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Section 2 — Analysis of Program Activities by Strategic Outcome

Strategic Outcome: The Government

The Government strategic outcome is good governance and effective institutions for First Nations, Inuit, and Northerners, and co-operative relationships with the Government of Canada.


2007–2008
  Financial Resources*
($ millions)
Human Resources*
(Full-time Equivalents)
Program Activities Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending Planned Actual Difference
Governance and Institutions of Government 652.6 651.3 648.2 327.0 274.7 (52.3)
Co-operative Relationships 240.8 237.8 201.1 535.8 435.8 (100.0)
Claims Settlements 523.3 1,360.2 1,355.6 212.9 463.6 250.7
*Full-time equivalents and financial resources for Internal Services are attributed on a pro-rata basis based on total financial resources. This may cause significant variances. See Internal Services for allocation methodology.

Results under this strategic outcome help support Aboriginal people and Northerners in their efforts to participate more fully in Canada’s political, social, and economic development. They also contribute to the Government of Canada Outcomes: A Diverse Society that Promotes Linguistic Duality and Social Inclusion and Strong Economic Growth.

On the whole, INAC met the results it set out to achieve in 2007–2008 for The Government strategic outcome.

Benefits to Canadians

Effective First Nations governance systems and institutions serve as the necessary foundation for community socio-economic development and overall community well-being. Fostering the elements of good governance will support the capacity of First Nations to become self-governing. Settling land claims and finalizing self-government agreements supports the aspirations of Aboriginal peoples to regain more direct control over the future of their communities, improve living conditions for their members, and make even greater contributions to Canada’s society and economy. The settlement of land claims also provides certainty over ownership of lands and resources, which improves the investment climate in Canada. Negotiations also help parties avoid litigation which can be lengthy, costly, and can lead to conflict.

Resolution of historic grievances meets Canadians’ desires for fair and equitable treatment of all Canadians.

Program Activity: Governance and Institutions of Government

Program Activity Description
Fostering stronger governance and institutions of government through supportive legislative initiatives, programs and policies, and administrative mechanisms leading to stable, legitimate, and effective First Nations and Inuit governments that are culturally relevant, provide efficient delivery of services, and are accountable to their citizens.

Performance Analysis

Progress continued on the implementation of 20 comprehensive land claim agreements and/or self-government agreements currently in place, in partnership with Aboriginal signatories and provincial/ territorial governments. The Tsawwassen final agreement in British Columbia was signed, the New Relationship Agreement was developed between the Government of Canada and the Cree of Eeyou Istchee, and federal legislation for the Nunavik Inuit Land Claims Agreement was passed. In addition, 54 specific claims were addressed over the fiscal year.

In 2007–2008 thirty-three First Nations committed to collecting real property taxes under the new First Nations Fiscal and Statistical Management Act.

This year, by monitoring the legitimacy of community elections and by-laws, INAC’s program activities have supported accountable community governments. The Department’s assessment of elections appeals demonstrated both that community members have a legitimate process through which to challenge election results and that community elections were undertaken effectively. The processing of Indian Act by-laws also ensured that band councils could exercise their law-making ability in a timely manner.

INAC’s governance programs also contributed to more responsible and responsive decision-making in communities by providing concrete tools for capacity development. INAC made one-time investments in a financial management capacity to communities most in need of assistance, and demonstrated that improvements can be made through measures as straightforward as the purchase of software.

Lessons Learned

Demand from communities for practical governance tools has continued to outpace the Department’s ability to fund new projects. The Department has responded by committing the available funds to communities most in need of capacity development. Experience is now showing that many communities have similar needs. This suggests that the Department should find ways to assist communities in sharing best practices and effective tools.

Visit the results chart for the Governance and Institutions of Government program activity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Co-operative Relationships

Program Activity Description
Building co-operative and productive intergovernmental and treaty relationships with First Nations and Inuit; the reconciliation of Aboriginal and other interests through researching, assessing, negotiating, and implementing claims and self-government agreements; the furthering of common understanding regarding the historic treaty relationship; and developing legislative and administrative arrangements that reflect evolving governance capacities and relations.

Performance Analysis

Every milestone completed in the negotiation and implementation process represents important progress that is the result of a significant effort and collaboration by all parties involved.

In 2007–2008 INAC achieved most of the commitments set for co-operative relationships with First Nations, Inuit, and Northerners. In addition to the major agreements noted on the previous page, highlights include the establishment of a Canada and Sechelt Intergovernmental Committee, the continued work on the renewal of the Nisga’a Final Agreement and the Sechelt Self-Government Agreement.

Lessons Learned

In October 2007 the Office of the Auditor General (OAG) released a report on the Inuvialuit Final Agreement which was critical of INAC’s approach to implementing the Agreement. INAC accepted the recommendations and is implementing a plan to address the concerns raised in the report. Progress includes reaching a tentative agreement on two outstanding land exchanges with the Inuvialuit as well as an approach to supporting economic development potential in Inuvialuit communities.

As a result of the OAG report, consultation with key partners, and internal considerations, the Department is looking at ways to: modernize and improve approaches to implementing land claim agreements; improve the tracking and monitoring of obligations to better demonstrate results; and report annually on federal contracting in settlement areas.

INAC also learned an important lesson from the failed Lheidli T’enneh Final Agreement ratification vote: that it is critical for all three parties (Canada, the province/territory, and the First Nation) to work more closely together to maximize First Nation community participation in the ratification process. This tripartite approach to increasing participation of community members was applied to the subsequent Tsawwassen and Maa-nulth Final Agreement ratifications and appears to have been a factor in their success. In future INAC will reinforce the importance of working with its partners to improve community education about the claims process from the beginning of the negotiation process.

