of entry can have a widespread impact, it is critical that departments/agencies have these protocols in place in order to address the range of scenarios that could affect the border.
  • The CBSA actively contributed to the North American plan for the avian and pandemic influenza, which was tabled at the North American Leaders’ Summit in Montebello, Quebec, in August 2007. By strengthening the plans to create mutually acceptable border interventions to delay the spread of influenza strains into North America, the CBSA will be positioned to ensure the minimal disruption of border operations in the event of a pandemic while protecting the Canadian public.
  • In November 2007, the CBSA’s Emergency Preparedness, All Hazards Approach manual was published and distributed to all regions and is now available on the CBSA intranet. The manual will help the Agency respond to emergencies that threaten border services operations.
Alleviating port running

The CBSA is committed to mitigating identified risks at Canada’s border. Managing the security of Canada’s border while facilitating legitimate trade and travel is a vital component of the CBSA’s risk-management approach. To reduce the incidence of port running (illegal crossings at land border ports of entry) at problem locations, the CBSA reallocated $9.7 million in 2006–2007 and 2007–2008.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the Agency committed to putting in place the necessary infrastructure to help reduce occurrences of port running. The CBSA was to focus on identifying problem locations and developing and defining port-running mitigation measures to be implemented in the field.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The CBSA initially targeted 18 ports of entry as priority sites since they accounted for approximately 59 percent of annual port-running incidents. In 2007–2008, however, the CBSA expanded the project to cover 65 land ports of entry to further alleviate the incidence of port running at the land border. These 65 land ports of entry represent approximately 74 percent of port-running incidents that took place in 2007–2008.
  • Mitigation devices such as gates, barriers and closed-circuit televisions were installed at 17 sites by March 31, 2008. The installation of these devices is to be completed at the targeted 65 land ports of entry by the end of 2008.
  • In examining the volume of traffic and corresponding low risk of port running at the balance of the land border crossings, the CBSA working group determined that the implementation of measures to alleviate the incidence of port running would not be required at these locations.
Radiation detection technology

The CBSA uses a variety of technology solutions to conduct effective, non-intrusive inspections that enable officers to focus on high-risk travellers and goods. Radiation detection equipment aims to safeguard the Canadian public and trade and combat terrorism by protecting infrastructure at critical border points that might be the target of terrorism. As part of this project, the CBSA has introduced hand-held and mobile systems for detecting radiation in cargo entering Canada. It has also purchased fixed or “portal” radiation detectors, which have been installed at various sites across Canada. These portals enable radiation detection in an automated, comprehensive and non-intrusive manner.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to significantly expanding its radiation portal network at major ports of entry. The success of this project was to depend on close collaboration with other law-enforcement agencies and industry stakeholders to ensure the effective implementation of the new portals.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The Agency collaborated with industry stakeholders and other law-enforcement agencies to determine the ideal procedures and locations for the portals and to activate new portals on both the East and West coasts.
  • Automated radiation detection portals are operational at 9 of 11 marine sites nationwide, where virtually all containers are scanned for radiation in an early and comprehensive manner. Alerts issued by the portals were analyzed promptly by the National Risk Assessment Centre and supported by the Agency’s scientists. When secondary examinations were required, carborne radiation detectors and other portable devices were made available to CBSA officers.
  • The CBSA continued to issue and manage the radiation dosimeter program. Under this program, devices are worn by certain front-line personnel for health and safety purposes.
  • A radiation detection training package was developed and training was delivered. Also, an online training module on the use of dosimeters (devices used for measuring the quantity of ionizing radiation) was developed.
  • In February 2008, the CBSA participated in a nuclear emergency simulation with government and industry stakeholders, which successfully validated radiation emergency protocols. Extensive consultations are ongoing with stakeholders and first-responder agencies, and the CBSA is taking the lead on certain inter-agency training initiatives related to nuclear emergencies in order to increase interoperability between partners and refine emergency protocols.

Program Activity: Science- and Technology-based Innovation

Utilize the CBSA’s science and technology capacity to modernize border management and increase the effectiveness and efficiency of border operations.

