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Section II: Analysis of Program Activities by Strategic Outcome

Strategic outcome: reduction in poverty for those living in countries where the Canadian International Development Agency engages in international development

Concrete examples of progress achieved with CIDA support:

Fragile countries: CIDA responded in 2010—2011 to the emerging—but fragile—democratic movements in North Africa and the Middle East by pledging $10 million over five years toward the creation of economic opportunities for young Egyptians and for the development of democratic institutions in the region. CIDA also played a key role in supporting the 2011 referendum that set South Sudan on the path to statehood.

Humanitarian assistance: CIDA contributed to global humanitarian-assistance efforts in 31 countries in 2010—2011, including Haiti, Sri Lanka and Libya. Furthermore, CIDA responded to 40 natural disasters, including a typhoon in the Philippines, flooding in Colombia and Pakistan. Canada supported partners such as UNHCR, WFP, UNICEF, and the International Committee of the Red Cross, who provided affected populations with food, clean drinking water and sanitation.

Children and youth: In collaboration with UNICEF, CIDA supported 230 child-friendly schools in Senegal. These schools provide healthy, protective, inclusive, and gender-sensitive learning environments.

Food security: With CIDA's support, 4.6 million metric tons of food assistance was delivered to over 109 million people in 75 countries, through the WFP. Canada has also fully disbursed its $1.18 billion L'Aquila commitment, made at the 2009 G-8 Summit, for sustainable agricultural development.

Sustainable economic growth: In Pakistan, more than 17 000 women entrepreneurs saw a significant increase in their incomes (36 to 117 percent) after receiving skills training through a capacity building project funded by CIDA.

CIDA program activities contribute directly to progress towards the strategic outcome, poverty reduction. The following pages provide performance information for each of CIDA's program activity.

2.1 Fragile countries and crisis-affected communities

Program Activity Description:

This program activity seeks to address developmental issues in selected countries identified as fragile or crisis-affected. Fragile countries are defined as those that face particularly severe development challenges, with complex national and regional contexts, given weak institutional capacity, poor governance, political instability, and ongoing violence or a legacy of recent conflict. Improving the situation in these countries is considered essential in meeting Canada's foreign policy objectives. This program activity covers the following fragile countries: Haiti, Afghanistan, Sudan and West Bank/Gaza. CIDA's programming in these countries seeks to enhance long-term development by improving the effectiveness of public institutions and society, fostering stability and security, as well as supporting the delivery of key services. This program activity also involves humanitarian assistance in response to man-made crises or natural disasters to ensure delivery of and access to essential emergency services to crisis-affected populations. In both cases, various partnerships offer flexibility and expertise to provide the most effective response.

2010—11 Financial Resources
Planned spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
9 Actual spending is derived from the Public Accounts and is adjusted for non-respendable revenues and services provided without charge in order to be comparable to planned spending; however, total authorities have not been adjusted for the non-respendable revenues and services provided without charges.
$634,863,000 $954,688,691 $955,192,8399
Targets Performance
Enhanced responsiveness of humanitarian assistance to address the immediate needs of crisis-affected populations.

Effectiveness of humanitarian assistance delivery to crisis-affected populations.

Extent to which humanitarian assistance is delivered in a coordinated and cohesive way.

N/A Mostly met
Increased effectiveness in responding to basic needs and providing better access to key services. Level of access to key services for women, men, and children. N/A Mostly met

Explanation of variance: The increase between planned and actual spending reflects increased funding and internal reallocations to meet new Agency and Government priorities, such as food aid, Pakistan floods and humanitarian assistance to Haiti.

Performance Summary

Humanitarian needs remained significant in 2010—2011. This was the result of new and ongoing conflicts, the increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters, and the continued impact of global challenges such as increased food and energy prices. Last year was marked by ongoing relief and reconstruction activities in Haiti following the January 2010 earthquake, and emergency assistance to Pakistan following the most severe monsoon flooding in its history.

In 2010—2011, the number of people facing hunger also remained high at 925 million10, and the number of people forcibly displaced increased to some 43.7 million worldwide, the highest number in more than 15 years.11 Despite these challenges, the international humanitarian community was able to meet the core needs of millions of crisis-affected people worldwide. For instance, Canada, in coordination with other donors, enabled the World Food Programme (WFP) to reach 109 million people, representing 93 percent of its targeted beneficiaries. In addition, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) provided assistance to more than 25.2 million people, including 10.5 million refugees and 14.7 million internally displaced persons (IDPs).12

Analysis of Program Activity

Enhanced responsiveness of humanitarian assistance to address the immediate needs of crisis-affected populations.