Visit the results chart for the Co-operative Relationships program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Claims Settlements

Program Activity Description
Payments for the settlement of special, specific, and comprehensive claims to resolve outstanding grievances between Aboriginal people and the Government of Canada. Provide certainty over disputed lands and contribute to a strengthened relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in Canada.

Performance Analysis

A total of 54 specific claims was addressed including 37 specific claims that the Department settled through negotiation, and 17 specific claims that were rejected for negotiation on the basis that the claim did not give rise to a lawful obligation. One hundred percent of the 15 planned payments was made on time, representing a total of almost $1,8 billion. The settlements paid in 2007–2008 exceeded the planned spending due to a very large settlement with the James Bay Cree. These settlements contribute to the improvement of First Nations governance and their socio-economic conditions. The settlements also avoid costly litigation.

Lessons Learned

Financial planning related to claims settlement payments is challenging due in part to the fact that claims settlements are not entirely within the control of the Department. Once Aboriginal groups respond to a tabled offer, a lengthy ratification process may follow, which may mean payments occur in the next fiscal year.

Visit the results chart for the Claims Settlements program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Strategic Outcome: The People

The People strategic outcome is strengthened individual and family well-being for First Nations, Inuit, and Northerners. Through this strategic outcome, INAC strives to promote access to a range and level of services in education and social development that is reasonably comparable to those accessible to Canadians living off reserve. INAC also supports increased First Nations control over the policies, programs, and services that most directly affect individual and family well-being.


2007–2008
  Financial Resources*
($ millions)
Human Resources*
(Full-time Equivalents)
Program Activities Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending Planned Actual Difference
Education 1,670.4 1,742.1 1,734.7 864.3 763.2 (101.1)
Social Development 1,400.8 1,520.6 1,516.9 619.3 551.8 (67.5)
Managing Individual Affairs 24.7 23.9 18.9 84.3 108.5 24.2
*Full-time equivalents and financial resources for Internal Services are attributed on a pro-rata basis based on total financial resources. This may cause significant variances. See Internal Services for allocation methodology.

Results under The People strategic outcome support the social inclusion component of the Government of Canada outcome entitled A Diverse Society that Supports Linguistic Duality and Social Inclusion.

On the whole, INAC made progress and partially met the results it set out to achieve in 2007–2008 for The People.

Benefits to Canadians

Improving educational outcomes gives First Nations and Inuit increased opportunities to enhance their quality of life and to make greater contributions to Canada’s society and economy. Effective social services help individuals and families be more self-sufficient, safe, and secure. Enhancing the capacity of First Nations to manage affairs, such as band membership and resources, enables them to invest in their community development and create economic partnerships.

Program Activity: Education

Program Activity Description
Supporting the efforts of First Nations and Inuit individuals and communities to improve education outcomes and skills development, including: support for elementary/ secondary education programs and services for First Nation students; support for First Nation and Inuit students to participate in post-secondary education studies and for specialized programs of study at post-secondary institutions; support for special education programs and services for First Nation students with high-cost special education needs; and support for community-based cultural education programs and services.

Performance Analysis

In 2007–2008 INAC continued to provide funding for a range of programs and services including support for the elementary and secondary education of First Nations residing on reserves. Funding was also provided for First Nations and Inuit to pursue post-secondary education, special education, and culturally relevant education programs and services.

For 2007–2008 INAC committed to developing new regional education partnerships to support improved outcomes for all Aboriginal students, on and off reserves. Over the past year INAC made substantial progress toward establishing tripartite partnerships with First Nations and the provinces of Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, and Manitoba. The First Nations Jurisdiction over Education in British Columbia Act came into effect on November 22, 2007.

Through the Federal Budget in February 2008, INAC secured funding of $70 million over two years to improve First Nations education outcomes through results-based accountability and partnerships with willing First Nations and provinces.

According to the 2006 Census, 56% of Aboriginal Canadians and 50% of Status Indians (or Registered Indians) had completed high school, compared with 77% of the general population. The same census data showed that 35% of Aboriginal Canadians and 31% of Status Indians (or Registered Indians) were post-secondary graduates compared with 51% of the general population.

Lessons Learned

In December 2007 a formative evaluation of the Special Education Program was completed and an action plan developed to strengthen and improve program evaluation, reporting, and performance. The evaluation concluded that some of the data collected is inconsistent or inadequate for performance measurement requirements. Therefore, the action plan commits the Program to working with regions and First Nations to revise the reporting framework included in a new performance measurement strategy for education programs and services.

In 2007–2008 INAC produced and commissioned a series of reports on education reform, including a report on the contribution of improved Aboriginal education to Canada’s employment and productivity growth. INAC continued to work on considerations for reforming its post-secondary education programming. These were reflected in the Government Response to the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Standing Committee Report on Post Secondary Education.

Visit the results chart for the Education program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Social Development

Program Activity Description
INAC has a responsibility to provide basic social services on reserves at a level comparable to services received by non-Aboriginal people under similar circumstances. These programs include: income assistance; child and family services; early childhood development; non-medical assistance for people with chronic illness or disabilities; and family violence prevention.

