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Horizontal Initiatives

Table A: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Name of Horizontal Initiative: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Program

Name of Lead Department(s): Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) (2003-04 to 2007-08)

Lead Department Program Activity: Zoonotic Risks / Internal Services (CFIA only)

Start Date: 2003-04 (enhanced programming)

End Date: Ongoing

Total Federal Funding Allocation (from start date to end date): $3,601.1M (2003-04 to 2013-14) and $26.6M ongoing

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): The BSE program protects human and animal health by conducting surveillance, research and risk assessments regarding BSE and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and minimizing the risk of exposure to infected materials; maintains consumer confidence through assessing the effectiveness of the risk mitigation measures and having measures in place to control any potential outbreaks; and supports market access for cattle, beef and related products through promoting and explaining Canada's BSE program to domestic and international stakeholders.

The CFIA verifies that specified risk material (SRM) is being removed from the animal feed chain and the human food chain, monitors products entering and leaving Canada for adherence to Canadian standards or the standards of the importing country, monitors for the prevalence of BSE in the cattle population (through surveillance), verifies that measures to control potential outbreaks are in place and explains Canada's BSE control measures to domestic and international stakeholders (for example, through the veterinarians abroad program) in order to maintain confidence in Canada's BSE program. Health Canada conducts research and risk assessments regarding human exposure to BSE and other TSEs, and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) carries out surveillance and targeted supporting research in this area as well. AAFC has been involved in supporting, stabilizing and repositioning Canada's beef and cattle industry, including through the provision of compensation payments to stakeholders impacted by BSE in Canada.

Year Departments Funding Period Intent of Funds
2003-04 CFIA, AAFC, HC 2003-04 to 2007-08 Measures to secure the future of the Canadian beef industry
2003-04 CFIA 2003-04 to 2007-08 The removal of SRM from the food chain and re-entering export markets (referred to as the Enhanced BSE Initiative)
2004-05 CFIA 2004-05 to 2008-09 Reposition the Canadian beef and cattle industry to operate on a profitable and sustainable basis
2004-05 CFIA 2004-05 to 2008-09 Strengthen animal feed restrictions
2005-06 CFIA 2005-06 to 2008-09 Additional measures to address critical pressures facing the ruminant industry
2006-07 CFIA 2006-07 Continue the work the Agency was undertaking for the enhanced feed ban
2007-08 CFIA On-going Implement the enhanced feed ban restrictions
2008-09 CFIA 2008-09 Extend sunsetting elements of the enhanced BSE initiative
2009-10 CFIA, PHAC, HC 2009-10 to 2013-14 Continue work on the core BSE activities

Shared Outcome(s): Contributing to the protection of human and animal health, which supports domestic and international market access for Canadian cattle, beef and beef products.

Governance Structure(s): The CFIA is the federal lead for the delivery of the BSE Program. In 2008, a summative evaluation of the CFIA's BSE program was conducted, which noted that the governance of the program should be strengthened to enhance coordination and communication regarding BSE-related activities, both internally and with other partner organizations. The CFIA accepted this recommendation and agreed to develop options for an improved governance model to facilitate horizontal dialogue that is consistent with governance models for related horizontal initiatives. In 2010, the CFIA launched a new committee structure to bring the Agency's overall approach to governance more in line with evolving business needs. The new governance structure focuses on the importance of sharing information internally and ensures a more efficient and streamlined senior-level committee structure. It is expected that the renewed structure will foster a whole-of-Agency approach to decision-making and will support day-to-day operations across the Agency. To ensure business line perspectives are integrated into decision-making, the three senior executive-level committees are supported by four committees: Animal Health, Plant, Food and Horizontal Management.

Performance Highlights: In 2010-11, the Government continued to work on core BSE activities that contribute to the protection of human and animal health.

($ Millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) 2010-11
Planned Spending Actual Spending Expected Results Results Achieved
Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Zoonotic Risks

Internal Services

SRM Removal from the Human Food Chain 91.5 (2003-04 to 2013-14) 9.5 7.0 Safe food. Continue the enforcement and verification of SRM removal by CFIA inspection staff.

Federally inspected boning establishments and slaughter establishments continue to be verified on-site and record reviews are performed by CFIA inspection staff to ensure that:

Operators are following their written HACCP System related to the removal and control of Specified Risk Material (SRM).

Effectiveness of Operator's written HACCP system to meet regulatory requirements related to the removal and control of SRM in boning establishments.

In the 2010-11 fiscal year, a compliance rate of 99.76% has been achieved in 5,023 tasks delivered on the enforcement and verification of SRM removal.

Provincially inspected slaughter establishments continue to be verified on-site and record reviews are performed by CFIA inspection staff to ensure that the removal, segregation and disposal of SRM, are carried out to determine the adequacy of Provincial oversight regarding plant controls.

These reviews have been and will continue to be a crucial part in our ongoing efforts to strive for continuous improvements to the consistency and overall quality of our inspection verifications and related activities in non-registered provincial establishments.

Import Controls 2.8 (2004-05 to 2013-14) 0.3 0.4

Products imported into Canada meet Canadian standards.

The CFIA reviews and updates current import policies and conditions for BSE as required in order to reflect changes to international standards and evolving science.

Update relevant import policies and procedural directives (by priority, minimum 25% per year) to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements and CFIA domestic disease control; and to support market access by maintaining and improving Canada's animal health status and production of safe food, feed, fertilizer from imported animal origin ingredients

CFIA acceptance of OIE BSE disease categorization for trading countries: negligible risk, controlled risk or undetermined risk

Co-partnered scientific evaluation with Health Canada on the manufacture process of gelatine from cattle hides sourced from controlled and undetermined risk for BSE countries

Revised BSE import policy (umbrella import policy) officially signed off by Health Canada partners and Chief Veterinary Officer of CFIA. Submitted to WTO for comments (2009) and implementation (2010).

Updated 25 percent of the procedural imports directives for precision and clarity; further updates continuing this year (2010-2011) more specifically combined the 5 different rendered and inedible products directives into one document by commodity type.

All Terrestrial Animal Health Division, Import Section activities support domestic disease control (EFB, 1997 FB) programs, align with international obligations, advance scientific knowledge, and support market access by maintaining Canada's domestic reputation for animal health.

The CFIA continues to conduct animal health risk assessments on TSE to support the National Terrestrial Animal Health Program.

The CFIA conducted a joint scientific advice on reduction of BSE infectivity in the production of bovine hide derived gelatine in collaboration with Health Canada.

BSE Surveillance 159.9 (2003-04 to 2013-14) 15.4 18.8

Safe animals and food.

1. Monitoring prevalence of BSE in Canada and assessing the effectiveness of the BSE control measures including the Feed Ban and imports controls

2. Analyzing options to redesign the BSE surveillance program and consulting with stakeholders to explore further targeting of surveillance

The Canadian BSE surveillance program continues to be delivered in accordance with national and international / OIE guidelines.

CFIA collected 35,655 samples during the 2010 calendar year and triggered, in compliance with the national reimbursement program eligibility criteria, an approximately equivalent number of payments to eligible partners of the program including cattle producers, private veterinarians and dead stock collection operators.

TSE Laboratories network completed the testing of 35,655 received samples with a detection of one BSE case

The CFIA explored, in a joint working group with the Government of Alberta, avenues to refine the program by having a more targeted surveillance focussed on sampling high risk category of animals.

Results of the Canada-Alberta BSE surveillance pilot continue to be periodically reviewed.

Further analysis to be undertaken regarding the integration of criteria being evaluated in the pilot project, into the remaining national program.

The CFIA conducted national training for clarification of sampling technique and maintenance of chain of evidence for samples (from September 2010 continuing into February 2011).

Cattle Identification 29.2 (2003-04 to 2013-14) 2.8 2.2

Safe animals and food.

Continue work on cattle identification enforcement activities, including verification at auctions and federally and provincially inspected abattoirs that cattle are identified with an official ear tag.

Federal abattoir operators are routinely verified in order to ensure all cattle received bear an approved tag.

In the 2010- 2011 fiscal year, a compliance rate of 99.76% was achieved in over 1,265 tasks delivered at federally inspected abattoirs on cattle identification enforcement activities.

The CFIA inspection staff continues to monitor and enforce the Canadian Livestock Identification program at auctions, dead stock collectors, farms and livestock operations, feedlots, provincial abattoirs, renderers and tag distributors. 8,848 visits were performed. <0.7% of visits were reported as in violation. 98% of cattle were tagged.