The CBSA continually strives to innovate for the border of the future through the use and application of advanced technology. The Science- and Technology-based Innovation program activity implements new methods and ideas to improve the quality of service, gather and analyze advance information, deliver innovative solutions in a timely manner, lessen the compliance burden, facilitate legitimate trade and travel, and support revenue collection systems. This program activity includes a diverse range of scientific, analytical and technology services and solutions for the CBSA to identify and interdict high-risk people and goods, collaborate and share information with program partners, and provide systems and scientific solutions to process people and goods effectively in a risk-based environment.

This program activity also includes laboratory and scientific services that are concentrated in two streams: 1) analysis and 2) sensor development, testing and integration. Operationally, this means analyzing commodities, including narcotics, foods, alcohol, tobacco and metals, as well as travel, taxation and manifest documents, in order to determine authenticity, origin, identity and composition. From a research and engineering perspective, systems are evaluated for vulnerabilities and countermeasures; risk-assessment algorithms are developed for various business situations; and solutions are developed for areas including (i) narcotics detection, (ii) chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive detection, (iii) surveillance and (iv) biometrics-related systems.

Through this work, the CBSA’s laboratory supports the Agency’s officers (including those on the front lines) by providing expert testimony to all levels of the judiciary, ensuring due diligence with respect to the introduction of technologies and conducting research into emerging technologies, methods and solutions that can further shape and enhance border management. All the work at the laboratory supports government safety, security and trade facilitation priorities and plays an essential role in discharging the CBSA’s regulatory and international obligations through its expertise in science and engineering.

Financial and Human Resources

Table 2.6: Science- and Technology-based Innovation Program Activity — Financial Resources

 (Thousands of dollars)
Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
379,248 469,103 377,799

Table 2.7: Science- and Technology-based Innovation Program Activity — Human Resources

 (Full-time equivalents)
Planned Actual Difference
1,031 1,442 (411)

The $91 million difference between total authorities and actual spending is mainly the result of the following:

  • $86 million, mainly related to the following projects:
    • the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America:
      • implementation of the eManifest project, which received Treasury Board approval to start in fall 2008, and
      • the Passenger Name Record program;
    • the delayed installation of the Primary Automated Lookout System (PALS) hardware at ports of entry;
    • the Container Security Initiative – Harmonized Risk Scoring and Advance Trade Data;
    • the Electronic Primary Inspection Line kiosks at Vancouver International Airport (project approval delayed until January 2008);
    • the Canadian Police Information Centre Web site; and
    • the difficulties experienced in identifying accommodations needed to house CBSA staff in the National Capital Region.
  • a $5 million lapse in capital expenditures, mainly related to delays to the following:
    • the construction projects at ports of entry, such as St. Stephen, N.B., Douglas, B.C., and Lacolle, Que.; and
    • the delayed installation of the PALS hardware at ports of entry.

The Science- and Technology-based Innovation program activity consists of three program sub-activities: Business Solutions/Projects, Information Technology Infrastructure and Operations, and Laboratory and Scientific Services.

Program Sub-activity: Business Solutions/Projects

Under this program sub-activity, the CBSA interprets business requirements and translates them into technological and science-based solutions. The Agency also designs, develops and implements science and technology solutions to support the delivery of border services through major projects. This includes new systems and programs for facilitating the entry of travellers and goods, such as the NEXUS and Free and Secure Trade (FAST) programs, and risk-assessment systems supporting border security. The Agency also places strong emphasis on planning and systems architecture to maximize efficiency and ensure interoperability with other systems within the Agency and with external partners.


Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative

In October 2006, the Fiscal Year 2007 Homeland Security Appropriations Act was signed into law in the United States. On March 27, 2008, the United States announced the final rule for the implementation of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) in the land and marine modes. As a result, on June 1, 2009, Canadian citizens will be required to present a valid passport or a NEXUS or FAST card or another approved secure document to enter the United States at its land and marine ports of entry.

The CBSA continues to work closely with its U.S. counterparts to ensure that the relationship between Canada and the United States and their economies remain strong and that any potential impacts of the WHTI on legitimate travel or trade at the border are minimized.