Performance Analysis

INAC achieved its expected results for social development programs, as set out in the 2007–2008 Report on Plans and Priorities, such as meeting the basic and special needs of individuals and families, and providing access to quality care supports for children and families in distress, and investing $56 million through a five-year investment for the construction of up to five new shelters as well as operational funding for existing and new shelters for women and children on reserve.

Through the implementation of the Enhanced Prevention-Focused Approach, First Nations child and family community-based services and the child welfare system now work together more effectively to ensure families receive more appropriate services in a timely manner. For more information, see the news release on the Alberta Response Model.

In addition, Health Canada and INAC have been working together to develop a policy approach to implement Jordan’s Principle, a “child first” principle (passed by the House of Commons in 2007) used for resolving jurisdictional disputes involving First Nations children. A collaborative approach with provinces is expected to involve First Nations organizations in the resolution of these important issues.

Other highlights, ranging from employment and training projects that aim to reduce dependence on Income Assistance to improved delivery of federal Early Childhood Development programs and services, can be found on INAC's Social Policy and Programs website.

Lessons Learned

INAC completed evaluations of Income Assistance and the National Child Benefit Reinvestment programs in 2007–2008. Consistent with the findings of the evaluations, INAC developed action plans to address the recommendations of the evaluations which included plans for improved data collection systems, compliance activities, and refined methods of measuring program effectiveness.

Furthermore, a program-led review of assisted living was completed in November 2007. The review recommended that INAC undertake a process of renewal for the Assisted Living Program and its policy framework. The objectives should be to: i) strengthen assisted living policy and program foundations within the First Nations continuing care system; ii) support a more comprehensive and consistent range of assisted living program options that reflect and respond to the distinctive needs and circumstances of First Nations; and iii) provide for a more sustainable approach to meeting the long-term institutional care needs of First Nation seniors and disabled people living on reserves.

Visit the results chart for the Social Development program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Managing Individual Affairs

Program Activity Description
Professionally managing individual First Nations affairs to ensure that the Minister’s responsibilities under the
Indian Act for trust funds, the Indian Register, band membership, Certificates of Indian Status, treaty and annuity payments, and estates are properly exercised.

Performance Analysis

The outcome for activities under Managing Individual Affairs is increased control by First Nations over the policies, programs, and services that most directly affect individual and family well-being in order to improve quality of life.

Over the past year progress was achieved on increasing the efficiency of existing service delivery support mechanisms and the sharing of program responsibilities with First Nations wherever possible. On the whole, priorities set for Managing Individual Affairs in 2007–2008 were met. Highlights include:

  • A 5% increase (over two years) in the capacity of First Nation Indian Registry Administrators to maintain the Indian Register and Band Lists. An accurate Indian Registry is essential to the delivery of federal programs as it identifies those entitled to the programs.
  • Modernized training, and educational and business tools, helped departmental and First Nation estates administrators manage the affairs of deceased, minors, or mentally incompetent individuals more efficiently.
  • Ensuring eligible estates of Mentally Incompetent and Decedent Indians accessed payments from the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement.

Lessons Learned

Given that the majority of the business of Managing Individual Affairs is mandated through the Indian Act, true devolution of all program responsibilities will not be fully possible until the Act itself is replaced with another regime, such as negotiated self-government agreements, or alternative legislation such as the First Nations Oil and Gas Moneys Management Act. Until that time, INAC will continue partnering with First Nations to deliver modernized programs and services to ensure effective federal stewardship of government and statutory responsibilities that strive to meet Canadian standards.

Visit the results chart for the Managing Individual Affairs program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Strategic Outcome: The Land

The Land strategic outcome is sustainable use of land and resources by First Nations, Inuit, and Northerners. Through this strategic outcome, INAC strives to clarify title and access to First Nation and Inuit lands; to support responsible federal stewardship of First Nation land, resources, and environment; and to provide opportunities for First Nation governance over land, resources, and the environment.


2007–2008
  Financial Resources*
($ millions)
Human Resources*
(Full-time Equivalents)
Program Activities Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending Planned Actual Difference
Clarity of Title to Land and Resources 9.7 12.4 10.5 27.6 42.6 15.0
Responsible Federal Stewardship 49.0 92.2 86.7 134.4 268.7 134.3
First Nations Governance over Land, Resources and the Environment 36.0 31.9 15.3 62.3 25.2 (37.1)
*Full-time equivalents and financial resources for Internal Services are attributed on a pro-rata basis based on total financial resources. This may cause significant variances. See Internal Services for allocation methodology.

This outcome supports two Government of Canada strategic outcomes: Strong Economic Growth and A Healthy Environment.

On the whole INAC met the commitments made for 2007–2008 for The Land strategic outcome.

Benefits to Canadians

Greater First Nations control over land, resources, and the environment leads to greater self-reliance. The agenda of The Land strategic outcome benefits Canadians in a number of ways. Achieving certainty of title and providing First Nations with access to a greater land base helps create a positive investment climate and potential for economic development, growth, and jobs. Due diligence and timely implementation of claim settlement agreements (and through additions of land to First Nation reserves) fosters stronger relationships with First Nations and contributes to the fulfilment of Canada’s legal obligations. There are economic benefits from sustainable commercial and industrial natural resource development on reserve lands, including development of oil and gas resources. There are also benefits to the health and safety of Canadians flowing from sound environmental practices on reserve lands.

Program Activity: Clarity of Title to Land and Resources

Program Activity Description
Additions of land to First Nation reserves, clarification of title to First Nation reserve land, and comprehensive land claim transfers.