The CFIA's livestock identification and traceability program has performed extensive work on:

  • training material and a Manual of Procedures for the implementation of compliance verification system (CVS) in the program;
  • a livestock traceability data sharing agreement with Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Initiatives;
  • an epidemiological, disease control and compliance verification perspective of acceptable enhancements to the cattle traceability system;
  • a revised tag approval and revocation framework with the objective of improving the performance of approved tags;
  • program delivery and design options in order to meet ministerial expectations with respect to livestock traceability;
  • a legislative framework which will provide stronger traceability regulatory-making authorities; and,
  • a single-window initiative through which authorized used would have access to traceability data collected in multiple databases in order to enhance our ability in managing a sanitary issue and verifying compliance.
Export Certification 53.2 (2003-04 to 2013-14) 5.7 3.4

Products exported from Canada meet requirements imposed by foreign countries.

Continue the provision of export-related certification services to a wide range of affected industries.

The CFIA remains committed to promoting an international regulatory framework to protect Canadian exporters from discriminatory and unnecessary barriers. The CFIA also leads or participates in a number of international and bilateral agreements. Consistent with its international regulatory cooperation framework, the CFIA maintains close relations with key foreign regulatory counterparts.

Enhanced Feed Ban 241.0 (2004-05 to 2013-14) plus 26.6 ongoing 26.6 16.8

Safe feed, fertilizer, animals and food.

Continue the enforcement of enhanced feed ban restrictions.

The CFIA began enforcing an initial set of feed ban regulations in 1997. At that time, these new regulatory requirements (without benefit of any additional funding) were integrated into existing inspection programs for feed and feed ingredient manufactured, distributed and used by inedible rendering plants, commercial feed mills and on farms.

In response to the detection of a native-born case of BSE in Canada in 2003, the CFIA received additional funding in 2005-06 and subsequent fiscal years to support implementation and enforcement of an enhanced feed ban regulatory framework that took effect in 2007. The impact of implementing the enhancements principally involved:

1. Increasing inspection capacity and frequency throughout the feed supply and use chain (i.e. at inedible rendering plants, commercial feed mills, feed retail outlets, and farms); and

2. Implementing and administering a system of control permits and compliance inspection activities at abattoirs, dead stock collectors, landfills and other processing and disposal sites regarding the collection, transport, treatment and disposition of cattle Specified Risk Material (SRM) tissues. As part of the enhanced regulations, SRM must be segregated, identified and appropriately managed until final disposal. CFIA workload increased to include inspection oversight of SRM equipment and facilities, tracking movement at several points in the chain to final disposal or alternative use not historically subject to CFIA inspection.

3. During 2010-11, the CFIA continued to monitor fertilizer and supplement products as possible SRM outlets unless its use was authorized by a permit issued under the Health of Animals Regulations. These permits continued to be issued on a case-by-case basis and included requirements for processing the material (e.g. composting) as well as conditions for its final disposal (i.e. use on non-food, non-feed and non grazing land) to mitigate against potential risks to human, animal health and the environment. As an added measure, a marketplace monitoring program targeting proper record keeping and recall procedures was put in place to ensure manufacturers, distributors, importers and sellers could expedite an effective product recall if necessary.

During 2010 calendar year, the CFIA continued to verify compliance with the 2007 regulatory enhancements at rendering plants, commercial feed manufacturers, feed retail outlets, on-farm feed manufacturers and ruminant feeders as well as at meat slaughter and processing establishments, cattle dead stock collectors, transporters and receivers of SRM downers and dead stock and commercial composting and fertilizer manufacturing facilities.

Performance Summary:
Feed inspections in the 2010 calendar year:
Commercial Feed Mills: 4884 tasks were performed at 460 facilities;
Rendering Facilities: 884 tasks were performed at 45 facilities; and
Retail: 2473 tasks were performed at 468 facilities.
Farms: 332 tasks were performed at 73 facilities
Renewed and issued a total of 1,401 permits for the control of SRM in Canada

Technical Market Access Support 44.1 (2004-05 to 2013-14) 5.0 1.8

Confidence in Canada's animal production and food system, facilitating access to domestic and international markets.

Continue the establishment and maintenance of strong relationships with trading partners, and the provision of global leadership and influence regarding international policies and standards development.

The CFIA continues to play an active and participatory role at the international level. In addition, the CFIA is contributing to and influencing international science-based disease control standards for BSE, which are critical components of the foundation for safe trade and the maintenance of international market confidence. On a bilateral basis this involves the invitation to trading partners for incoming technical missions to confirm first hand the integrity and implementation of Canada's inspection controls. At the multi-lateral level, the CFIA is maintaining the official designation as a BSE Controlled Risk country through the evaluation process of the 176 member country World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The CFIA continues to contribute to the discussions at OIE, not only with respect to at the General Session and in revisions to the various Codes, but also with respect to having an OIE BSE reference laboratory as well as CFIA employees on a number of the OIE commissions.

Establish-ment Review 2.3 (2004-05 to 2006-07) - -

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Over-supply of Aged Cattle 0.3 (2004-05) - -

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

Meat Inspection Reform 9.2 (2005-06 to 2007-08) - -

Not Applicable

Not Applicable

CFIA's Subtotal 633.5 (2004-05 to 2013-14) plus 26.6 ongoing 65.3 50.4    
Public Health Agency of Canada

Surveillance and Population Health Assessment +

Public Health Surveillance +

Prion Diseases Program 7.9 0.8 0.8 Ongoing prospective surveillance of all human TSEs in Canada, to ensure that risks of zoonotic (animal-to-human) and secondary (human-to-human) infectious transmission of these diseases are closely monitored, promptly investigated, thoroughly characterized, and appropriately mitigated.

The PHAC Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance System (CJDSS) continues to conduct comprehensive national surveillance of human TSEs – detailed statistics can be found at All forms of human TSE – sporadic, genetic, and those acquired by infectious transmission – continue to be detected in Canada, as a direct result of the high-quality laboratory services and non-laboratory support provided to Canadian health professionals by the CJDSS.

In the last calendar year (2009) for which CJDSS data are complete, the estimated mortality rate for all human prion diseases in Canada was 1.57 per million, which is consistent with international benchmarks.

A case of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (the second to date in a Canadian resident) was confirmed by the CJDSS in February 2011 (see The case was found to be an imported one, confirming the absence of negative implications for the safety of Canadian beef.

Research continues with the goal of developing improved methodologies for detection and diagnosis of human and animal prion disease – for example, the PHAC Prion Diseases Program has discovered potential urine-based biomakers for BSE; and the CJDSS has completed a 6-year prospective study of the accuracy of biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of human prion disease.

PHAC's Subtotal 7.9 0.8 0.8    
Health Canada Health Products Risk Assessment and Targeted Research 44.0 4.4 3.5

Review of master files and product licence applications which contain ingredients where the ingredients are sourced from animals and which may be susceptible to TSE.

To track and assess all ingredients in each application, which are sourced from animal tissues, with regards to BSE risk.

Increased expertise and knowledge of BSE/TSE science, risks and product surveillance.

Health Canada continued to review master files and product licence applications which contain ingredients where the ingredients are sourced from animals and which may be susceptible to TSE. As part of the risk assessment, every review requires an assessment for animal sourced ingredients. During this time period, approximately 80 new and 210 generic drug submissions were reviewed with a percentage, approximately 15%, being contracted out for review. In addition, 250 Notifiable Change Applications and 15 Drug Master File submissions were reviewed by contractors.

All applications assessed for animal tissue sources. To date, approximately. 32% of product licences issued (equal to 9,176 product licences) list an active bovine or cattle animal tissue form. This includes 2,088 product licences that were issued in 2010, and 496 issued so far in 2011.

Pre-market review activities of biologics with accompanying risk assessments for variant CJD (human equivalent of mad cow disease) and or for BSE. These activities are conducted as part of the biologics review process to verify that animal-derived materials that are being used in the manufacture of biologics have low risk for transmission of BSE to Canadian population.

Activities related to the development of risk management strategies for mitigating risk of BSE and vCJD in blood products (post-market with PHAC). Ongoing oversight or surveillance to determine the need for deferrals when evidence becomes available on potential risk of transmission of BSE and vCJD. Appropriate risk management actions are put in place in consultation with PHAC.

