Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat
Symbol of the Government of Canada

ARCHIVED - Correctional Service Canada

Warning This page has been archived.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived on the Web is for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It has not been altered or updated after the date of archiving. Web pages that are archived on the Web are not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards. As per the Communications Policy of the Government of Canada, you can request alternate formats on the "Contact Us" page.


4.1  Correctional Approach

CSC uses research-based approaches across the full continuum of the offender’s sentence. The following four key activities comprise CSC's correctional strategy and are anchored in this research-based approach:

  • A comprehensive intake assessment process to determine security risk and needs, as well as an initial placement to an institution at the appropriate security level. The assessment results in the establishment of a multi-disciplinary correctional plan for treatment and intervention throughout the sentence. This assessment includes a review of information on the impact of offenders’ crimes on victims, police reports, court transcripts, judges’ comments on sentencing and other information, which provides a comprehensive picture of the offenders and the reasons why they committed their crimes.
  • Institutional accommodation and intervention to address the offender’s risk for re-offending. This includes adjustments to security level based on the offender’s behaviour and performance, and the delivery of rehabilitation programs. A broad range of programs, varying in intensity and subject matter, is available to address those factors that led to criminal behaviour.
  • Risk re-assessment is conducted at specific points throughout the sentence to assess an offender’s progress against the correctional plan and recommend any changes to the plan. CSC obtains input from the community, including police and victims, where appropriate, as well as assessments and recommendations from  psychologists and psychiatrists, as appropriate. Preparation for transition to the community includes notification to police of all releases from institutions. Victims, who have so requested, also receive notification at major milestones throughout the offender’s sentence.
  • The supervision of offenders in the community includes the provision of community-based programs and interventions to address an offender’s needs and risks and monitor progress. Community supervision may include a requirement to reside in a half-way house or other community correctional centre. Levels of supervision are adjusted based on the offender’s performance. The National Parole Board may impose various special conditions that restrict what the offender may do (e.g., abstain from alcohol, non-association with certain people, individual counseling, required program involvement) or where the offender may go. The CSC parole officer maintains regular contact with the offender, as well as with police, employers, social workers, relatives and others who are involved with the offender, in order to assess the offender’s progress in reintegrating into the community, the level of risk that the offender represents, as well as to determine whether the offender’s conditional release should be suspended, resulting in a return to custody.

4.2  Partnerships

CSC actively works with a broad range of governmental and non-governmental agencies, soliciting their input and implementing partnerships toward achieving results. Many of these partners are involved in the delivery of programs and other services involving our federal offenders. They include the National Associations Active in Criminal Justice, the Canadian Criminal Justice Association, the National Volunteer Association, the National Judicial Institute, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, and others.

Citizen groups, such as Citizen Advisory Committees (for each institution and parole district), the Health Care Advisory Committee, the Interfaith Committee, the national and regional Ethnocultural Advisory Committees, national and regional Aboriginal Advisory Committees and the National Elders Working Group provide advice and act as a link between communities and CSC.

In addition to federally-operated facilities, CSC partners with non-government organizations that manage approximately 200 community-based residential facilities across the country, which provide important programs and services to offenders on conditional release to the community. Specialized correctional services and programs are also provided through a variety of Exchange of Service Agreements with provincial and territorial correctional and justice authorities. CSC also partners with Aboriginal communities to provide custody and supervision of Aboriginal offenders through the establishment of healing lodges under section 81 of the CCRA and through release plans under section 84 of the CCRA. There are currently four healing lodges, operated by Aboriginal Communities in collaboration with CSC,  that are the result of section 81 agreements.34  There are also four CSC-operated healing lodges under Memoranda of Agreement with local Aboriginal communities. Other partnerships are represented by the faith communities and agencies who provide Institutional and Community Chaplaincy or Circles of Support and Accountability.  The Canadian Families and Corrections Network has also been of assistance to the CSC in its work with families of offenders.

CSC also partners with experts in the community in order to consider possibilities for victim-offender mediation and restorative justice circles which can contribute to safer communities and provide further potential for victim satisfaction for those involved.

Because of its international reputation and significant correctional expertise, CSC is able to contribute to the establishment of a sound correctional system in war-torn countries that respects international standards of human rights and is responsive to the rule of law. CSC is playing a key role in Haiti and Afghanistan, both as an active United Nations member, and in concert with other interested nations, to help build stable, secure and democratic societies.