Performance Analysis

Toward clarity of title and access to First Nation and Inuit lands, over 78,000 hectares of land were added to reserve, an increase of 130% over 2006–2007. This increase included the addition of 60,700 hectares to reserves in Manitoba pursuant to the Manitoba Treaty Land Entitlement agreement. INAC also completed much of the ground work for the transfer of over 525,000 hectares of land in 2008–2009 for two comprehensive claims agreements in British Columbia (Tsawwassen and Maanulth) and one in Quebec (Nunavik). These achievements not only contribute to the fulfilment of Canada’s legal obligations, but also promote use of the land by First Nations and Inuit for economic development or other purposes important to First Nation and Inuit communities.

The average length of time required to complete an Addition to Reserve (ATR) once a request is received at INAC Headquarters increased from 118 business days in 2006–2007 to 166 business days in 2007–2008. The increase is expected to be temporary and is explained by the introduction of changes in the processing of ATR files, including changes to the approval and Order-in-Council processes.

Lessons Learned

Lessons learned within the Clarity of Title to Land and Resources Program Activity relate to timeliness and, more specifically, the need to understand the timeliness of transactions within a broader context. The time and effort required to add land to reserve, for example, has increased as more complex and strategic land selections are made by First Nations. This increased time and effort, however, needs to be understood in the context of the greater benefits derived by First Nations from adding land with greater development potential. Similarly, the transfer of lands pursuant to comprehensive claims is largely dependent on legislative processes, the timing of which is difficult to predict. The Department can and does, however, undertake its due diligence in preparation for such transfers, so that they can be executed without delay on the effective date of the legislation.

Visit the results chart for the Clarity of Title to Land and Resources program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Responsible Federal Stewardship

Program Activity Description
Discharging federal responsibilities to First Nations, such as those described in the
Indian Act and the Indian Oil and Gas Act and associated regulations; discharging responsibilities and co-ordinating with other government departments with similar responsibilities, such as Environment Canada; remediating contaminated sites under federal jurisdiction; and collecting and managing “Indian monies” (a legal term) from land and resources activities.

Performance Analysis

Toward responsible federal stewardship of First Nation land, resources, and environment, there were significant achievements in 2007–2008, including:

  • $12 million in spending toward the reduction of contaminated sites liabilities, representing a 17% reduction in those liabilities known as of April 1, 2007;
  • the collection of over $200 million on behalf of First Nations as a result of oil and gas activities on reserve lands;
  • the completion of two tripartite agreements in support of major industrial development projects under the First Nations Commercial and Industrial Development Act (FNCIDA);
  • the addition of 15 First Nations within the Reserve Land and Environment Management Program (RLEMP), for a total of 36 participating First Nations; and
  • collaboration with First Nations toward modernization of the Indian Oil and Gas Act.

There were also challenges faced in 2007–2008, including:

  • the modernization of the Indian Lands Registry, due in part to delays in securing multi-year funding, and
  • the management of waste sites on reserve lands, due in part to regulatory gaps.

Lessons Learned

There were lessons learned in 2007–2008, specifically with respect to the management of oil and gas resources on reserves. Through its efforts to modernize the Indian Oil and Gas Act, INAC learned the importance of taking small steps and achieving tangible successes quickly. The longer a project takes, the more difficult it becomes to manage the scope of the project and to sustain support for it. In addition, changes to Alberta’s oil and gas royalty regime underlined the importance of continuous strategic planning and environmental scanning in order to be ready for changes in the broader environment.

Visit the results chart for the Responsible Federal Stewardship program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: First Nations Governance over Land, Resources and the Environment

Program Activity Description
Develops legislative tools and intergovernmental agreements that help First Nations assume governing authority over their lands, resources, and environment, an important step toward self-government.

Performance Analysis

Toward First Nations governance over land, resources, and environment, developments in 2007–2008 involved modest growth in the First Nations Land Management (FNLM) regime, as well as the early implementation of the oil and gas provisions of the First Nations Oil and Gas and Moneys Management Act (FNOGMMA). Both the FNLM regime and FNOGMMA are legislative frameworks established to provide First Nations with the option of managing their land, resources, and environment outside the framework of the Indian Act.

With respect to First Nations Land Management, three First Nations held successful votes in 2007–2008 to begin operating under FNLM, and six more entered the developmental stage of the regime. While this represents some growth, 2007–2008 was largely a transitional year for First Nations Land Management as First Nations awaited the outcome of a proposed FNLM renewal process. With this uncertainty resolved, the expectation is that more First Nations will hold votes in 2008–2009.

With respect to the early implementation of FNOGMMA, work continued with the Blood Tribe, Siksika Nation, and Whitebear First Nations to complete what was required (such as First Nation codes and trusts, provincial agreements, and transfer agreements) to enable them to hold community votes in 2008–2009 on whether to assume control of oil and gas resources under FNOGMMA.

Lessons Learned

There were lessons learned in 2007–2008, specifically with respect to:

  • the need to understand the increasing complexity surrounding the management of land, resources, and the environment;
  • the importance of strong relationships with First Nations and organizations (namely the Lands Advisory Board), other federal government departments (Environment Canada, NRCan, and Revenue Canada), and provincial governments;
  • the need to balance support for First Nations wishing to opt into FNLM or FNOGMMA with efficient and effective management of limited resources; and
  • the importance of longer-term program vision and stability.

Visit the results chart for the First Nations Governance over Land, Resources and the Environment program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Strategic Outcome: The Economy

The Economy strategic outcome is increased participation of Aboriginal people and Northerners in the economy.