Scientific and clinical input to policies related to managing vCJD risk (vCJD Directives and ongoing analyses of relevancy of travel deferrals for exposure of Canadians to BSE risk). Ensure that new scientific and clinical evidence are incorporated into the development or revision of directives on vCJD to minimize the exposure of Canadians to BSE risk.

International collaborative efforts to harmonize strategies for managing BSE and vCJD risk of biologics. Sustain collaboration with international partners to ensure sharing of scientific and clinical information and forge development of harmonized strategies to deal with identified risk of transmission of BSE in biologics.

Update of BGTD's"Draft Guidance Document: Regulatory Requirements to Minimize the Risk of Transmission of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) via Animal-Sourced Materials used in the Manufacture of Schedule D (Biologic) Drugs" to reflect the information contained within the revised WHO document entitled "Tables on Tissue Infectivity Distribution in Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies".

Compliance and Enforcement * 1.0 (2003-04 to 2007-08) - - Not Applicable Not Applicable
Product Assessment * 6.2 (2003-04 to 2007-08) - - Not Applicable Not Applicable
Tracking and Tracing * 3.1 (2003-04 to 2007-08) - - Not Applicable Not Applicable
Food and Nutrition Risk assessment and targeted research 18.1 1.8 1.3

Outcome: Increased expertise and knowledge of BSE/TSE science, risks and product surveillance.

Output/Activities: Conduct consultations with stakeholders, external collaborations/research and training and conferences attendance.

The BSE Summative Evaluation was originally planned to be conducted in 2009-10, but was delayed until 2010-2011 because of the one-year extension of funding. The Summative Evaluation is expected to be completed in 2011-2012.

Health Canada (HC) continues to conduct risk assessments and unique research projects on TSE in collaboration with external partners (CFIA, Germany, and France) to generate novel and critical data related to the pathogenesis of BSE, TSEs, and specified risk material to support hazard characterization, risk assessment and standard setting. Also, HC continued its scientific and consultative role as a member of Canada's national and international delegations for BSE and TSEs

The BSE Summative Evaluation Planning was done in 2010-2011 for a cost of $50K salary. The Summative Evaluation will be contracted in fiscal year 2011-2012 for $160K O&M and managed for $50K salary.

CFIA's Subtotal 72.4 6.2 4.8    
Total 3,601.1 (2003-04 to 2013-14) and 26.6 ongoing** 72.3 56.0    

+ PHAC: In the 2010-11 RPP, incorrect descriptive information was entered for the Public Health Agency of Canada's Prion Diseases Program in columns 12 and 13 of Table 9c. In the present version of the table, the correct information has been provided.

*Health Canada: Funding sunsetted in 2007-08.

**Note: The total federal funding allocation includes funding for AAFC ($2,887.3M), CFIA ($633.5M plus $26.6M ongoing), Health Canada ($72.4M) and PHAC ($7.9M). A table outlining planned and actual spending for AAFC is not included in the RPP or DPR as their resources sunsetted in 2008-09.

Comments on Variances:

CFIA: The variance between Planned Spending and Actual Spending is related to funding reallocated to expenditures that support this initiative, along with other Agency priorities. While efforts are made to meet the intended program objectives, reallocation occurs to deal with items which take precedence at the time.

AAFC: No variance required.

PHAC: No variance required.

Health Canada: HC underspent BSE funding by $1.4M in 2010-11 for a number of reasons. Following a retirement, a senior advisor position became vacant for approximately one year and many meetings and follow-up contracts were delayed until FY 2011-12 when the position was staffed. A BSE evaluation planned for 2010-11 was delayed until 2011-12. A realignment of responsibility in 2010-11 prevented full expenditure in some areas.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): N/A

Contact information:

Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Colleen Barnes
Executive Director
Domestic Policy Directorate

Agriculture and Agri-food Canada
John Ross
Director, Animal Industry Division

Public Health Agency of Canada
Dr. Michael Coulthart
Director, Prion Diseases Program
Prion Diseases Program

Health Canada
Scott LeBrun
Strategic Planning and Accountability Division
Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada

Table B: National Aquatic Animal Health Program

Name of Horizontal Initiative: National Aquatic Animal Health Program (NAAHP)

Name of Lead Department(s): Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO)

Lead Department Program Activity: Animal Health Risks and Production Systems (CFIA); Aquatic Animal Health (DFO)

Start Date: April 1, 2005

End Date: Ongoing

Total Federal Funding Allocation (from start date to end date): $59.0M (2005-06 to 2009-10) and $10.3M ongoing

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): The NAAHP goal is to protect Canada's aquatic animal's resources and productivity by preventing the introduction and spread of aquatic animal diseases and by maintaining the seafood industry's competitiveness in international markets. This is in line with the Government of Canada's priority to protect the natural resources of Canada and economic stability. The Agency's priority in this area is a safe and sustainable animal aquatic resource base.

Shared Outcome(s): Sustainable Aquatic Resource Productivity and Internationally Competitive Aquatic Animal Resource Base Industry, which will allow trade to continue and expand.

Governance Structure(s): The CFIA is the federal lead for delivery of the NAAHP in collaboration with DFO. Respective federal roles and responsibilities are outlined in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The Animal Health Business Line and the Horizontal Steering Committee for Aquatic Animal Health are responsible for monitoring the financial governance within the CFIA budget. An Executive Steering Committee at the Assistant Deputy Minister (ADM) level from both organizations, is responsible for the strategic direction, monitoring and analysis of the NAAHP implementation. At the Federal, Provincial and Territorial (FPT) level, the Canadian Council of Fisheries and Aquaculture Ministers (CCFAM) has oversight over the program through a working group with the CFIA. There is also an industry/Federal/Provincial/Territorial advisory committee, the Aquatic Animal Health Committee, that meets annually to guide the development of the program.

Performance Highlights: Regulations were amended to protect the health of aquatic animals in December 2010 and January 2011. To implement these amendments, the mandatory notification was put in place and progress was made on the establishment of an Aquatic Animal Health Import Program for December 2011. Discussions continued with different partners to ensure their information needs were met under the legislative implementation of the NAAHP.

($ Millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) 2010-11
Planned Spending Actual Spending Expected Results Results Achieved
Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Animal Health Risks and Production Systems

Internal Services

National Aquatic Animal Health Program 32.1 (2005-06 to 2009-10) and 6.3 ongoing 6.3 4.9

Products exported from Canada meet requirements imposed by foreign countries.

Protection of the National Aquatic Animal Health (NAAH) System.

Develop and establish an import system for products meeting Canadian standards.

The Aquatic Animal Health Division (AAHD) continued to provide market access for Canadian aquatic animals and seafood products through country to country negotiations.

Through successful revisions to regulations supporting the National Aquatic Animal Health Program (NAAHP) in December 2010 and January 2011, the CFIA can now receive and respond to any suspected or confirmed cases of the 20 reportable diseases and 15 immediately notifiable diseases for aquatic animals.

Work continued on the implementation of the Aquatic Animal Health Import Program for December 2011 to ensure compliance with Canadian requirements.

The CFIA continued to work with its partners such as industry, provinces, territories and Aboriginal organizations to ensure that their information needs were met under the legislative implementation of the NAAHP by leading and participating to meetings with the industry, provinces and territories; developing and distributing materials; and organizing consultations on program activities.

The CFIA continued to conduct aquatic animal health risk assessments related to: import/ export; aquatic animal health diseases; scientific advice; and, evaluation of the disease status of countries, zones and regions.

CFIA's Subtotal 32.1 (2005-06 to 2009-10) and 6.3 ongoing 6.3 4.9    
Department of Fisheries and Oceans

Aquatic Animal Health

National Aquatic Animal Health Program 26.9 (2005-06 to 2009-10) and 4.0 (2010-11) ongoing 4.0 3.8

Diagnostic tests developed and validated to OIE requirements.

Operational Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS).

Amendment of the Fish Health Protection Regulations (FHPR).

Capacity for diagnostic testing.

Development and validation of diagnostic tests are proceeding on a top down priority basis, on track.

LIMS development is progressing. Planned date for national roll out is Fall 2011.

Work continued on the FHPR amendments to coincide with coming into force by CFIA of the Aquatic Animal Health Import Program in December 2011.

Laboratory capacity is commensurate with resource base at the three DFO NAAHP laboratories.