RPP Commitment

The Agency committed to ensuring that the U.S. WHTI is properly implemented, while enhancing security and facilitating the passage of low-risk people and goods. The CBSA was to continue its participation in discussions with the United States to ensure that the WHTI is implemented to the satisfaction of both countries.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The CBSA’s WHTI task force led the Government of Canada response to the U.S. WHTI. It developed and implemented a Cabinet-approved response to help ensure the WHTI is implemented to the satisfaction of both Canada and the United States. The Government of Canada successfully (i) negotiated a delay in the implementation of the WHTI at the land and marine borders, (ii) secured a commitment from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security for the acceptance of birth certificates for minors in lieu of passports and (iii) obtained approval in principle of enhanced driver’s licences (EDLs) and certificates of Indian Status as WHTI-compliant documents.
  • The CBSA implemented the Canadian plan to mitigate any potential negative impacts of the U.S. WHTI implementation at the land and marine borders by initiating the development of EDL programs in four Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec) and conducting a national communications campaign that included public notices, radio and Internet advertising to advise Canadians of the upcoming changes in U.S. border processing.
  • In January 2008, British Columbia developed a voluntary EDL in cooperation with the CBSA and CIC that serves as an alternative to a passport for entry by land and water from Canada into the United States. The EDL addresses security concerns by establishing both the identity and nationality of the holder. EDL programs like the one in British Columbia will help facilitate the flow of legitimate travellers and goods across the Canada–U.S. land and marine borders.
Passenger Name Record enhancements

The Advance Passenger Information/Passenger Name Record (API/PNR) program is designed to protect Canada by enabling the CBSA to perform a risk assessment of travellers (passengers and crew) before their arrival in Canada. Through this program, high-risk air travellers are identified while en route, before they arrive at Canada’s international airports.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to completing a new method of acquiring PNR data, receiving PNR data for all European carriers and enhancing its compliance with European Union (EU) privacy regulations.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The Agency continued to hold consultations with stakeholders and to develop a new method for acquiring PNR data. However, due to the impact of transitioning on the airline industry and related technical complexities, the new method of acquiring PNR data was not completed in 2007–2008. It is now expected to be completed by spring 2010.
  • The CBSA started collecting PNR data from 8 new airline carriers; at present,
    65 airline carriers are providing PNR data.
  • By offering all commercial carriers an interim solution, the CBSA enhanced its compliance with EU requirements.
NEXUS Air/NEXUS land border expansion

NEXUS Air is a binational program jointly developed by the CBSA and U.S. CBP. Because NEXUS members can use automated kiosks equipped with iris biometric technology, NEXUS Air provides an alternative primary inspection process that expedites secure passage into Canada and the United States for low-risk, frequent air travellers.

RPP Commitment

The CBSA committed to expanding NEXUS Air to all Canadian international airports housing U.S. pre-clearance areas as a priority for 2007–2008 and to further expand the NEXUS program at the land border.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The expansion of NEXUS Air was successfully completed at six international airports (Halifax, Ottawa, Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton and Vancouver) six months ahead of schedule. In addition, the expansion of NEXUS in the land mode was successfully completed at 14 land border locations across Canada. These expansion efforts further strengthen the border clearance process for low-risk, pre-approved travellers into Canada and the United States.
  • The Montréal NEXUS Enrolment Centre was expanded, increasing the operational capacity required to enrol the ever-growing number of NEXUS applicants.
  • Since the implementation of the NEXUS program in 2005–2006, the number of applicants has increased nearly 500 percent: there are over 180,000 active members, almost double the number in 2005–2006. In addition, NEXUS passages in all travel modes (highway, air and marine) increased approximately 58 percent since the program’s implementation in 2005–2006. See Figure 2.10.
Figure 2.10: Number of NEXUS Passages (2005–2006 to 2007–2008)

Figure 2.10

In 2007-2008, the total number of NEXUS passages exceeded 2 million. Since the implementation of the NEXUS program in 2005-2006, the total number of passages in all travel modes has increased more than 25 percent each year.