Basic needs and key services

Humanitarian assistance includes the provision of food, water and sanitation, shelter, health services and other relief items, as well as the protection of civilians and those no longer taking part in hostilities.

Complex humanitarian situations

In 2010—2011, CIDA responded to complex emergencies affecting 31 countries – in addition to responding to regional humanitarian assistance appeals in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Middle East – by supporting humanitarian efforts of partners such as UNHCR, WFP, UNICEF, the International Committee of the Red Cross and Canadian NGOs.

Although the response to the 2010 monsoon floods dominated humanitarian efforts in Pakistan, CIDA also played an important role in assisting over one million people who remained displaced as a result of civil conflict in Northwest Pakistan, as well as the 1.7 million Afghan refugees living in villages or urban centres in the border areas, through the provision of food, basic health care, water and sanitation, and protection. In 2010, with support from CIDA and other donors, the UNHCR helped 109,383 Afghan refugees voluntarily return to their home country. Many of these refugees had lived in Pakistan for decades.

Natural disasters

CIDA responded to 40 natural disasters in 2010—2011, including leading Canada's humanitarian response to the flooding in Pakistan, which, at the height of the disaster, affected between 18-20 million people and left seven million homeless. In response to the crisis, CIDA provided $71.8 million to experienced partners to help deliver food, clean drinking water, sanitation and medical care (including reproductive health care), protection and coordination services, while at the same time carrying out agricultural rehabilitation and other key early recovery activities. In addition, CIDA supported humanitarian efforts in response to other natural disasters worldwide, including typhoon Megi in the Philippines, flooding in Colombia, and the twin earthquake and volcano eruption in Indonesia.

Food assistance

In 2010—2011, CIDA contributed $332 million for food assistance, mostly through WFP and the Canadian Foodgrains Bank. With CIDA's support, WFP delivered 4.6 million metric tons of food assistance to over 109 million people in 75 countries.

WFP emergency operations met the immediate needs of those affected by humanitarian crises in countries such as Sudan, Niger and Côte d'Ivoire through various interventions, including general food distributions, cash and vouchers, and supplementary feeding.

In 2010—2011, Canada's contribution to the WFP in Afghanistan helped to feed 6,556,047 people, largely in remote and food-insecure rural areas.

Increased effectiveness in responding to basic needs and providing better access to key services

Sudan: CIDA's support for referendum

Sudan has emerged from one of the longest and deadliest civil wars in Africa, but its development context remains extremely challenging. The 22-year war (1983-2005) claimed an estimated 2 million lives, left some four million displaced, interrupted food production and distribution, and destroyed Sudan's most rudimentary infrastructure including health clinics, roads, schools and homes.

In January 2011, an historic referendum on southern independence took place in Sudan. The vast majority of southerners (98.8 percent) voted in favour of secession in a process deemed generally peaceful and credible by international standards. Through a $7 million contribution to the United Nations Development Programme's Referendum Basket Fund, CIDA supported the organization, operations, and monitoring of the referendum, including civic and voter education, especially among marginalized groups such as women and internally displaced persons. Through a $1.9 million contribution to the Carter Center, CIDA supported the deployment of over 187 international observers, including 13 Canadians, to monitor and report on the referendum process.

CIDA's support to the referendum helped to achieve the near universal participation of citizens in the South. CIDA support also strengthened the role of key actors in the referendum process by training 31,136 police, 75 judges and 200 journalists. Critical lessons learned and capacity built during Sudan's electoral process—also supported by CIDA—directly contributed to the success of the referendum.

Lessons Learned13

The importance of a high voter turnout in conferring legitimacy to the outcome of the referendum cannot be overstated. In South Sudan, the high voter turnout (86.6 percent of eligible voters registered and 97.58 percent of them voted), including for women and disenfranchised groups, prevented ambiguity and conflicting views about the popular will of the South Sudanese. As such, donors and international stakeholders should prioritize voter education and awareness as a potentially key factor in preventing post-election/referendum disputes.

What CIDA evaluations are saying about conflict prevention in Sudan

A joint evaluation of 15 donors' and development organizations' investments in South Sudan was conducted during the lead up to the 2011 independence referendum.

This multi-donor Evaluation of Support to Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Activity in Southern Sudan covered investments of USD $4 billion disbursed between 2005 and 2009. Canada's share was 5.7 percent of all donors' budgeted support.