DFO's Subtotal 26.9 (2005-06 to 2009-10) and 4.0 (2010-11) ongoing 4.0 3.8    
Total 59.0 (2005-06 to 2009-10) and 10.3 ongoing 10.3 8.7    

Comments on Variances:

CFIA: This variance is due to amounts being reallocated corporately and because of staffing delays. Delays in consultations, translation, training and procurement also contributed to the lapse.

DFO: No explanation necessary.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): N/A

Contact information:

Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Annie R. Champagne
Aquatic Animal Health Division
(613) 221-3779

Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO)
Stephen J Stephen
Biotechnology and Aquatic Animal Health Science Branch
(613) 990-0292

Table C: Listeria

Name of Horizontal Initiative: Government Response and Action Plan to the 2008 Listeriosis Outbreak

Name of Lead Department(s): Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA); Health Canada (HC); and, Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)

Lead Departments Program Activity: CFIA: Food Safety and Nutrition Risks; HC: Food and Nutrition; and, PHAC: Surveillance and Population Health Assessment

Start Date: 2009-10

End Date: 2011-12

Total Federal Funding Allocation (from start date to end date): $75.0M (2009-10 to 2011-12)

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): The objective of this horizontal initiative is to address recommendations made in the report by the government-appointed Independent Investigator, Sheila Weatherill, who reviewed the circumstances leading to the 2008 Listeriosis outbreak in Canada. The Government developed an action plan based on three thematic areas: address immediate food safety risks, enhance surveillance and early detection, and improve Government response to food-borne illness outbreaks in Canada.

To implement the action plan, the three federal organizations – CFIA, HC, PHAC – received a total spending authority of $75.0 million over three years (CFIA: $46.8 million, PHAC: $17.7 million, and HC: $10.5 million). Each federal organization has identified the resource requirements, strategic outcomes, objectives and implementation plan for each thematic area. Implementation of this horizontal initiative will further enhance Canada's food safety system.

Shared Outcome(s): Address Immediate Food Safety Risks by hiring and training new Ready-to-Eat (RTE) meat inspection staff, updating food safety programs and directions to industry, building 24/7 capacity for health risk assessments, and improving electronic access for inspection staff.

Enhanced Surveillance and Early Detection by upgrading (web-based) national public heath surveillance system, improving detection methods for Listeria, enhancing laboratory testing capacity, and improving laboratory diagnostic tools.

Improve Government Response to Food-borne Illness Outbreaks in Canada by strengthening federal leadership capacity for outbreak response, revising the national Foodborne Illness Outbreak Response Protocol (FIORP), improving risk communication during food-borne emergencies, targeting communications to vulnerable populations, and improving public access to integrated Government of Canada food safety information.

Governance Structure(s): Responsibility for the implementation of the recommendations made by the Independent Investigator is based on the mandates of the CFIA, HC, PHAC. In addition, the Deputy Minister of AAFC chairs a special committee of deputy heads from CFIA, HC and PHAC which provides recommendations to improve the ways the organizations work together to deliver their food safety mandates. The CFIA, PHAC, HC, and AAFC work horizontally through a governance structure to implement and monitor the implementation of the recommendations.

The governance framework includes an ADM-level Committee on Food Safety (ADM-CFS) that is supported by a DG-level committee. The ADM-CFS receives support and direction from the AAFC, CFIA, PHAC, and HC deputy heads. Furthermore, each department monitors the implementation of the recommendations through a department specific governance structure that includes inter-branch director-level, executive director or DG-level, vice-president or ADM-level, and senior management-level committees.

Performance Highlights: Key performance results achieved by CFIA, HC, and PHAC include clarified roles and responsibilities, enhanced coordination of oversight of food safety among federal partners and industry, and improved communication among federal partners, industry and the public on food safety issues. These achievements have led to improved management of risks associated with Listeria in RTE meats and better prevention of foodborne illnesses in Canada.

($ Millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) 2010-11
Planned Spending Actual Spending Expected Results Results Achieved
Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Food Safety and Nutrition Risks

Internal Services

Hiring of Inspection staff in Ready to Eat Meat Facilities 21.3 10.3 7.1 Improved management of Food Safety risks.

The Government made funds available to hire 70 full-time inspectors. As of January 2011, the CFIA had hired all 70 inspectors. As a result, management of food safety risks has been improved in federally regulated ready-to-eat meat facilities.

Scientific and technical training programs 11.6 4.3 4.1

Enhance scientific and technical knowledge among RTE meat inspection staff in all federally registered meat establishments.

The CFIA has completed an assessment of training needs and has developed a new national training plan for meat processing plant inspectors. The plan includes a new course curriculum that incorporates instruction in required skills and facilitates continual training for both new and incumbent inspectors. The enhanced training is now being delivered on an ongoing basis.

Enhanced connectivity of Inspectors 3.0 1.0 0.2

Improved and timely documentation and communication of inspection results.

The CFIA has increased the use of laptops and cell phones and has provided faster network connectivity. In addition, a pilot project completed on April 1, 2010 assessed whether inspectors – particularly those in remote areas – could benefit from wireless technology, which would allow them secure access to the CFIA computer network applications.

The pilot project results informed CFIA's plan for the first phase of a new system to improve connectivity. The new system will improve communication and provide inspectors with better access to information to support decision-making.

The project to deliver wireless technology is currently in the execution phase and the installment of the supporting infrastructure was completed by March 31, 2011.

In 2011-2012, CFIA will deploy the wireless devices to the identified inspectors.

Enhanced Food Safety Program Risk Management 4.6 1.8 1.9

Review of food safety programs and directives to apply similar lessons learned.

The CFIA works to review and update its programs, regulations and directives on an on-going basis. In April 2011, CFIA began developing a framework, as well as business processes that will facilitate the routine updating of manuals. These manuals provide information on program requirements to CFIA staff, including guidance to CFIA staff and regulated parties regarding the interpretation of legislation, regulations, and related policies, and what is required to achieve compliance.

Improve test detection methods for Listeria and other food-borne hazards 1.2 0.5 0.8

Improve test detection methods for Listeria and other food-borne hazards to provide greater availability and choice of testing methods for the detection of Listeria, and faster turn around time for reporting of results.

The CFIA continues to improve and validate detection methods for Listeria in meat products and in the meat processing environment to reduce the time required to test samples and enable more rapid response during food safety investigations.

The CFIA validated three rapid methods in 2010-11 that are currently undergoing technical review to determine if these methods are suitable for regulatory testing for product and/or environmental testing.

Additional Listeria testing 4.1 1.4 1.3

Conduct additional Listeria testing to contribute to improved decision making and earlier detection and faster response to potential foodborne illness outbreaks.

The CFIA's laboratory capacity was enhanced to enable testing of additional RTE meat and environmental samples, which were planned as a result of the updated Listeria Directives. As well, the funding enabled the purchase of environmental test kits, which are used to conduct environmental sampling to identify the presence of Listeria in the processing environment.

Government of Canada food safety portal 1.0 0.3 0.5

Improve public access to integrated Government of Canada food safety information.

The Government of Canada's online Food Safety Portal ( as a one-stop source of information about food safety and foodborne illness. The food safety and foodborne illness information initiatives developed by CFIA, PHAC and HC can now be found on the Portal along with links to CFIA, PHAC and HC websites. To raise awareness on the Food Safety Portal, CFIA issued a social media news release that encouraged individuals to share information about the Portal online by using social media book-marking and tagging options. As well, the Agency participated in six food related events and exhibits between May 2010 and March 2011 to promote the Food Safety Portal and raise awareness of safe food-handling practices and recall procedures.

CFIA's Subtotal 46.8 19.6 15.9    
Public Health Agency of Canada

Surveillance and Population Health Assessment

Surveillance of Infectious Disease 2.9 1.3 1.0 Strengthen laboratory diagnostic and networking tools.