4.3  Federal Institutions35 by Region and Security Level

Atlantic Region

Quebec Region

Atlantic Institution (Maximum)

Donnacona Institution (Maximum)

Nova Institution for Women (Multi)

Port-Cartier Institution (Maximum)

Shepody Healing Centre (Multi)

Regional Reception Centre36 (Maximum)

Dorchester Penitentiary (Medium)

Joliette Institution (Multi)

Springhill Institution (Medium)

Regional Mental Health Centre (Multi)

Westmorland Institution (Minimum)

Archambault Institution (Medium)

CarltonCCC (Minimum)

Cowansville Institution (Medium)

Carlton Annex CCC (Minimum)

Drummond Institution (Medium)

Newfoundland and LabradorCCC (Min)

La Macaza Institution (Medium)

Parrtown CCC (Minimum)

Leclerc Institution (Medium)


Federal Training Centre (Minimum)


Montée Saint-François Institution (Min)

Ontario Region

Sainte-Anne-des Plaines Institution (Min)

Kingston Penitentiary (Maximum)

Hochelaga CCC (Minimum)

Millhaven Institution (Maximum)

Laferrière CCC (Minimum)

Grand Valley Institution for Women (Multi)

Marcel Caron CCC (Minimum)

Regional Treatment Centre (Multi)

Martineau CCC (Minimum)

Bath Institution (Medium)

Ogilvy CCC (Minimum)

Collins Bay Institution (Medium)

SherbrookeCCC (Minimum)

Fenbrook Institution (Medium)


Joyceville Institution (Medium)


Warkworth Institution (Medium)

Prairie Region

Beaver Creek Institution (Minimum)

Edmonton Institution (Maximum)

Frontenac Institution (Minimum)

Edmonton Institution for Women (Multi)

Isabel McNeill (Minimum)

Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge (Minimum/Medium)

Pittsburgh Institution (Minimum)

Regional Psychiatric Centre (Multi)

HamiltonCCC (Minimum)

Saskatchewan Penitentiary (Multi)

Keele CCC (Minimum)

Bowden Institution (Medium)

PortsmouthCCC (Minimum)

Bowden Annex (Minimum)


Drumheller Institution (Medium)


Drumheller Annex (Minimum)

Pacific Region

Stony Mountain Institution (Medium)

Kent Institution (Maximum)

Grande Cache Institution (Minimum)

Fraser Valley Institution (Multi)

Riverbend Institution (Minimum)

Pacific Institution (Multi)

Rockwood Institution (Minimum)

Regional Treatment Centre (Multi)

Willow Cree Healing Lodge (Minimum)

Matsqui Institution (Medium)

Grierson Centre (Minimum)

Mission Institution (Medium)

Pê Sâkâstêw (Minimum)

Mountain Institution (Medium)

Osborne CCC (Minimum)

Ferndale Institution (Minimum)

Oskana CCC (Minimum)

Kwikwèxwelhp Healing Village (Minimum)


William Head Institution (Minimum)


ChilliwackCCC (Minimum)



4.4  Glossary

First Nation, Métis or Inuit.
Aboriginal community
Aboriginal community is a First Nation, tribal council, band, community, organization or other group with a predominantly Aboriginal leadership.
Accelerated Parole Review
The APR provisions of the CCRA provide for the selection of first time federal offenders who have not committed an offence listed in Schedule I (violent offences) of the Act and who have not received judicial determination of their parole eligibility with an offence on Schedule II (drug offence) of the Act. If an offender meets the APR criteria, he or she is reviewed by the NPB for parole without the need for a hearing.
Administrative segregation
Administrative segregation is confinement to keep the offender from associating with other inmates in order to maintain the security of the institution. Inmates may be segregated involuntarily or voluntarily.
Community-based Residential Facilities
Facilities contracted from outside agencies or organizations to house federal offenders in the community.
Community Correctional Centre
Community Correctional Centres primarily house offenders on day parole and are designated as minimum-security institutions. In these, the director, parole officers and support staff work as a team, often in co-operation with community partners, to supervise and provide programs for offenders and prepare them for full parole.
Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA)
The legislative framework governing Correctional Service Canada.
Conditional Release
Conditional release helps inmates make a gradual, supervised return to society while serving their sentence. Regardless of the type of conditional release, all offenders are supervised until their Warrant Expiry Date.
Temporary Absences
Temporary Absences may be granted to offenders for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, and personal development reasons.
-Escorted Temporary Absence may be granted at any time during the sentence.
-Unescorted Temporary Absence may be granted after an offender has served one-sixth of the sentence or six months, whichever is greater.
Work Release
Work release allows an offender, classified as minimum or medium security and who is judged not to pose an undue risk, to do paid or voluntary work in the community under supervision.
Day Parole
Day parole allows an offender to participate in community-based activities to prepare for release on full parole or statutory release.
Full Parole
Inmates are normally eligible to be considered for full parole by the National Parole Board, after serving one-third of their sentence, or seven years, whichever is less.
Statutory Release
By law, most offenders who are serving sentences of fixed length, and who have not been granted parole or had their parole revoked, must be released on statutory release after serving two-thirds of their sentence.
A Special Operating Agency that employs federal offenders for its workforce and, in doing so, provides them with working skills and working habits necessary to compete in the workforce.
Correctional Programs
Correctional programs are designed to improve offenders’ current knowledge and skill level, improving the likelihood of successful reintegration into the community upon release.
Healing Lodge
These types of facilities may or may not be located on First Nations’ reservation land. There are two distinct types of Healing Lodges available to offenders under the care and custody of CSC.