The evaluation determined that donors focused on administrative delivery and implementation and did not sufficiently consider conflict and resilience indicators when designing and executing many aid programs. Although individual projects were effective in achieving their goals, they were less successful in achieving broader goals, such as building national capacity and preventing the hardening of ethnic identities. Overall tensions did not decrease in Southern Sudan. The evaluation recommended, among other things, that conflict analysis be fully integrated into program design and that the donors' funding mechanisms be sufficiently flexible to deal with a dynamically changing context. CIDA will introduce these recommendations into its programming practices in Sudan and in other fragile states where appropriate.

West Bank and Gaza

Building stable, resilient and effective institutions is essential to effective long-term development in contexts of fragility, but it is also one of the most difficult outcomes to achieve with international assistance. As part of a broader Government of Canada commitment, CIDA is investing $250 million over 5 years (2008-2013) in the West Bank and Gaza, in support of Palestinian reform efforts, with a particular focus in building capacity of justice sector institutions and supporting the creation of a better enabling environment for economic growth. The Palestinian Authority (PA) was established in 1993, as a result of the Oslo Accords, and has made significant progress since then in building the foundations of a government.

The following pages provide additional detailed information on the two main Canadian programs in fragile states.


Canada is part of a UN-mandated and NATO-led international effort to help build a more secure, stable and self-reliant Afghanistan. Canada has provided approximately $1.64 billion in aid to Afghanistan since 2001. CIDA provided approximately $215 million in assistance to Afghanistan in 2010—2011 and continued with development initiatives in Kandahar province and nationally. CIDA's efforts focused on three priority areas: basic services (which include the building, repairing and expanding of schools, the eradication of polio and the rehabilitation of the Dahla Dam); humanitarian assistance; and, advancing Afghanistan's capacity for democratic governance.

Basic services

Canada is the lead donor to the Education Quality Improvement Project (EQUIP), which provides resources for the Ministry of Education to implement Afghanistan's Education Interim Plan 2011-2013. Through EQUIP, 105 schools were rehabilitated or constructed last year, and 700 other schools financed through this program are under construction. Additionally, CIDA supported the training of 1,931 teachers in Kandahar Province.

Significant progress on one of Canada's signature projects, the Arghandab Irrigation Rehabilitation Project (Dahla Dam), was made in 2010—2011. For the first time in decades, the improved irrigation of farm land resulted in the substantial harvest and processing of saffron. New wheat and barley crops were also planted and harvested on improved irrigated land. Canada also supported the Aga Khan Foundation's training of over 40,800 farmers in 2010—2011, which enhanced farmers' agricultural productivity and diversity and led to improved food security and income.

In 2010, under the auspices of Canada's signature project to eradicate polio in Afghanistan, eight immunization campaigns targeted more than seven million children. Although 25 wild poliovirus cases were reported in Afghanistan in 2010, the northern part of the country remained polio-free. Through CIDA's support to the United Nations Mine Action Services (UNMAS), the targets set by Canada on mine risk education and mine clearance were surpassed and a total of 657 square kilometres of land have been released as being free of landmines and unexploded ordinances, thereby improving the productive potential of land.

Humanitarian assistance

As one of the world's most impoverished countries, Afghanistan's need for humanitarian assistance remained high in 2010/11. A number of humanitarian assistance partners in Afghanistan were supported by CIDA in 2010 including the World Food Program (WFP), the United Nations Mine Action Services (UNMAS), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and international NGOs to provide food security, promote access to basic health services and limiting the devastating effect of natural disasters, land mines and unexploded ordnance.

In 2010, Canada provided over 81,100 conflict-affected Afghans with food and 48,200 with livelihood support through the International Committee of the Red Cross in Afghanistan (ICRC). Throughout the country, 82,880 conflict-affected villagers worked on community projects in return for food. More than 330,000 people accessed safe drinking water and received training in good hygiene practices.

In 2010, Canada's contribution to the World Food Programme (WFP) in Afghanistan helped to feed 6,556,047 people, including 3,158,150 women and girls, largely in Afghanistan's remote and food-insecure rural areas. WFP's food assistance is for poor and vulnerable families, schoolchildren, the illiterate, tuberculosis patients and their families, returning refugees, internally displaced people (IDPs) and the disabled, with an emphasis on vulnerable women and girls.

The WFP also helped poor Afghans acquire new marketable skills and earn a better living. In 2010, a food-for-training initiative provided about 140,000 vulnerable people, largely women, with food rations to support their families while participants attended classes in literacy, handicraft production, carpentry, plumbing skills, reproductive health or childcare.