PulseNet Canada is a key PHAC program that utilizes laboratory DNA fingerprinting technology to perform surveillance for food-borne disease, detect outbreaks at the earliest possible stage, and to serve as a primary data sharing and communications link between all provincial public health laboratories, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Health Canada, and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). The goal of PulseNet Canada and these member agencies is to identify the emergence of food-borne illness (both regionally and nationally) and to help identify the contaminated food source so that public health and food safety responses can then be initiated. PulseNet Canada is currently developing a comprehensive online training program, and is continuing to expand and improve its training and certification programs to new and existing member laboratories to ensure that lab capacity exists across provincial and federal laboratories

The PulseNet Canada DNA fingerprinting method used to detect and confirm the emergence of food-borne outbreaks has the benefits of being applicable to a wide range of food-borne pathogens. The resulting laboratory data can be readily shared and jointly analyzed between PulseNet Canada members. This method will continue to be used in the future. In addition, public health investigators have recognized that the latest generation of genomics technologies will revolutionize the diagnosis, surveillance and control of disease through vastly improved molecular epidemiologic investigation of food-borne pathogens. Genomics was formerly a research tool and technological advances have made whole-genome sequencing feasible and suitable for use in public health investigations of bacterial diseases. Within the programs instituted at the National Microbiology Laboratory through this initiative, PHAC is now acknowledged as an international innovator for the use of public health genomics and continues the pursuit of public-health ready versions of these emerging laboratory technologies.

Public health Preparedness and Capacity

Public Health Tools 4.5 1.5 1.0 National public health surveillance tools and platforms.

To implement its commitments, PHAC initiated defining, documenting and validating PHAC and provincial/territorial (P/T) requirements for pan-Canadian management of food-borne outbreaks using electronic systems. PHAC worked with subject matter experts to define these requirements so that corresponding functionalities within the Panorama system could be improved. For the purposes of this project, it was determined that information sharing agreements would not be required as artificial data will be used to test the system.

The work encountered unplanned delays due to prolonged unavailability of Panorama governance structure, which was revived through PHAC leadership after about nine months.

The current project and the insights gained from participating in the Panorama governance have drawn the conclusion that it is highly improbable for a sole electronic system to be used for the collection and analysis of public health data. Since it is recognized that PHAC and its P/T partners will always be using multiple electronic systems for such purposes, it is therefore critical for the forward strategy to provide leadership and support in the area of data and systems interoperability standards. This will facilitate the seamless and standardized collection and transmission of public health data, particularly during emergency and outbreak situations.

Public health Preparedness and Capacity

Emergency Preparedness 4.2 1.6 1.3 Develop an operational framework that provides procedures and guidance to the Health Portfolio for the coordination and management of food-borne illness emergencies.

The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), in consultation with Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, developed a Food-borne Illness Emergency Response Plan (FIERP) for food-borne illness outbreaks requiring a response beyond the scope of the Foodborne Illness Outbreak Response Protocol (FIORP). The FIORP is the existing national technical and operational protocol that is used in the investigation and management of any food-borne illness outbreak involving more than one province/territory or country.

The FIERP builds on the FIORP, which was updated in 2010, and sets out the principles for Health Portfolio management of a food-borne illness emergency and makes use of a common incident command structure. Once endorsed at the federal level, the FIERP will be exercised in conjunction with the FIORP (2010) in a national multi-lateral exercise in 2011-12.

Disease and Injury Prevention and Mitigation

Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Diseases 2.8 1.0 1.1 Revise and modernize the Food-borne Illness Outbreak Response Protocol (FIORP).

Following extensive consultations with federal, provincial and territorial (F/P/T) partners, the Food-borne Illness Outbreak Response Protocol (FIORP) was updated, and endorsed by the F/P/T Deputy Ministers of Health and Agriculture, the F/P/T Food Safety Committee and the Council of Chief Medical Officers of Health in June 2010.

The revised protocol includes clearer language and guidance for improved coordination of public communications among F/P/T partners, and an appendix that discusses communicating with the public and with those at greater risk. The FIORP (2010) also provides an enhanced description and a template for guidance of the post-outbreak review process. The process includes confirmation of the outbreak's cause, proposed measures to prevent reoccurrence, assessment of the effectiveness of outbreak-control measures and evaluation of utilized processes and methods. Three post-event reviews have been conducted since the FIORP (2010) was finalized in June 2010. The results of post-event reviews will be used to evaluate the FIORP and make required changes.

Bilateral FIORP (2010) exercises were held with each province and territory from January to April 2011, in order to test the FIORP and to support related knowledge development. These exercises included testing for communication gaps, assisting with knowledge development, and strengthening networks among communication partners. A national multi-lateral exercise of the FIORP (2010) will be held in 2011-2012.

Regulatory Enforcement and Emergency Response

Health Emergency Response Team 3.3 1.5 1.1 Pilot test a surge capacity model of qualified public health experts.

An inventory of knowledge and skill sets required to detect and respond to food-borne illness events was created and validated, and a gap analysis was completed. This informed the scope of the Public Health Reserve pilot and the training strategy. In consultation with internal and external public health experts, the Public Health Reserve framework was developed, and will be tested and assessed in 2011-12 through various training and exercise events. The outcomes of the assessment will support recommendations for the Public Health Reserve concept.

The project also supported planning of the Field Services Training Institute (FSTI) 2011 event, which included training of FSTI facilitators and development of course materials related to food-borne illness surveillance and response.

Internal partners have been engaged to support the strategic development and implementation of the pilot (e.g., administrative models, Memoranda of Understanding, etc). The data requirements gathering process for the reserve database/web application was completed, which will support the application development. This database will be used to support surge capacity requirements.

PHAC's Subtotal 17.7 6.9 5.5    
Health Canada Food and Nutrition Build health risk assessment capacity 4.9 1.5 1.5

HC will continue to enhance its ability to provide risk assessments, based on the best available science and risk modelling methods to strengthen prevention and response to food safety incidents.

HC hired 5 additional, specialized experts, trained and cross-trained more staff to conduct risk assessments, and enhanced the procedures used to support the CFIA during its food safety investigations. This included clarification of timelines in the Health Risk Assessment (HRA) process. All HRAs have been conducted within established service standards (less than 8 hours for the highest risk category of assessments).

  • Health Canada continued to prioritise the review and approval of novel processes and applications with demonstrated food safety benefits, which are under its regulatory oversight.
    • In order to enable prioritization of approvals of food safety interventions with proven health benefits, Health Canada has developed a policy which provides guidance and criteria to assist industry in identifying these interventions when seeking pre-market approval. This policy was posted on Health Canada's website in January 2011. Specific eligibility criteria have been developed and will be used to determine which applications would be subject to priority handling.
    • In addition, Health Canada is assessing other areas where regulatory modernization would contribute to shortening approval timelines for safe additives and other food safety interventions. For instance, Health Canada has initiated a streamlined approach to publishing its intent to amend regulations to allow the use of certain food additives. The approach consists of web posting consultations of intended amendments and notify trading partners while the drafting of the regulations is underway. Publication in Canada Gazette Part II of the final regulations would proceed once stakeholders comments are addressed.
    • As result of these streamlined processes, two "High Pressure Treatment" processes and a new food additive aimed to reduce microbial contamination of foods, were reviewed and approved in 2010-11.
  • Health Canada finalized and published a guidance document on the weight of evidence needed to support appropriate and timely actions to protect consumers during foodborne illness outbreak investigations.
Improve test detection methods for Listeria and other foodborne hazards 3.6 2.2 2.2 HC will continue to have a suite of rapid, validated analytical tools available to industry and government partners, to allow early detection of hazards , reducing the exposure of Canadians in a food safety emergency.
  • An enhanced method for isolation of Listeria (results in 3-5 days instead of the former 7-10 days) has been developed and is currently being validated for different food commodities/categories by Health Canada and the CFIA. Industry and other stakeholders will be notified when the validated method is published in the Microbiological Methods Committee's Compendium of Analytical Methods.
  • 13 methods for Listeria have been updated in the Compendium of Analytical Methods. These methods will be used by both industry (to demonstrate compliance with the new requirements) and by the CFIA (in its enforcement activities). Listeria methods were given priority for validation. This will be expanded to other microbiological methods in the near future
  • HC began collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) in a multi-year project to develop a microchip-based laboratory method for Listeria which would allow results in 48hrs
  • Rapid purification and screening of priority toxins including mycotoxins, phycotoxins and process induced toxins in food and feed stocks have been and are being developed. These methods allow for the detection and quantification of toxins in hours rather than days and have the capability to be multiplexed to detect several toxins in one analysis. Immunological reagents used in these assays have been developed and characterized for six priority toxins are currently being developed into assays and purification tools. Once methods are validated and published, they will be made available to stakeholders through posting on the Health Canada website.
  • An enhanced mass spectrometry method using multiple reaction monitoring has been developed to simultaneously detect and quantify 23 mycotoxins and metabolites in a single sample. This multiplex method is currently being validated and will allow for increased sampling and data collection for risk assessment.
Marketing and Communications Safe Food Handling Social Marketing Strategy 2.0 0.7 0.7

HC will deliver the second year of the Safe Food Handling social marketing strategy to three at-risk groups: older adults, pregnant women and those with compromised immune systems, building awareness among these groups that they are at higher risk and communicating safe food handling practices specific to their needs.