2007–2008
  Financial Resources*
($ millions)
Human Resources*
(Full-time Equivalents)
Program Activities Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending Planned Actual Difference
Economic and Employment Opportunities for Aboriginal People 1.1 1.5 1.2 7.5 11.4 3.9
Economic Development 174.4 201.5 153.0 185.9 179.3 (6.6)
Community Infrastructure 1,265.6 1,226.0 1,225.9 697.2 556.2 (141.0)
*Full-time equivalents and financial resources for Internal Services are attributed on a pro-rata basis based on total financial resources. This may cause significant variances. See Internal Services for allocation methodology.

This outcome supports the Government of Canada Strong Economic Growth strategic outcome.

Overall, INAC partially met the results set out for the 2007–2008 The Economy strategic outcome.

Benefits to Canadians

Activities in this area increased employment prospects for First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit people, and contributed to Aboriginal business growth, including job creation, community economic development, and improvements in community infrastructure (drinking water and management of community capital facilities). Taken together, results benefit Aboriginal people, employers, and the Canadian economy overall. This supports the Government of Canada’s Advantage Canada approaches to creating new opportunities for people, investing for sustainable growth, and creating the right economic conditions to encourage firms to invest and flourish.

Program Activity: Economic and Employment Opportunities for Aboriginal People

Program Activity Description
Supports the expansion of economic and employment opportunities for Aboriginal peoples in both the public and private sectors. Supports and promotes goods and services contracting opportunities for Aboriginal businesses.

Performance Analysis

In 2007–2008 INAC added one partnership agreement under the Aboriginal Workforce Participation Initiative (AWPI), adding to the 18 previously in place and another 10 under development. This was a transition year during which management initiated a review of the AWPI to improve program effectiveness.

Under the Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business (PSAB), Aboriginal businesses were awarded 5,384 federal government contracts worth over $337 million. A decrease of $125 million over the previous reporting year was noted, which, among other aspects, is the subject of ongoing review and analysis.

The Aboriginal employment rate grew by 4% (49.7% in 2001 to 53.7% in 2006). Finally, the Aboriginal unemployment rate improved by 4.3% — from 19.1% in 2001 to 14.8% in 2006.

Lessons Learned

A five-year program-led evaluation of the PSAB was completed in 2007.

There have been two evaluations since the program began. The first was conducted by the Audit and Evaluation Sector (AES) in 2002, and the second was conducted and managed by the Economic Development Branch in 2007. Both evaluations concluded that a rationale for the Strategy exists and that the total number of contracts and financial resources awarded to Aboriginal firms had increased each year. As part of the newly-created Aboriginal Economic Development Sector, existing programs are being reviewed and restructured to ensure that practical performance indicators are established against which results can be tracked.

Visit the results chart for the Economic and Employment Opportunities for Aboriginal People program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Economic Development

Program Activity Description
Economic development programs facilitate economic development opportunities and the development/implementation of economic development strategies.

Performance Analysis

Activities in 2007–2008 successfully generated Aboriginal economic development and business opportunities for First Nations, Inuit, and Mtis people. Core funding of $53 million was provided to 527 First Nation and Inuit Community Economic Development Organizations to support economic development planning and capacity development initiatives. An additional $35 million was contributed to projects that identify economic opportunities and measures to promote hiring of Aboriginal people.

Through the Aboriginal Business Canada (ABC) program in 2007–2008, INAC provided $17.4 million to Aboriginal enterprises, thereby helping 380 clients establish or acquire a business, and 242 clients expand an existing one. On average, ABC contributions leveraged $2–$3 for every $1 contributed. Analysis of the 2006 ABC Business Performance Review (BPR), and similar findings since, show that business survival rates for ABC-supported firms compare favorably to national survival rates for small and medium-sized businesses. This is an important demonstration of success and positive benefits for Aboriginal people.

ABC also provided support to a network of Aboriginal Financial Institutions (AFIs) that provide developmental (higher risk) lending and business services to Aboriginal small- and medium-sized enterprises across Canada. In 2007–2008 INAC provided $18.9 million to AFIs, who then offered 470 new business loans worth $19.8 million, and held 363 existing loans worth $15.3 million. Over time, the yield, or the positive return, on the total AFI loan portfolio has remained relatively consistent at 7.5 to 8.5 percent, indicating that objectives are being met by contributing to AFIs. This level of positive return continued in 2007–2008.

Note: Evidence of results attributable to a specific program element or year was not captured. As part of the newly-created Aboriginal Economic Development Sector, existing programs are being reviewed and restructured to ensure that practical performance indicators are established against which results can be tracked and measured.

Lessons Learned

Support for AFIs results in increased business development and entrepreneurial growth, both for the organizations themselves and for the clients who receive services. AFIs also extend important programming to Aboriginal people in more remote areas of Canada — particularly to entrepreneurs who would otherwise not have access to loans from banks.

Visit the results chart for the Economic Development program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Community Infrastructure

Program Activity Description
Providing funding for the acquisition, construction, operation, and maintenance of: community facilities such as roads, bridges, water and sewer, and administration offices; education facilities, such as schools and teacherages; remediation of contaminated on-reserve sites; and on-reserve housing.

Performance Analysis

Considerable progress has been made in aiding First Nations with improvements to infrastructure in First Nations communities. Further reductions in the number of high-risk drinking water systems have been achieved and INAC has expanded the Circuit Rider Training Program, which supports water system operators’ abilities to serve more communities by increasing the number of trainers.