Primary Automated Lookout System replacement

The PALS replacement initiative aims to replace a rapidly aging system comprising equipment that is no longer being manufactured. The PALS replacement initiative will provide border services officers with a modern tool that can be used to perform automated risk assessments of both travellers and vehicles as they seek entry into Canada. It will also enable officers to query travellers against enforcement records stored in both the CBSA and CIC enforcement databases and integrate licence plate reader technology with document reader technology.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to deploying the necessary equipment and software to ensure the proper replacement of PALS.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • New licence plate readers were deployed at 15 of 32 sites, resulting in a 13 percent improvement in the accuracy of licence plate readings.
  • The design and development of the Integrated Primary Inspection Line highway application was completed. The new software provides the CBSA with state-of-the-art technology that can be used to process travellers and vehicles quickly and efficiently.
Electronic Primary Inspection Line

The Electronic Primary Inspection Line (E-PIL) is a pilot project undertaken in partnership with the Vancouver Airport Authority (VAA). It uses self-serve kiosk technology to partially automate the preliminary screening of travellers holding a valid Canadian passport or permanent resident card seeking to enter Canada at an airport.

E-PIL is a free service that does not require any pre-registration or enrolment processing fee. This project aims to reduce wait times for primary processing and therefore enable the more efficient use of resources to focus on other CBSA border security functions.

RPP Commitment

Although no RPP commitment was stated, the CBSA was to continue the development of the E-PIL pilot project.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The implementation of the pilot project was deferred until fall 2008 due to redesign delays related to the Declaration Card. However, the following milestones were achieved in 2007–2008:
    • $2.7 million in funding was secured from the Treasury Board.
    • A partnership with the VAA was developed to implement a viable solution to passenger volume issues. The VAA proposed this partnership to the CBSA in order to address the projected significant increase (approximately 6 percent) in passenger volume per year. The CBSA recognized that simply increasing the number of primary inspection line booths is not a sustainable or desirable solution and that new approaches to screen passengers are required.
    • The analysis and design phase of the E-PIL project was initiated.
    • A draft communications strategy was prepared for external audiences (e.g. Canadian business and pleasure travellers, airlines, the media, the 2010 Winter Olympic Games safety and security committee) and for internal audiences (e.g. border services officers, CEUDA officials, airport authority employees). The communications strategy will inform Canadian travellers that a new convenient option for crossing the border is available at Vancouver International Airport, inform travellers and staff on how the E-PIL process will work and promote the advantages of E-PIL (shorter wait times, etc.).



An innovative strategy that the CBSA employs to manage the border is the use of advance information to identify and stop high-risk people and goods before they get to Canada. With the successful implementation of the marine and air components of the Advance Commercial Information (ACI) initiative, the CBSA is now planning Phase III of ACI, known as eManifest.

A major priority under the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP), eManifest will solidify the Agency’s commitment to providing CBSA officers with electronic pre-arrival cargo information so that they are equipped with the right information to identify health, safety and security threats related to commercial goods before the goods arrive in Canada. eManifest will require the electronic transmission of advance cargo and conveyance information from carriers for all highway and rail shipments. In addition, the electronic transmission of advance secondary data will be required from freight forwarders and the electronic transmission of advance importer admissibility data will be required from importers or their brokers.

RPP Commitment

The CBSA committed to building on its work in 2006–2007 and to launching an in-transit pilot project in 2007–2008. The goal of the pilot project is to automate the existing multi-step, paper-based process carriers now use for in-transit highway shipments between Canada and the United States by introducing systems notifications between the CBSA and U.S. CBP.