For each audience, educational resources were developed and made available in both printed and electronic formats. Outreach activities focused on raising awareness of the safe food handling messages found within these publications through print and web advertising. In addition, web content and web interactive tools were developed to help all consumers learn about safe food handling practices in the home and grocery store. Communications activities were strengthened with 2-3 monthly Food Safety related Information Updates distributed to media, tweeted to 10,700+ followers and emailed to 200 stakeholders.

Results achieved this year specific to each audience included:

Adults 60+:

  • Articles and print ads in targeted publications such as the seniors edition of Reader's Digest and Bel Age, with a readership total of over 5 million people;
  • Just under 500,000 booklets distributed through magazines and partnerships with Meals on Wheels;
  • Distribution of 35,000 posters to health professionals who treat older adults;
  • Insertion of 400,000 brochures in Old Age Security mailings; and
  • YouTube video with 920 views.

Pregnant Women:

  • Strategic alliance with Thyme Maternity provided 300,000 booklets for point of purchase distribution at 76 stores nationally;
  • Articles and print ads in magazines directed to pregnant women, such as Expecting Magazine and C'est Pour Quand? with a readership total of over 5 million people;
  • Distribution of 35,000 posters to family doctors, obstetricians and midwives;
  • Web advertising on pregnancy and women's health Web sites; and
  • YouTube video with 4,025 views


  • Distribution of 22,750 booklets through disease associations;
  • Distribution of 20,000 posters to specialized health practitioners and cancer clinics;
  • Articles and print ads in targeted publications, such as Best Health;
  • Web advertising on health Web sites; and
  • YouTube video with 891 views.
HC's Subtotal 10.5 4.4 4.4    
Total 75.0 (2009-10 to 2011-12) 30.9 25.8    

Comments on Variances:

CFIA: The variance in relation to hiring inspectors was due to the timing of funds being released and gaps in the timing of hiring inspection staff. Some inspectors accepted job offers as late as January. In addition, inspector hiring occurred in several areas and regions at different paces.

The variance in relation to enhancing the connectivity of inspectors was due to the fact that the pilot project was not rolled out to other inspectors because of concerns around costs and long term funding. Now that additional funding has been secured through budget 2011 for inspector modernization, the roll out of the connectivity solution is expected to be completed by March 31, 2012.

PHAC: The Public Health Agency of Canada encountered unexpected and prolonged delays in securing staff and contractor resources which impeded progress of the files. Additionally, the restructuring of a national advisory council placed unexpected strains on the advancement of the initiative.

Health Canada: There were no planned spending amounts identified in the 2010-11 RPP for this initiative. The amounts shown are based on the funding received through the supplementary estimates.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): N/A

Contact information:

Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Theresa Iuliano
Senior Director
Policy and Strategies Division
Policy and Programs Branch
(613) (773) 5827

Health Canada
Sylvain Gauthier
Planning Analyst
Policy, Planning and International Affairs Directorate
Health Products and Food Branch
(613) 960-0553

Table D: Invasive Alien Species (IAS)

Name of Horizontal Initiative: Invasive Alien Species (IAS)

Name of Lead Department(s): Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)

Lead Department Program Activity: Plant Health Risks and Production Systems

Start Date: 2010-11

End Date: Ongoing

Total Federal Funding Allocation (from start date to end date): $95.0M (2010-11 to 2014-15) and $19.0M ongoing

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): Invasive alien species (IAS) are those species introduced by human action outside their natural distribution (past or present), that threaten the environment, economy, or society, including human health. Annually, IAS causes billions of dollars in direct losses, control costs, increased production costs and lost market access. The annual impact of IAS is estimated to be as much as $20 billion to the forest sector, $7 billion for aquatic invasive species in the Great Lakes, and $2.2 billion for invasive plants alone in the agricultural sector. IAS have gained international attention as globalization, climate change, and increases in international trade have elevated the risks of IAS introductions.

In recognition that responding to IAS is a shared responsibility, "An Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Canada" was adopted in 2004 by federal, provincial and territorial resource ministers as a national coordinated approach toward prevention and management of IAS. The objective of the Strategy is to initiate implementation of the priority objectives (i.e. prevention, early detection and rapid response to new invaders and management of established and spreading invaders) and will be met through contributions to work in five thematic areas: Risk Analysis, Science and Technology, Legislation, Regulation and Policy, Engaging Canadians and International Cooperation. Environment Canada is the lead for invasive animal species; the Department of Fisheries and Oceans leads the aquatic invasive species issues; the Canadian Food Inspection Agency leads for invasive plants and other plant pests; and, Natural Resources Canada leads for forest pests.

Budget 2010 allocated $19 million per year to Environment Canada, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, National Resources Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) to continue implementation of the Government of Canada's IAS Strategy as well as maintain and enhance the advances made in the previous five years in invasive alien species activities. Ongoing implementation of the IAS Strategy is critical to continue the protection of Canada's ecosystems and resource-based economy.

Shared Outcome(s): Continuing the implementation of the Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Canada is essential to protect Canada's aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and their native biological diversity as well as domestic plants and animals from the risks of invasive alien species. The key outcomes of the Strategy are the prevention and management of IAS in a manner that ensures environmental sustainability, economic competitiveness and societal well being.

Governance Structure(s): The government-wide IAS Strategy involves the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The departments and agencies are committed to ongoing collaboration on IAS issues. Federally, coordination continues to be discussed through the Directors' General Interdepartmental Committee on Invasive Alien Species. Currently, the governance model for the National IAS Strategy is under revision. Nevertheless, inter-jurisdictionally, federal-provincial-territorial (FPT) cooperation on IAS issues continue under the auspices of the annual joint meeting of Resource Ministers' Councils for wildlife, forests, fisheries and aquaculture, and endangered species, as well as associated meetings of Deputy Ministers and Assistant Deputy Ministers. The Minister of Agriculture is the lead federal Minister responsible for responding to invasive alien plants and plant pests. Efforts will continue to seek the full engagement of federal, provincial, and territorial Ministers of agriculture and facilitate their participation in addressing invasive alien species.

Performance Highlights: The Departments of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency worked collaboratively on a successful submission to Treasury Board to acquire funding to continue implementing their respective contributions to the National IAS Strategy. Work toward meeting the objectives of the Strategy resulted in the initiation and advancement of key projects within the thematic areas for each partner as specified in section 18 of the tables. Work to revise the governance structure for the IAS strategy to enhance engagement and communication was undertaken. Notable among cooperative projects between and among the groups were the initiation of a decision support framework for forest IAS (FIAS) as a joint endeavour between the CFIA and NRCan, initial review of IAS Partnership program propsals for the 2011-2012, and completion of the Canadian Invasive Plants Framework document and initiation of the national Invasive Plants Early Detection and Rapid Response plan. Engagement with other governments (federal, provincial, territorial, municipal and international), partners and stakeholders was enhanced.

($ Millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) 2010-11
Planned Spending Actual Spending Expected Results Results Achieved
Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Plant Health Risks and Production Systems

Internal Services

Risk Analysis 60.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 12.0 ongoing 12.0 7.7

Prevention and spread of invasive plants and plant pests is managed in a risk based manner.

Outcome: The CFIA will continue to identify highest risk potential IAS, their pathways, and appropriate means by which to mitigate identified risks through continuing to conduct pest and weed risk analyses, assess import controls and develop initial response to early detections.

  • Several pest risk assessments and weed risk assessments completed.
  • Enhancement of weed risk assessment methods and harmonization of approaches with US.
  • Early Detection Rapid Response framework for invasive plants was initiated.
  • Initiated development of a Risk-Based Decision Support Framework with Canadian Forest Service.
Science and Technology      

Outcome 1: Entry and domestic spread of invasive plants and plant pests is managed.

Outcome 2: The Agency will support IAS prevention, detection and response through continued efforts to develop scientific tools and expertise.

Outcome 3: The impact of IAS introductions will be minimized through continued efforts in early detection.