Through support provided in collaboration with the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, there has been a moderate increase in the percentage of housing on reserve lands reported as adequate. The amount of on-reserve housing in need of major repair has decreased.

To improve accountability and asset management for all community infrastructure, INAC has invested considerable time and effort in developing an Integrated Capital Management System (ICMS) that will considerably improve the Department’s reporting capabilities.

Lessons Learned

The Summative Evaluation of the First Nations Water Management Strategy recommended that INAC continue to provide assistance to First Nations for their water and wastewater systems as well as for the training of system operators. Budget 2008 allocated a $330 million two-year investment to the First Nations Water and Wastewater Action Plan in order to assist First Nations in providing water and wastewater services to their communities. INAC is also addressing additional recommendations from the Evaluation to improve monitoring and reporting practices; improve accountability for operations and maintenance funding; and support cost-effective alternatives to the construction and operation of large communal systems.

To improve compliance monitoring, as well as the ability to properly measure and assess key performance indicators, INAC has created the ICMS which stores all data related to community infrastructure. This system is currently being implemented and will then be used by First Nations and the Department. The transition between previous data systems and the ICMS has resulted in delays and gaps in reporting. Once fully operational, this new system will improve the Department’s reporting capabilities and allow for better analysis of results.

In February 2008 an evaluation of the 1996 On-Reserve Housing Policy was completed and an action plan developed based upon lessons learned in the Evaluation. The Plan commits to undertaking a comprehensive review of on-reserve housing to inform future policy development as well as to improve the delivery and monitoring of its housing program.

Visit the results chart for the Community Infrastructure program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Strategic Outcome: The Office of the Federal Interlocutor

The Office of the Federal Interlocutor strategic outcome is to improve socio-economic conditions of Mtis, Non-Status Indians, and urban Aboriginal people in order to help them realize their full potential economically, socially, and politically in Canadian society.


2007–2008
  Financial Resources*
($ millions)
Human Resources*
(Full-time Equivalents)
Program Activity Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending Planned Actual Difference
Co-operative Relations 35.8 42.2 37.7 73.5 66.9 (6.6)
*Full-time equivalents and financial resources for Internal Services are attributed on a pro-rata basis based on total financial resources. This may cause significant variances. See Internal Services for allocation methodology.

This outcome supports Government of Canada outcome A Diverse Society that Promotes Linguistic Duality and Social Inclusion.

On the whole, INAC met the commitments made for 2007–2008 for The Office of the Federal Interlocutor strategic outcome.

Benefits to Canadians

Canada’s Mtis, Non-Status Indian, and urban Aboriginal population plays an important role in weaving the cultural, social, and economic fabric that makes Canada what it is today.

Program Activity: Co-operative Relations

Program Activity Description
Supports stronger, more effective interdepartmental and intergovernmental collaboration to address issues of concern to Mtis, Non-Status Indians, and urban Aboriginal people. Through co-operative relations and partnerships with Mtis, Non-Status Indians, off-reserve and urban Aboriginal organizations, the Office of the Federal Interlocutor (OFI) helps increase access by Aboriginal people to the skills and experience they need to succeed in an urban environment. The OFI promotes job training, skills development, and entrepreneurship among Aboriginal people in urban centres. It also provides support to Aboriginal women and children in urban areas in order to reduce the number of families living in poverty.

Performance Analysis

INAC strengthened effective interdepartmental and intergovernmental (federal, provincial, and municipal) co-operative relations with Mtis, Non-Status Indian, and urban Aboriginal organizations. Through these partnerships, INAC invested $7,850,521 through the Urban Aboriginal Strategy in 2007–2008 to address urban Aboriginal priorities in 13 cities; leveraged $949,644 from other federal departments and agencies; and leveraged nearly $5,039,368 from non-federal government partners.

In partnership with other federal departments and governments (provincial and municipal) INAC was able to further ensure that the needs of Mtis, Non-Status Indians, and urban Aboriginal people were addressed when developing policy and programs and/or directly addressing the priorities at hand. Through the Federal Interlocutor’s Contribution Program, INAC partnered with 6 provincial governments in 9 tripartite processes and yielded over $2.1 million in matched funding to address the needs of Mtis and Non-Status Indians in those provinces. These and other co-operative partnerships were also developed to better co-ordinate the management and implementation of Mtis Aboriginal rights. INAC and its 3 federal partner departments also worked with 5 provincial governments to begin setting up Mtis membership systems.

INAC advocated for Mtis, Non-Status Indians, and urban Aboriginal people so that relevant stakeholders were more aware of the education realities, issues, and lessons learned for this segment of the Canadian population. As a result, provincial education authorities and other relevant stakeholders took further action on Aboriginal education issues. For example, the OFI along with the Network of Performance Based Schools, the British Columbia Education Leadership Council, and the British Columbia Ministry of Education formed community teams that worked with local Aboriginal community members including Mtis to improve learning for Aboriginal students.

Lessons Learned

In 2007–2008 INAC conducted an evaluation of selected OFI programs and found that programming continues to remain relevant to off-reserve Aboriginal people given the growing size and importance of this population, the persistent gap in socio-economic well-being, and the fast evolving legal situation regarding Mtis rights (the policy and jurisdiction implications). The evaluation also found that the OFI was successful in implementing a co-ordinated whole-of-government approach to the management of Mtis harvesting rights. The Federal Interlocutor’s Contribution Program proved to yield very positive results. The fragility of the organizations funded, the lack of multi-year funding, core funding issues, and the lack of clarity regarding intended results hampered Program success. The OFI will continue to work on addressing the areas identified for improvement through the evaluation. Horizontal partnering will continue to be relied on as the key to progress and success.