The CBSA, through the eManifest Stakeholder Partnership Network (eSPN), also committed to working with stakeholders to define and put into practice a public-private consultation model that will draw on the partners’ collective expertise throughout the deployment of eManifest. eSPN offers the trade community and the Agency’s internal stakeholders the opportunity to collaborate on eManifest issues and design features. In addition, the CBSA was to complete the initial feasibility study of this initiative and submit a plan to the Treasury Board for final approval in 2007–2008.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • In November 2007, the CBSA obtained effective project approval from the Treasury Board, confirming both the funding and approval to proceed with the development and implementation of eManifest.
  • The functionality for the in-transit pilot project was developed and implementation is scheduled for 2008–2009.
  • In February 2008, Bill C-43, an Act to Amend the Customs Act, was tabled to provide a foundation for the eManifest initiative, which will enhance pre-arrival trade data for truck and rail cargo, and customs controlled areas.
  • The completed legislative framework will enable the CBSA to effectively outline future required amendments to the Customs Act.
  • Business transformation and implementation planning was initiated in order to streamline business planning activities and align current business processes mapping.
  • Systems linkages and notification enhancements to legacy systems were initiated to further align stakeholder program information within existing systems.
  • The eSPN was established to provide a forum for the CBSA and industry to share their expertise and input in the design, development and implementation of eManifest, and to facilitate the communication of key project matters to external stakeholders.
  • Additional details on eManifest, a major Crown project, are provided in the e-tables that are posted on the TBS Web site.
Harmonized Risk Scoring — Advance Trade Data

The Harmonized Risk Scoring — Advance Trade Data initiative addresses information gaps in the supply chain by harmonizing targeting processes with the standards established by the WCO (in partnership with U.S. CBP), incorporating additional trade data for increased risk assessment, creating an end-to-end assessment in the commercial supply chain and intercepting threats at the point of origin. 

RPP Commitment

The CBSA committed to completing a feasibility study of this initiative and submitting a plan to the Treasury Board for final approval.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The CBSA developed and obtained stakeholder sign-off on the enhanced scoring methodology. Effective project approval was not received in 2007–2008.
  • An analysis of the components of the Harmonized Risk Scoring — Advance Trade Data Initiative and a review of the U.S. Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM), or “10+2,” were initiated. The NPRM will require carriers to submit “10+2” additional pieces of information to enhance the security of the marine environment as the United States works towards finalizing the NPRM. This will help the CBSA determine the level of harmonization that can be achieved between U.S. CBP’s security filing and the CBSA’s advanced trade data requirements. Harmonization between the two countries would provide one common reporting requirement for the trade community. At the same time, the Harmonized Risk Scoring — Advance Trade Data initiative supports the common Canada and U.S. goals of facilitating low-risk international trade while enhancing continental security.
Advance Interdepartmental Reporting Initiative

The Advance Interdepartmental Reporting Initiative (AIRI) is a strategy for developing and implementing a single-window approach for the electronic collection, integration, consolidation and dissemination of advance commercial information in the Government of Canada. This initiative enables the CBSA to deliver on its goal of developing a comprehensive architecture for commercial trade. It also enables the Agency to work with federal and industry partners to expand advance electronic reporting to streamline and better administer the programs of OGDs and agencies at the border.

RPP Commitment

In 2007–2008, the CBSA committed to developing two components of the AIRI: a project plan and a business strategy for the Interdepartmental Marine Conveyance Initiative (IMCI) and the OGD Single Window Initiative.

The IMCI is intended to enhance the reporting of advance information required from the marine industry to enable government agencies to assess potential security and terrorist threats to Canada. The OGD Single Window Initiative is a joint initiative between the CBSA and OGDs and agencies wishing to receive release information electronically on commercial import data. Importers and brokers who have undergone the required testing can send transactions according to OGD requirements electronically versus presenting paper packages at the office of release. OGD programs have been identified as possible participants in the first phase (Pathfinder) of the IMCI. Participation in the Pathfinder phase gives the OGDs a better understanding of their volumetrics and compliance rates, enabling them to analyze their programs to develop more efficient and effective business processes.

Performance Highlights and Results


  • The development of high-level business requirements for the IMCI was initiated, the project charter was approved and needs assessments were being conducted for Transport Canada and the Canadian Coast Guard. These milestones are helping the CBSA to successfully implement this initiative, which will eliminate duplicate reporting by the marine industry to federal departments and agencies, thereby reducing costs and the paper burden for industry and the Government of Canada.