  • Developed rapid and accurate diagnostic tests for detection of IAS including new molecular methods for distinguishing plant pests.
  • Increased capacity for weed identification implemented through augmentation of seed and herbarium reference samples, inspector training, as well as research projects focusing on foreign weed species.
  • Delivery of targeted inspection and surveillance activities such as invasive plants around grain and seed importing facilities.
  • Removal of jointed goat grass from two existing sites in Ontario in support of further regulatory action.
Legislation, Regulation and Policy      

Outcome 1: Entry, domestic spread and response to invasive plants and plant pests are planned, implemented and evaluated.

Outcome 2: The CFIA will continue to modernize the legislative framework by updating regulations or creating new ones and harmonizing approaches, where possible, in consultation with stakeholders.

Outcome 3: To ensure consistency with international standards and its own mandate, the CFIA will continue to develop and design new science-based program policies and update existing ones, with a focus on high risk pathways of introduction.

  • Formation of new working relationships and partnerships with provincial and territorial agencies for eradication and management of IAS (e.g. woolly cupgrass in Qubec).
  • Proposed revisions to the Weed Seeds Order, development of the Invasive Plants Policy and review of Canada's List of Regulated Pests;
  • A domestic management plan for woolly cupgrass was developed in consultation with industry and partners. This plan will support further regulatory action on this species.
Engaging Canadians      

Outcome 1: Increased cooperation and awareness from stakeholders on plants and plant pests and compliance with policies and regulations.

Outcome 2: The Agency will continue to facilitate information sharing among federal departments and other partners to ensure that CFIA's mandate is met.

Outcome 3: Awareness will be raised about IAS, their potential pathways and associated policies and programs.

Outcome 4: Early reporting of IAS and best management practices for reducing the risk to Canada's plant resources will be promoted.

  • Facilitated collaboration, mutual support and information sharing among organizations through participation at industry meetings and workshops (e.g. participation in Ontario Critical Plant Pest Management Committee, British Columbia Pest Advisory Committee, Ontario Invasive Plants Council, Invasive Plants Council of British Columbia).
  • Completed of the Canadian Invasive Plants Framework.
  • Developed and distributed information products (field guides, fact sheets, posters) to organization and members of the public across Canada. To enhance Canadian's awareness of invasive species and how they spread.
  • Conducted broad Canadian stakeholder consultation to validate Invasive Plants Policy and plants under consideration for regulation.
  • Piloted a weed risk assessment training workshop to provincial regulatory officials.
  • Worked with Environment Canada to review 129 research project proposals as part of the IAS Partnership Program.
International Cooperation      

Outcome 1: Increased international engagement, cooperation and awareness of invasive species and compliance with policies and regulations.

Outcome 2: International standards will reflect Canadian interests.

Outcome 3: Participation in international standard setting, harmonization of approaches, negotiations and bilateral meetings with key trading partners to mitigate the risk of IAS introduction through trade pathways and maintain access to foreign markets.

  • Informed key international partners (e.g. United States, China and India) of Canada's invasive plants regulatory initiatives and discussed potential risk mitigation measures and cooperative approaches.
  • Participated in panels, working groups and in meetings of international organizations to develop and implement harmonized standards and guidelines on IAS as well as to share information and collaborate on other initiatives related to Plant Health (e.g. aligning CFIA policy on Asian Gypsy Moth with the NAPPO standard;. phase-in of ISPM 15 for wood packaging material moving between the US and Canada; development of NAPPO IAS pathways risk assessment standard).
CFIA's Subtotal 60.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 12.0 ongoing 12.0 7.7    
National Resources Canada

Adapting to a Changing Climate and Hazard Risk Management

Risk Analysis 3.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 0.6 ongoing 0.6 0.6

Risk Analysis:

Outcome: The capacity to identify and address forest invasive alien species risks and prevent their introduction is increased.

Outputs/Activities: National risk analysis models and risk maps for selected forest invasive alien species are developed to improve understanding of the pathways of forest invasive alien species movement and help to better assess human-assisted introductions and spread of new invasive alien forest pests and their impacts.

Considerable work in 2010-11 to advance pest risk mapping science, analyze pest spread, and assess impacts of major invasive species.

Presentations and peer reviewed articles on improving risk mapping and working around knowledge gaps;

Terrestrial transportation pathways analysis and modeling (Canada/U.S. border crossings and commercial transportation

Analysis of spread of Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle (BSLB) in Nova Scotia, and Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) in Ontario

Estimating economic and ecological impacts of EAB.

Science and Technology 5.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 1.0 ongoing 1.0 1.0

Science and Technology:

Outcome 1: Knowledge of forest invasive alien species taxonomy, biology, and ecology is improved.

Outputs/Activities: Scientific research is undertaken to address knowledge gaps in taxonomy, biology, ecology, distribution, and pest-host and forest-pathogen relationships.

Outcome 2: Likelihood of establishment or spread of forest invasive alien species is minimized and their impacts are mitigated.

Outputs/Activities: Detection, diagnostic and surveillance tools and strategies are developed for forest invasive alien species. Response tools and methods are developed and provided to responsible agencies to deal with control and eradication of forest invasive alien species.

Outcome 1:

Examples of work in 2010-11 include research into:

  • Life-cycle and behaviour of Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALHB);
  • Pathology and tree resistance to Sudden Oak Death (notably in Eastern Canadian tree species);
  • Relationships of European Wood Wasp to other co-existing fungi and insects;
  • Biological control agents for EAB;
  • EAB: Overwintering ecology; life-cycle; ash tree chemicals as attractants; pheromones; and
  • BSLB flight behaviour and natural dispersal; biological control agents

Outcome 2:

Examples of work in 2010-11 include:

  • Genetic identification techniques are being developed for insects and fungi that are difficult to identify based on visual examination – required in some instances to distinguish native from alien species, or between different alien species (e.g. Gypsy moth; fungal diseases of White Pine);
  • Generic pheromones are being developed in order to enhance the efficacy of insect survey traps; and
  • A comprehensive review (272 page book) of 510 alien introduced beetle species recorded from Atlantic Canada and Quebec was published in 2010 – it provides baseline information for Eastern Canada; work is underway to complete an ATLAS of introduced species of beetles for all of Canada, including identification tools.
Legislation, Regulation and Policy 1.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 0.2 ongoing 0.2 0.2

Legislation, Regulation and Policy:

Outcome 1: Decision-making related to forest invasive alien species (FIAS) management by regulatory agencies and other organizations is informed by scientific and policy expertise.

Outputs/Activities: Science and policy expertise on forest invasive alien species prevention, detection and response are provided to regulatory agencies and other federal Departments, Provinces and Territories, Municipalities Industry and First Nations.

Outcome 2: Canadian positions in national and international discussions on phytosanitary trade issues are informed by scientific and policy expertise.

Outputs/Activities: Scientific and policy advice is provided in support to phytosanitary trade negotiations and the development of national and international forest phytosanitary standards.

Outcome 1:

Canadian Forest Service personnel regularly provide science advice and policy expertise to governments and other stakeholders both in Canada and internationally; examples in 2010-11 include:

  • Recommendations on ALHB survey requirements to CFIA, survey priorities for 2010-11, and survey strategy to end ALHB eradication program;
  • ALHB host list to CFIA;
  • Advice to Environment Canada on the Butternut recovery program, and to other government departments and stakeholders (Transport Canada, National Defense, First Nations and regional environment councils in Qubec) on protection of Butternut;
  • Branch sampling protocols, via technical notes and technology transfer workshops for arborists and city foresters; and
  • Advice and training on EAB to Canadian Food Inspection Agency staff; City of Ottawa, Governments of Manitoba and Qubec, U.S. Government.

Outcome 2:

Canadian Forest Service personnel are actively engaged in international deliberations regarding phytosanitary standards; examples of work in 2010-11 include:

  • Recommendations on wood chip size for ALHB – treated material; and
  • Recommendations to CFIA on International phytosanitary standard 15 (wood packaging).


Engaging Canadians 0.5 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 0.1 ongoing 0.1 0.1

Engaging Canadians:

Outcome: Scientific Information on FIAS is made available to agencies, researchers and the public.

Outputs/Activities: Application functionality and content of the CanFIAS Database and the Forest Invasive Alien Species Web Portal are enhanced and expanded.

With respect to the CanFIAS database, work in 2010-11 focused on the capture of post-1995 and external information on invasive species from CFS, partners and clients, including: identification of primary record sources; capture or transfer of records; verification; inclusion; quality control; documentation.