In addition, more than 1.5 million people participated in the WFP's food-for-work and food-for-assets program. These assistance programs provided food to vulnerable Afghans while they worked on projects such as the building or repairing of community assets including roads, bridges, reservoirs and irrigation systems.

Democratic development and national institutions

Since 2008, CIDA's contribution of $9 million to the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) has helped develop the AIHRC into a national leader in protecting and promoting human rights – particularly those of women and minorities – through education, empowerment, awareness-raising, monitoring and investigation.

Canada's contribution to the National Solidarity Program has helped establish the core foundation for local governance and improved service delivery across the nation through the creation of elected Community Development Councils (CDCs), which identify and prioritize development needs.

Lessons Learned

In Afghanistan, Community Based Demining (CBD) was developed by the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS), enabling implementing partners to reach areas where security is a significant challenge. Following this approach, UNMAS' implementing partners establish links with the leadership of a particular mine contaminated community and recruits and trains members of that community to carry out the clearance work itself. In addition, the economic support provided to these communities through the salaries to deminers and rental of buildings provides an economic boost which serves as a platform for development once the contaminated areas are cleared. Delivered by local communities themselves, community based de-mining presents win-win scenarios with economic and safety benefits delivered to communities located in some of the most inaccessible and insecure areas of Afghanistan.

More details on Canada's progress in Afghanistan can be found at Canada's Engagement in Afghanistan.


The past year has been marked by numerous development challenges in Haiti. Following the January 2010 earthquake, the Haitian government and the international community worked on several fronts through 2010—2011 to support the reconstruction and development of the country. However, the outbreak of a cholera epidemic during the course of the year, as well as the presidential and legislative elections, temporarily slowed recovery efforts.

CIDA provided approximately $20 million in additional humanitarian assistance in 2010—2011 to meet the immediate needs of Haitians affected by the earthquake. By supporting partners such as the Canadian Red Cross and Save the Children, the Agency contributed to building 1,800 temporary shelters, to distributing school kits to over 28,000 children, and is providing emergency medical, water and sanitation services, and food for people affected by the quake. CIDA also provided $8.5 million in response to the cholera outbreak, thereby contributing to the international effort that allowed a reduction in the mortality rate from the disease from 9 percent to 1.6 percent.

During the course of the year, CIDA's programming in Haiti was reviewed and adjusted in order to respond to urgent needs, while ensuring that it was aligned with the Government of Haiti's Action Plan, Interim Haiti Recovery Commission (IHRC) strategic priorities, and Agency thematic priorities, namely sustainable economic growth, food security, and children and youth. The Agency responded swiftly to the ever-changing context in Haiti by balancing short and long-term interventions in order to contribute to the prosperity and stability of the country.

Commitments made by Canada following the earthquake as well as the Agency's five-year program (2006-2011) to Haiti have allowed a number of results to be achieved, including:

  • One hot meal per day during the 2010—2011 school year was provided to roughly 400,000 children through financial support to school cafeterias;
  • Provision of health services was strengthened through the establishment of seven health centres serving a total population of over 1.5 million Haitians;
  • Financial services to the 369,000 members of the network of savings and credit unions were strengthened;
  • Local structures of the ministry of health that are supported by Canada were able to rapidly detect the cholera epidemic and alert Haitian authorities.

Recovery and reconstruction

The January 2010 earthquake in Haiti destroyed or damaged significant government infrastructure. CIDA's financial support allowed for the construction of three temporary facilities, which provided workspace for 300 people and enabled the ministries of health and agriculture to resume their work as well as housing the IHRC.

The Boosting Agricultural Production and Food Security Project, implemented by Oxfam-Québec, increased the productivity and revenues of 80,000 farmers' families (approximately 400,000 individuals) in 15 communities. As a result, the share of beneficiaries facing food insecurity in these communities dropped significantly, from 25% in 2008 to 14% in 2010 This project, along with other initiatives taken by the international community in response to the food crisis of 2008, led to a lessening of the negative impact on food security that resulted from the massive exodus to the regions following the quake.

At the national level, work on road infrastructure allowed for improved access to services and created new opportunities for jobs and income generation for underserved populations. The Agency worked with the Inter-American Bank to rehabilitate a stretch of a regional highway that serves approximately 180,000 inhabitants in Northern Haiti, thereby decreasing travel times from four hours to one, reducing post-harvest losses and improving access to markets. This improvement is significant in a country where a large share (30-40 percent) of agricultural production is lost to poor warehousing and transportation infrastructure.