OGD Single Window Initiative:

  • OGD partners were engaged in high-level business needs assessments to identify business processes and legislative and regulatory changes. The OGD Single Window Initiative document has been distributed to stakeholders and is available on the CBSA’s Web site. The CBSA’s continued participation in the development of the WCO Data Model ensures that current and future data requirements identified by participating OGDs will be supported.

Program Sub-activity: Information Technology Infrastructure and Operations

Innovative, reliable systems are essential for effective border management. Within this program sub-activity, the CBSA provides secure IT infrastructure, maintains the quality performance of operational systems, and operates and maintains national systems that support the movement of people and goods arriving at the border and the collection of revenues from duties and taxes. This includes researching security-based technological solutions and best practices to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of border operations, security and enforcement. The Agency also provides support to users in related fields and partners in other organizations.
Advancing and delivering on core infrastructure commitments

The IT infrastructure prerequisites will allow for new hardware infrastructure and the faster implementation of new systems, as well as system enhancements. The prerequisites are essential for the development of future key initiatives and programs (including all CBSA SPP priority deliverables) and will increase the CBSA’s IT development capacity through more efficient and effective testing. The IT prerequisites for the SPP deliverables encompass the Synchronous Technology and Application Release (STAR) configuration, independent service delivery and re-engineering solutions.

Another core infrastructure commitment is the CIC transition project, under which
71 existing work sites will be extended and 40 new sites will be established on the CBSA–Canada Revenue Agency network and IT infrastructure. In addition, obsolete PCs will be replaced, workstations will be converted to CBSA standard configurations, software licences will be transferred, shared printers and peripheral devices will be re-installed, and system connectivity to CIC shared applications will be provided.

RPP Commitment

One of the key core infrastructure commitments for the CBSA in 2007–2008, and for the next four years, is the implementation of IT infrastructure prerequisites.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • The STAR configuration was fully implemented and Phase I of the independent service delivery was completed. The IT prerequisites will improve time-to-market (i.e. reduced product delivery times) and increase the quality of the STAR configuration, with the end result of improving border security and the processing of people and goods at the border.
  • Under the CIC transition project, all remaining national components were transferred. An important component of the Port of Entry Vision, this project will ensure that all CBSA employees are working on the same IT platform with a common tool set.
  • In 2007–2008, the CBSA maintained 24/7 operations and a number of automated commercial and traveller systems, including the Accelerated Commercial Release Operations Support System, the Customs Commercial System, the Customs Electronic Commerce Platform, the Integrated Primary Inspection Line and the Passenger Information System. The CBSA’s automated commercial systems remained available to internal and external clients 96.5 percent of the time; the traveller systems were available 99.5 percent of the time. In rare cases when an outage did occur, the Agency immediately reacted to and resolved the problem with minimal disruption to border operations through established procedures.

Program Sub-activity: Laboratory and Scientific Services

The CBSA has a world-class laboratory that offers a diverse range of scientific, analytical and research advisory services. Within this program sub-activity, the Agency provides laboratory and scientific services to internal programs and external partners, departments and agencies. The CBSA’s research on scientific products and solutions helps modernize border management and increases the effectiveness and efficiency of border operations, particularly in relation to security and enforcement. The Agency also has the capacity to perform in-house physical and chemical analyses of industrial commodities and the forensic examination of documents.
Five-year laboratory strategy

The CBSA has developed a five-year laboratory strategy and an associated action plan. This strategy describes the direction that the CBSA intends to take over the next three to five years to advance and shape the next generation of its innovation, science and technology initiatives.

RPP Commitment

Although no RPP commitment was stated, the CBSA was to finalize its five-year laboratory strategy, which will support the Agency’s objectives to employ more evidence-based decision making, modern technology and innovative approaches.

Performance Highlights and Results
  • Key milestones were achieved in finalizing the five-year laboratory strategy, including the following:
    • The strategy was finalized and development started on a framework for the science and engineering forecast.
    • A new Science and Engineering Strategy and Operations Division and an Advance Technology Section were established to explore emerging technologies and initiate work in new areas relevant to the border environment.
    • The CBSA established a science and engineering authority function that links directly with the Agency’s objectives to leverage more scientific technology, innovative approaches and evidence-based decision making.