Visit the results chart for the Co-operative Relations program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

The North

As indicated in INAC’s Program Activity Architecture, the Department’s Northern program activities support four of INAC’s strategic outcomes (The Economy, The Government, The People, and The Land). The North is reported on separately for ease of reference to readers interested in performance on these program activities.


2007–2008
  Financial Resources*
($ millions)
Human Resources*
(Full-time Equivalents)
Program Activities Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending Planned Actual Difference
Northern Governance 10.3 13.8 6.2 50.6 31.1 (19.5)
Healthy Northern Communities** 140.2 107.4 106.5 59.6 52.4 (7.2)
Northern Land and Resources 188.4 203.9 179.8 416.1 413.5 (2.6)
Northern Economy 26.9 38.0 23.7 31.2 17.1 (14.1)
*Full-time equivalents and financial resources for Internal Services are attributed on a pro-rata basis based on total financial resources. This may cause significant variances. See Internal Services for allocation methodology.

**Includes planned spending of $52 million for the International Polar Year (including funding for other government departments). INAC accessed $16 million of this total through Supplementary Estimates.

The program activities results support Healthy Canadians, A Healthy Environment, Strong Economic Growth, and the social inclusion component of the Government of Canada’s A Diverse Society that Promotes Linguistic Duality and Social Inclusion strategic outcome.

On the whole, INAC met the commitments it set for The North in 2007–2008.

Benefits to Canadians

Canada’s North is a place of incredible economic opportunity and environmental importance. It is critical to our sovereignty. Political, economic, and social development in the North means that Northerners have greater control over the well-being of their communities, and the environment. This in turn enables greater contributions to the Canadian economy and society as a whole.

Program Activity: Northern Governance

Program Activity Description
Supporting strengthened Northern governments through devolution of province-like responsibilities, effective intergovernmental mechanisms, and management of strategic issues, as well as strengthening intergovernmental co-operation internationally on circumpolar issues.

Performance Analysis

INAC has promoted a renewed focus on Northern issues and secured government-wide support. In the October 16, 2007 Speech from the Throne, the Government of Canada committed to advancing an integrated Northern Strategy to strengthen Canada’s sovereignty, protect our environmental heritage, promote economic and social development, and improve and devolve governance.

INAC fulfilled its commitments under Northern Governance for 2007–2008. Negotiations to transfer responsibilities to the Government of the Northwest Territories continued, and progress was made in resolving key issues to support an agreement in principle. With respect to Nunavut, the parties advanced discussions toward the conclusion of a protocol agreement to frame devolution negotiations.

Circumpolar relations were advanced through Arctic Council activities as well as bilaterally through such initiatives as Canada-Russia Arctic Cooperation and Canada-Norway Northern Dialogue.

Lessons Learned

Timelines for and progress on the transfer of responsibilities to Northern governments is difficult to predict and manage given the multi-party nature of the negotiations (including federal, territorial, and Aboriginal governments and Aboriginal organizations). Following territorial elections, newly elected representatives require time to be briefed on the issues and to consider positions. Expectations with respect to time-lines must be managed accordingly.

Visit the results chart for the Northern Governance program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Healthy Northern Communities

Program Activity Description
Helping improve the health and well-being of Northerners through grants for hospital and physician services for Indian and Inuit residents in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut; the transportation of nutritious perishable foods and other essential items to isolated Northern communities at reduced rates; the conduct of research into the sources and effects of contaminants on the Arctic food chain; and initiatives to assist Northerners in dealing with broad issues such as the impacts of climate change.

Performance Analysis

INAC helped to reduce costs and increase consumption of nutritious perishable food in isolated Northern communities. Shipments of perishable food under the Food Mail Program increased by 11 percent in 2007–2008, due to new communities making use of the Program and increased shipments to those already using it.

The Governments of Nunavut and Northwest Territories continued to receive payments for the provision of hospital and physician services to First Nations and Inuit residents.

The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) successfully engaged Northerners, and particularly Aboriginal organizations, in the participatory management of the Program. The Northern Scientific Training Program enabled approximately 400 university students to carry out studies in the Arctic through supplementary funding to offset the high costs of conducting research in the North.

The Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year (IPY) invested $150 million in science with 44 research projects generating knowledge on: the impacts of, and adaptation to, climate change, as well as data management; logistics, health, and safety; procedural requirements; training and capacity building; and, communications and outreach.

Lessons Learned

In 2007–2008 a review of the Food Mail Program was initiated. The review is taking place in the context of sharply rising fuel prices, which are increasing both food transportation costs and production costs, including the costs of obtaining traditional Aboriginal foods. While certain aspects of the Program are regularly examined, the last comprehensive review of the Food Mail Program was in 1990. The goal of the review is to assess the Food Mail Program’s strengths and weaknesses, and to identify opportunities for improvements. The review will evaluate the Program’s operations and consider the merits of various alternative options that could be used to achieve the Program’s key objective, which is to provide healthy and affordable food to isolated, Northern communities. The results of the review will be available in 2008–2009.

Visit the results chart for the Healthy Northern Communities program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Northern Land and Resources

Program Activity Description
Supporting sustainable development of the North’s natural resources through improved environmental management and stewardship. This includes: the establishment of Northern resource management boards; the provision of an effective regulatory regime; the expansion of the knowledge base for sound decision-making; and the clean-up of contaminated sites.