CIDA's overall contribution, along with other donor support, allowed for over 800,000 (over one-half of all) displaced persons to leave their camps over the course of the year by creating favourable conditions for resettlement, for electricity services to be restored in 95 percent of the areas that had been supplied before the earthquake, and for elections to be held.

As a key donor to Haiti, Canada is represented on the IHRC as well as to the Haiti Reconstruction Fund. Through its active and strategic participation in these two institutions, Canada works in close collaboration with the Haitian government and the international community to ensure that the delivery of funds for Haiti's reconstruction is effective, transparent, and responsible.

Support to institutional strengthening and aid effectiveness

After the earthquake, Canada was among the first donors to provide financial and technical support to the launching and operations of the IHRC. CIDA financed the purchase of office equipment and supplies, the recruitment process for management positions, as well as the temporary assignment of management and support personnel as needed.

Tools and techniques for government communications in emergency situations were acquired and put into practice by government authorities following training provided through the project for strengthening public management, implemented by the École nationale d'administration publique (ENAP). The capacity to develop a communication strategy and create a human resource pool available for emergency situations allowed the president and authorities in the ministry of the interior and territorial collectivities to get out key messages during the cholera crisis. These tools and resources could prove useful in the next hurricane season or in any future emergency situation.

The Modernization of Haiti's Civil Registry project, implemented by the Organization of American States, contributed to a more secure, comprehensive and accessible registry. With more than 4.8 million Haitians (representing 85% of the adult population) receiving a national identity card, more citizens were given the opportunity to take part in recent elections.

Lessons Learned

CIDA's ability to contribute to long-lasting development results in Haiti was made even more difficult in 2010—2011 because of the earthquake, which further weakened the State, deepened political and socio-economic instability and increased vulnerability to natural disasters. To improve the effectiveness of CIDA's engagement in fragile states such as Haiti, programming should:

  • be framed in a whole of government perspective;
  • consider short-term humanitarian and reconstruction needs without losing sight of long-term development objectives; and
  • be implemented in collaboration with a variety of trusted Canadian and international partners.

More details on Canada's progress in Haiti

2.2 Low-income countries

Program Activity Description:

This program activity focuses on addressing pervasive poverty in countries having an annual gross national income (GNI) per capita equivalent of US$935 or less (2007 data). This requires engagement in long-term development assistance supporting the national priorities of a select number of low-income countries, as well as programming with regional institutions addressing transboundary issues. CIDA's support aims to help these countries achieve priority development goals, which will differ from country to country and region to region. Programming aims at achieving reduced poverty and increasing economic opportunities. It focuses on areas such as basic health and primary education for children and youth, food security, sustainable economic growth that generates income for families and tax revenues for government, and the foundations for good governance.

2010—11 Financial Resources
Planned spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
$811,636,000 $1,128,110,779 $890,074,740
Targets Performance
Improved access to key services and economic opportunities for women, men, and children. Evidence of improved access to key services and economic opportunities stemming from CIDA-funded endeavours. N/A Mostly met
Enhanced accountability and effectiveness of institutions to respond to the needs and aspirations of women, men, and children.

Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) for each low-income country.

Evidence of policy improvements and increased capacity stemming from CIDA-funded endeavours.

N/A Mostly met

Explanation of variance: Total authorities include remaining authorities of $433 million to forgive up to $449 million owed by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in relation to loan agreements, if and when qualifying expenditure on education are made by the government of Pakistan, whereas related actual spending on the latter was only $49 million. The increase in actual spending is also attributable to supplementary funding allocated by the Government of Canada for the Muskoka Initiative for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH).

Performance summary

CIDA's investments in low-income countries focus on addressing pervasive poverty. Countries of Focus that are low-income include: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Pakistan, Senegal, Tanzania, and Vietnam. At the G-8 Muskoka Summit held in June 2010, five of these low-income countries (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mozambique and Tanzania) were selected by Canada as priority countries for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health programming. A significant and successful effort was made during the past fiscal year to fulfill this commitment. A large number of projects have been developed by staff in the field and at CIDA headquarters, approved by the Minister and are being implemented. As of March 31, 2011, $475.5 million had been publicly announced, and $149 million disbursed.

Analysis of program activity

Improved access to key services and economic opportunities for women, men and children

CIDA has focused its efforts in low-income countries on initiatives that directly benefit poor communities, and in particular those that can take advantage of targeted opportunities to improve people's lives. CIDA has undertaken with partner countries activities falling under three thematic priorities: children and youth (such as improved health care and better education) food security (such as improving agricultural productivity) and sustainable economic growth (such as targeted vocational training).