A Section 81 Healing Lodge is an Aboriginal community based correctional facility where the community has entered into an agreement with the Minister of Public Safety  for the provision of correctional care and custody to Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The second type is located on CSC property and run by CSC with the assistance of community Aboriginal people.
Ion scanner
An ion scanner is an electronic device that has the ability to detect residual amounts of particular drugs on personal items such as money or credit cards.
Long Term Supervision Order
A Long Term Supervision Order is an order imposed by the court. The offender who has received such an order is supervised in accordance with the Corrections and Conditional Release Act. The Long Term Supervision Order commences when the offender has finished serving all sentences for offences for which he or she had been convicted. The period of supervision to which the offender is subject at any time must not total more than 10 years.
Maximum Security Institutions
House offenders who pose a serious risk to staff, other offenders and the community. The perimeter of a maximum-security institution is well defined, highly secure and controlled. Offender movement and association are strictly regulated and directly supervised.
Medium Security Institutions
House offenders who pose a risk to the safety of the community. The perimeter of a medium-security institution is well defined, secure and controlled. Offender movement and association is regulated and generally supervised.
Minimum Security Institutions
House offenders who pose a limited risk to the safety of the community. The perimeter of a minimum-security institution is defined but not directly controlled. Offender movement and association within the institution are regulated under minimal supervision.
Multi-level Institutions
House offenders of different security classifications in different secure areas of the institution.
Offender Management System
The automated information system used by CSC as its main database for offender information.
If parolees violate the conditions of their conditional release, or have been charged with a criminal offence, their conditional release (day parole, full parole) is suspended and they are re-incarcerated. Upon reviewing the case at a formal hearing, the National Parole Board may then decide to revoke parole and have the offender remain incarcerated. If the offender is not revoked, the conditional release is reinstated.
Sections 81/84 of Corrections and Conditional Release Act
Section 81 enables CSC to enter into agreements with Aboriginal communities for the provision of correctional services to Aboriginal offenders. These agreements permit CSC, with the consent of the offender and the Aboriginal community, to transfer the care and custody of the offender to an Aboriginal community. Under Section 84 of the CCRA, CSC gives the Aboriginal community an opportunity to propose a plan for the inmate’s release to, and integration into, the Aboriginal community.
Security Classification
Each offender is reviewed initially on admission and then periodically throughout their sentence and is classified as a maximum, medium or minimum security risk and normally placed in an institution of the same classification. The security risk level is based on an assessment of factors related to public safety, escape risk and institutional adjustment.
Security Intelligence Network
A series of applications intended to respond to the needs for storing, sharing, and analyzing security intelligence information and to make this information more accessible through a secured electronic network.
Warrant Expiry Date
The date the sentence imposed by the courts officially ends.


34  See Glossary at the end of this report for more information on CCRA section 81 and 84 provisions.

35 Includes 58 institutions as well as Community Correctional Centres, displayed in italic. For names and location of Parole Offices, District Offices, Regional Headquarters and National Headquarters, go to:

36 Includes the Special Handling Unit.


4.5 Further Information

Correctional Service of Canada Internet site:

CSC Contacts:

Bill Staubi
Director General
Performance Management
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P9
Telephone: (613) 992-8723
Facsimile: (613) 995-5064

Lynn Garrow
Assistant Commissioner
Performance Assurance
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P9
Telephone: (613) 996-1710
Facsimile: (613) 943-9292
Email: GarrowLY@