Performance Analysis

INAC made significant progress on the remediation of contaminated sites in the North. Remediation was completed for 2 sites, and progress was made on remediation at 8 others. An audit by the Office of the Auditor General (OAG) on federal contaminated sites, including those for which INAC is responsible, indicated satisfactory progress and found that the program is operating within acceptable OAG standards. The Giant Mine Site now represents the largest contaminated site in the Northwest Territories. A Remediation Plan was submitted for environmental assessment and regulatory approvals. INAC continued to implement a care and maintenance program to manage the human health, safety, and environmental issues at this site.

Phase I of the Northern Regulatory Improvement Initiative for resource management in the North was completed, including the appointment of a Ministerial Special Representative who will be making recommendations for further improvements in fiscal 2008–2009.

Key advancements were made for the Mackenzie Valley Gas Project. Throughout the year, INAC specialists co-ordinated submissions, provided expertise, and facilitated the submission of scientific expertise and research results for the Joint Review Panel on the Project. Over the summer of 2007, INAC issued a total of 7 new oil and gas exploration licenses in the Mackenzie Delta, Beaufort Sea, and Central Mackenzie Valley for work expenditure bids totalling $613 million. This amount represents the exploration expenditure commitment of each winning company or consortium. One license in the Beaufort Sea attracted a record bid of $585 million for exploration work anticipated over the coming six years.

Lessons Learned

In 2005 the OAG released a report on the “Development of Non-Renewable Resources in the Northwest Territories”. The Department has since followed up on recommendations. To build on the recommendations and advance the Northern regulatory system, given the current economic upturn in the Territories, INAC developed the Northern Regulatory Improvement Initiative. It maps out a long-term strategy for continual improvement of the regulatory system to actively foster development in a predictable and efficient manner while respecting land claims and ensuring sustainable environmental management practices.

Visit the results chart for the Northern Land and Resources program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Program Activity: Northern Economy

Program Activity Description
Supporting sustainable economic growth of the territorial economies through investments in innovation and knowledge, regional development programming, advocacy, and activities leading to Northerners participating and benefiting from resource development.

Performance Analysis

Across the three territories, the Strategic Investments in Northern Economic Development (SINED) program funded 124 projects worth over $20 million in 2007–2008. While each territory is unique with different priorities, all three regions shared some common priorities. For example, new investments were made in areas such as geoscience and mapping (for a publicly accessible information base) to facilitate private sector interest and exploration in the North. Removing barriers to economic development in key driver sectors of the territorial economy is expected to realize overall growth for the territorial economies.

In addition, investments were made to broaden the economic base of the territories. In 2007–2008 a series of new investments was made in key economic sectors such as tourism, cultural industries, and fisheries. Additional investments were made in horizontal issues such as small business financing, innovation, and the adaptation of new technologies such as Internet connectivity. These investments are expected to make broad improvements across all sectors of the economy.

Investments were also made to improve the ability of Northerners to influence and take advantage of economic opportunities. These include the purchase and/or development of new technologies such as mobile training simulators, or the Nunavut Community Skills Inventory System, which enables Northerners to become better prepared for new economic opportunities.

Lessons Learned

In 2007–2008 a process audit was completed of the management systems for Strategic Investments in Northern Economic Development. The audit showed that, while investments to date have demonstrated results in promoting economic development for Northerners, it was apparent that current communications practices were not sufficient; and as a result the program was not being accessed effectively by some stakeholders. This also resulted in some confusion by both government and stakeholders about the purpose and structure of the program. A more proactive communications approach has been undertaken and will continue in 2008–2009. Efforts were initiated to improve public information available on INAC’s website. Program officers in the regional offices and headquarters have increased the profile of the program through outreach to partners and stakeholders.

Visit the results chart for the Northern Economy program acvitity for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.

Canadian Polar Commission

Strategic Outcome: Increased Canadian Polar Knowledge

This strategic outcome is intended to increase Canadians’ awareness of polar issues and help Canada maintain its position as a leading polar nation by ensuring that:

  • Canadian scientists have access to funding and resources and the logistical and infrastructure support to maintain the high standards expected of Canadian polar researchers; and
  • Canadians have a better understanding of the Arctic and Antarctic, of the impact of global climate change on polar regions, and of how to live and prosper sustainably in Canada’s northern regions.

2007–2008
  Financial Resources
($ millions)
Human Resources
(Full-time Equivalents)
Program Activity Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending Planned Actual Difference
Research Facilitation and Communication 1.0 1.0 1.0 5.0 5.0

Description
The Canadian Polar Commission is responsible for monitoring, promoting and disseminating knowledge of the polar regions; contributing to public awareness of the importance of polar science to Canada; enhancing Canada’s international profile as a circumpolar nation; and recommending polar science policy direction to government.

Benefits for Canadians

Increased knowledge will enable Canadians to address urgent issues, now and in the near future, in the areas of climate change, the environment, health and social stability, economic development, sovereignty and security. Excellent research is necessary to help Northerners and all Canadians adapt to changes today and tomorrow.

Performance Analysis

The Commission maintained links with research organizations, disseminated polar science information through its publications and website, sponsored a northern research scholarship, is Canada’s representative both to the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), supported, promoted, and advised on IPY activities, and completed its two-year study of northern research infrastructure and logistics, a step toward creation of a national polar science policy.

Visit the results chart for the Increased Canadian Polar Knowledge strategic outcome for detailed reporting against expected results provided in INAC’s Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007–2008.