Building on previous years' work, specific work in 2010-11 included:

The CanFIAS database ( was improved by scanning and including (historical) primary collection information for selected species;

A draft manual in support of CanFIAS for analysis of alien invasions was completed; and

The Exotic Pests web portal (includes CanFIAS database) was promoted at technology transfer events and conferences.

International Cooperation 0.5 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 0.1 ongoing 0.1 0.1

International Cooperation:

Outcome: International cooperation with phytosanitary organizations and trading partners is facilitated.

Outputs/Activities: Collaboration is fostered through active participation in scientific activities and knowledge transfer in support to international phytosanitary organizations such as the North American Plant Protection Organization and the International Forestry Quarantine Research Group that provides internationally coordinated research analyses to the International Plant Protection Convention's Technical Panel on Forest Quarantine and Commission of Phytosanitary Measures.

Research – NRCan-Canadian Forest Service (CFS) has coordinated international research activities that have provided data critical to the adoption of international standards, e.g. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs) No. 15 the wood packaging standard that significantly reduces risk of invasive pest movement internationally. Scientific refinements to this standard and the development of other regulatory instruments continue to reduce pest risk to Canadian forests. In 2010-11 new treatments for wood pests were proposed by the International Forest Quarantine Research Group (IFQRG) and are under review by international community.

Market Access – China, India: Technical discussion and provision of scientific analyses have addressed Chinese and Indian phytosanitary concerns and opened markets for Canadian wood commodities. Log and lumber shipments to China have increased significantly since a Phytosanitary Arrangement signed in 2009. As a result of work culminating in bilateral meetings in 2011, India now accepts Canadian spruce, pine, fir and western red cedar lumber. NRCan science has contributed to the removal of trade barriers with other countries (e.g. Australia, EU, Turkey, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Korea) and continues to do so as issues arise.

International Phytosanitary Education – NRCan-CFS co-authored a UN-FAO "Guide to the implementation of phytosanitary standards in forestry", published in 2011. The Guide will be used in Canada and around the world to promote awareness in the forestry sector of methods to reduce the international movement of forest pests.

NRCan's Subtotal 10.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 2.0 ongoing 2.0 1.9    
Department of Fisheries and Oceans Science for Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture Risk Analysis 2.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 0.4 ongoing 0.4 0.41

Risk analysis for priority species and pathways

Peer-reviewed risk assessment finalized for the ship-mediated pathway (ballast and hull-fouling vectors) in the Great Lakes and Arctic.

Baitfish pathway risk assessment finalized for Ontario.

Biological synopses completed for: Asian Shore Crab, Tench, 'pedicure fish', compound sea squirt, light-bulb sea squirt and European sea squirt. Updated biological synopsis for Bighead and Silver carps (2006+) was also completed.

Center of Expertise for Risk Assessment website updated to provide information on biological risk assessments, framework documents, and biological synopses of high risk aquatic invasive species for internal and external (other countries, government departments, provinces, public and stakeholders) clients.

Prepared a background report in order to develop a socio-economic framework by the end of fiscal year 2011-2012 and began work on the development of the framework.

Completed a case study on the socio-economic impacts of Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS).

Science and Technology 5.1 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 1.02 ongoing 1.02 0.97 Decision makers are provided with information in order to manage species and pathways in a risk based manner.

Summary of Science research funding for 2005-2010 initiated, this document will provide decision makers with a summary of results.

Ongoing funding for monitoring and science research activities to identify impacts, high risk species and pathways.

Legislation, Regulation and Policy 1.1 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 0.21 ongoing 0.21 0.20 Development of components of aquatic invasive species regulations

Input solicited from provincial/territorial partners, OGDs and DFO regional staff on a regulatory intent document, outlining potential components of an AIS regulation.

Industry Profile completed for industries potentially impacted by new AIS regulations.

Legal analysis completed on several legal issues associated with the regulatory proposal.

Held a workshop to identify science needs to complete the proposal and implement a potential AIS regulation.

Consultation plan has been drafted for further consultations with stakeholders once the proposal is further refined.

Engaging Canadians 0.4 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 0.09 ongoing 0.09 0.08 Stakeholder and partner are aware of activities that can mitigate the risk of aquatic invasive species

Regular meetings held with provinces to discuss AIS issues though the National Aquatic Invasive Species Committee.

Developed and distributed various communication products such as identification booklets, Signs, posters, fact sheets and other public education materials throughout Canada.

International Cooperation 11.4 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 2.28 ongoing 2.28 2.24

The impact of Sea Lamprey is effectively managed in the Great Lakes

Canada is engaged with international discussion to address the introduction and spread of aquatic invasive species.

DFO delivered a full program of sea lamprey assessment and control in 2010-11, including: the lampricide treatment of 51 tributaries and offshore area, as well as 875 HA in the St. Marys River; the assessment of larval populations in 219 tributaries and offshore area; the reconstruction of sea lamprey barriers in two tributaries and the maintenance of barriers in 26 tributaries; and the operation of spawning-phase assessment traps at 22 sites in 19 tributaries.

Lake-wide spawning-phase abundance targets were met in Lake Ontario, were they have been within or near target since the late 1980's, and in Lake Superior for the third consecutive year. A 36% reduction was observed in Lake Erie, while a slight increase was observed in Lake Huron, although the larval population in the St. Marys River, the major sea lamprey producing tributary to Lake Huron, was at its lowest point in the time series (1998-2010). Largely as a result of the Sea Lamprey Control Program, lake trout have been rehabilitated in Lake Superior, and are showing positive signs of recovery in Lake Huron. The program also protects fisheries for other native species and introduced salmonids.

DFO participates in and contributes to various international working groups that focus on Aquatic Invasive Species. Canada coordinates with the United States through the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force. Canada also participates in aquatic invasive species at the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES - Atlantic) and the North Pacific Marine Science Organization PICES.

DFO's Subtotal 20.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 4.0 ongoing 4.0 3.9    
Environment Canada

Biodiversity - Wildlife and Habitat

Engaging Canadians - Invasive Alien Species Partnership Program 5.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 1.0 ongoing 1.0 0.02

Completed Invasive Alien Species Partnership Program projects have addressed priorities set out in An Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Canada

Increased contribution of individuals and organizations in activities related to IAS

Only 1 project addressing priorities outlined in An Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Canada was funded in 2010-11

Total participation: 59 person-days, 11 organizations involved

EC's Subtotal 5.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 1.0 ongoing 1.0 0.02    
Total 95.0 (2010-11 to 2014-15) and 19.0 ongoing 19.0 13.52    

Comments on Variances:

CFIA: The expected results for each of the programs are ongoing and involve several different projects and activities. Such activities and projects are in various stages of initiation, development, validation, implementation, and/or re-evaluation. By its nature, the regulatory plant protection mandate of the CFIA involves IAS. As such, it is essential to note that in the past year, some activities carried out as part of the overall plant program are related to IAS, but were not recorded exclusively as IAS work. In 2010-2011, the CFIA achieved the expected results for the specific activities undertaken in proportion to the resources spent on IAS. A dedicated IAS committee–under the Plant Business Line governance structure now in place at the CFIA–will develop and evaluate an annual plan for IAS activities. This will provide more formal governance that, along with internal coding to support the five thematic areas of IAS work, will improve planning, allocation and accuracy of reporting of IAS resources in subsequent years.

NRCan: NRCan essentially achieved its objectives and spent the budgeted amount across all five program themes. A small portion of the operational budget was not spent owing to a combination of factors, including the late approval of the funding (especially impacts field work that was dependent on the funds), some work reduced or combined, and some work progressing more slowly than expected.

DFO: The spending reported does not include all spending on Aquatic Invasive Species within the Department. Currently the department supports a wide range of activities under other areas such as ecosystem science.

Environment Canada: Due to late signing of the TB Submission and associated program restructuring, the program did not have a call for proposals in 2010-2011. Only one IASPP project for $15,500 was funded in 2010-2011.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): N/A

Contact information:

Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Wendy Asbil
National Manager, Invasive Alien Species
Office of the Chief Plant Health Officer
Plant Health and Biosecurity Directorate
(613) 773-7236

Environment Canada
Bruno Paris
A/Head, Invasive Alien Species Unit
Canadian Wildlife Service
(819) 953-9939

National Resources Canada
Jacques Gagnon
Science Policy / Science Program Branch / NRCan – Canadian Forest Service
(613) 947-9043

Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Patrice Simon
Environment and Biodiversity Science
(613) 990-0289