  • Through the Tra Vinh Improved Livelihoods Project in Vietnam, successful pilot models (rice seed production, rice-shrimp rotation, peanut planting, water-saving irrigation, post-harvest service) were widely replicated and resulted in new contracts for local and international firms. Community groups representing approximately 15,000 people in Tra Vinh province have increased their incomes by 20 percent to 40 percent.
  • In Mali, support for irrigation and marketing sought to enable farmers to increase local production, and improve food security and price stability, in urban centres. With CIDA support for the Rice Initiative, the production of cereals, which is the staple food in Mali, has increased from 3.7 million tons in 2006-2007 to 6.3 million tons in 2009—2010.
  • In Bangladesh, CIDA's support for the Primary Education Development Program II ensured increased access to quality primary education through the additional construction of 40,440 classrooms. Furthermore, 45,000 new teachers (60 percent female) were recruited and 105,000 teachers trained in a Certificate of Education program. Compared against a 2005 baseline, Bangladesh saw by 2010—2011 an increase in the Net Enrolment Rate from 87.2 percent to 95.6 percent, with gender parity. Student absenteeism rates dropped from 23 percent to 17 percent, and the student completion rate rose from 52.1 percent to 60.2 percent.
  • In Tanzania, CIDA sought to extend the reach of essential health services by supporting various initiatives. As a result, the proportion of births taking place at health facilities rose from 47 percent in 2005 to 59 percent in 2010—2011. Infant mortality dropped from 6.8 percent in 2005 to 5.1 percent in 2010—2011. The maternal mortality ratio dropped from 0.58 percent of live births in 2005 to 0.45 percent in 2010—2011. Insecticide-treated bed nets are more widespread. TB diagnoses and treatment have improved.
  • In 2010—2011, CIDA's programming in Pakistan saw significant progress in supporting entrepreneurship and vocational skills training for women. CIDA's Pathways and Pursestrings project increased homebound women's incomes through the marketing of commercial products. The project has reached well over 17,000 women, surpassing the project target.
What CIDA evaluations tell us about programs in Senegal

The Senegal Country Program Evaluation 2001 to 2010 assessed the overall performance and results achieved through CIDA's activities in Senegal. During the evaluation period, CIDA's disbursements to Senegal totalled about $350 million.

The evaluation found that the Senegal Program has generally been relevant, particularly in education, rural entrepreneurship and microfinance, and governance. Its performance has been fully satisfactory in relation to the evaluation criteria. The program could have been more effective by harnessing the potential for synergy amongst the different sectors and the delivery mechanisms. CIDA's gradual but steady adoption of program-based approaches in the education sector has transformed the architecture of Canadian aid delivery in Senegal and, as such, Canada has emerged as a leader in the education sector in Senegal.

Enhanced accountability and effectiveness of institutions to respond to the needs and aspirations of women, men, and children.

CIDA has recognized that the institutions that deliver services in any developing country must demonstrate behaviour that provides tangible evidence of the importance of an accountable and democratic government at all levels. Examples include:

  • In Ghana, resources were provided to municipal and district assemblies for implementation of local development plans based on results reported in published annual assessments on their performance. As a result, 89.3 percent of Metropolitan, Municipal, District Assemblies (MMDAs) met the conditions for the allocation of District Development Facility (DDF) investment funds in 2009 compared to 42.7 percent in 2006.
  • In Ethiopia, CIDA provided support to the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission (EHCR) through the multi-donor Democratic Institutions Programme. This resulted in the establishment of 60 legal aid centres, improving access to legal support and representation for Ethiopians. Through the same program, CIDA support helped improve the effectiveness of the Office of the Auditor General by training 293 auditors with the application of audit manuals, international standards, and code of ethics.
Lessons Learned

Delivering development assistance in culturally conservative areas is challenging, especially when this is combined with insecurity. In Pakistan, CIDA works with leading local civil society organizations to deliver development assistance that works alongside the local cultural traditions, rather than against them. While change is slower and much more incremental under these circumstances, the level of ownership at the community level and the long-term sustainability of development initiatives are much greater.

2.3 Middle-income countries

Program activity description

This program activity focuses on addressing specific challenges in attaining self-reliance for countries having a GNI per capita equivalent of more than US$935 but less than US$11,455 (2007 data). It involves strategic assistance in a selected number of middle-income countries, as well as programming with regional institutions addressing trans-boundary issues. These countries vary considerably in terms of their requirements, with CIDA programming tailored to respond as appropriate, but mainly involves engaging in strategic areas of their national priorities to sustainably enhance economic growth and the capacity to deliver social services, as well as building accountable, democratic institutions.

2010—11 Financial Resources
Planned spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
14 As defined in the TBS Guide for 2010-2011 Departmental Performance Reports, all "lessons learned" in this report are defined as "experiences acquired in the execution of programs and services that can provide clearer direction to future plans and efforts for achieving results."
$430,573,000 $320,404,077 $321,050,28914
Targets Performance
Strengthened citizen participation and institutional capacity to sustain social and economic progress.

Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) for each middle-income country.

Evidence of public institution reforms stemming from CIDA-funded endeavours.

N/A Mostly met

Explanation of variance: Reduced spending relative to initial plans reflects internal reallocations to meet new Agency and Government priorities.

Performance summary

CIDA's development assistance in middle-income countries focuses on addressing specific challenges in attaining self-reliance. This program activity covers seven countries/regions of focus - Bolivia, Caribbean, Colombia, Honduras, Indonesia, Peru, and Ukraine.

Significant progress was recorded in 2010—2011 toward country development goals such as health and education under the children and youth thematic priority. Some progress was also made in supporting food security and economic growth as well as in improving democratic governance.

CIDA also sought to strengthen citizen participation and institutional capacity to sustain social and economic growth. Evidence for results in this area is to be found in selected performance indicators: Country Policy and Institutional Assessments for each middle-income country, developed and assessed by the World Bank, and in public institution reforms stemming from CIDA-funded endeavours.

Analysis of program activity

Strengthened citizen participation and institutional capacity to sustain social and economic progress

CIDA programming in a number of countries targeted elements of the social and economic landscape that had the potential to bring about significant improvements in the lives of their citizens. These projects were seen as providing leverage to bring about other, more widespread improvements in society, and to promote greater equality and opportunity for all citizens. Each country has unique special circumstances, and this is reflected in the diversity of CIDA projects that seek to find this point of leverage. The success of these initiatives, based on needs defined by the partner country, provides continuing evidence of the importance of the country-led approach.

  • In Colombia, CIDA supported the Right to Education and Participation of Children and Youth project in Nariño, which provided training for 160 teachers to teach in flexible education models. A total of 1650 children and youth and 350 adults have used the flexible education models, allowing them to then reintegrate into the formal education system.
  • In Peru, CIDA helped increase the quality of basic education in the north. Support was provided to help regional governments adopt and implement new educational models. Some 1,000 teachers and 21,000 schoolchildren in La Libertad have directly benefited. Initial results showed an increase in reading comprehension by 400 percent and mathematics by 300 percent in La Libertad.
  • In Honduras, technical assistance in agricultural production, diversification, and sustainable management techniques was provided to smallholder farmers, particularly women. The project was able to certify eight community forests, which covered 106.2 hectares of forest and 11.4 acres of reforested land. It also represents an increase of 76 percent of annual production of pine resin and 216 percent of annual production of sawn timber.

Many middle-income countries lack the institutional capacity to manage and sustain social and economic progress. However, CIDA has successfully worked with a number of countries to strengthen their key institutions.

  • In Bolivia, CIDA partners with UNICEF to help improve maternal and child health. In 2010, 19,600 nutrition training sessions were provided to families in small communities, resulting in 120,000 parents with increased understanding of nutritional needs and available solutions. A total of 1,788 families in 24 municipalities also received training in best practices for maintaining hygiene.
  • In Ukraine, CIDA supports farm producers to increase productivity through innovative and environmentally friendly agricultural practices. In 2010—2011, this program helped over 3,300 smallholder farmers increase their productivity in the horticulture sector through technical assistance that focused on the cultivation of high value crops. This represents an increase in the number of farmers assisted compared to 2009—2010, bringing the number of beneficiaries closer to the target of 5,000 by 2013.
  • With CIDA support, the Partnership for CARICOM Private Sector has contributed to major internal processes and IT improvements at Small Business Development Finance Trust and the Bank of Saint Lucia. This has enabled these institutions to better monitor the state of their loan portfolios.
Lessons Learned

Well-developed and well-resourced policy dialogue is a key element in advancing development objectives. Relations of trust and confidence with local authorities are particularly important when it comes to addressing problems with development investments, yet in almost all cultures these take time to build. Overcoming reticence to acknowledging negative information to outsiders is often only possible when donor representatives are able to build relationships over several years.

2.4 Global engagement and strategic policy

Program activity description:

This program activity shapes international development policy in Canada and globally in support of CIDA's strategic direction, and Canada's broader international assistance objectives and commitments. It also engages with multilateral and global organizations for two main purposes: to contribute effectively to the achievement of development results, and to influence partners' policies, planning, strategic directions, and organizational governance in pursuit of greater development results.

2010—11 Financial Resources
Planned spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
$961,969,000 $1,107,529,078 $1,078,059,884
Targets Performance
Increased policy influence in Canada and globally.

Evidence of Canadian influence (e.g., G-8 summits, OECD-DAC, the media) to advance Canadian views on international development.

Integration of development considerations to other Canadian policies that have an impact on development (e.g., foreign, defence, environment, and immigration).

N/A Mostly met
Increased effectiveness of Canadian development cooperation, as a result of engagement with multilateral and global organizations, to address global cooperation issues Evidence of CIDA's increased effectiveness as a result of working with multilateral and global organizations N/A Mostly met

Explanation of variance: The increase between planned and actual spending mainly reflects supplementary funding received for climate change and the implementation of the Muskoka Initiative for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health.

Performance Summary

In 2010—2011, CIDA continued its efforts to work towards the integration of development perspectives with other Government of Canada policies, including defence, trade, environment and immigration. CIDA worked with our global partners to strengthen and support the emerging global development paradigm that takes a broader approach to development, and with our domestic partners to promote policy coherence in order to manage our international assistance resources effectively and accountably to achieve meaningful, sustainable development results, aligned to Canada's interests and priorities.

Analysis of program activity

Increased policy influence in Canada and globally

Canada established its leadership on global health issues in 2010—2011 by using its G-8 Presidency to launch the Muskoka Initiative (described in Section 1 of this report).

The initiative focuses on strengthening country-led national health systems in developing countries to enable delivery on key interventions along the continuum of care (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, infancy and early childhood). Canada placed a strong emphasis on accountability in the design of the Muskoka Initiative and insisted that all financial commitments made under the Initiative constituted new and additional funding.

Canada committed $1.1 billion of new funding through the Muskoka Initiative in addition to maintaining $1.75 billion of existing funding, for a total of $2.85 billion to improve maternal, newborn and child health over five years. Canada's programming under the Muskoka Initiative is focused on three paths: strengthening health systems, reducing the burden of disease, and improving nutrition. Eighty percent of this funding will flow to Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to support for multilateral and Canadian partners, Canada has prioritized 10 countries for bilateral support: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Haiti, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Sudan, and Tanzania.

Canada also promoted improved accountability by leading, under its G-8 Presidency, the first ever G-8 accountability report. The report was a reflective exercise that provided an overview of the impact of the G-8's recent development-related commitments. The G-8 also emphasized the importance of regular reports on progress made in implementing commitments.

The Muskoka Initiative provided critical momentum to the United Nations' Secretary-General's (UNSG) Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health (Global Strategy), a multi-stakeholder initiative that resulted in an estimated $40 billion in policy, service delivery, and financial commitments from all partners. Canada further cemented its leadership on accountability issues by co-chairing, with the WHO and Rwanda, the Global Strategy's Accountability Working Group.

Due to Canada's leadership throughout 2010, Prime Minister Harper was requested to co-chair a UN Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health with Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete. The Commission was a critical step in taking the Global Strategy forward and in ensuring that commitments to improve the health of women and children result in real progress.

CIDA contributed to important research on the impact on development of non-aid related policies by working with leading Canadian organizations (such as the North-South Institute), Canadian universities (including the University of British Columbia), and international think tanks (including the Centre for Global Development).

Lessons Learned

By building relationships and strengthening partnerships with various like-minded countries, CIDA has been able to increase its policy influence abroad and contribute to achievement of concrete results on the ground.

Significant progress was recorded toward country development goals such as health and education. For example, in Bolivia, there has been a 53 percent reduction in mortality of children under 5 years of age due to severe malnutrition, a 33 percent increase in children receiving micronutrient supplements and a 73 percent increase in children receiving zinc for treatment of diarrhoea. Some progress was also made in supporting food security and economic growth as well as in improving democratic governance. In the Caribbean Regional Program, considerable progress has been made in strengthening the institutions and building capacity for better management of public finance and debt, allowing for sharing of lessons learned with the region.

Increased effectiveness of Canadian development cooperation, as a result of engagement with multilateral and global organizations to address global cooperation issues.

CIDA's multilateral funding is highly focused, with approximately 95 percent of long-term institutional support going to 15 multilateral and global organizations. In 2008 and 2009, CIDA undertook a comprehensive review of its multilateral portfolio to assess partners' performance and their relevance to Government of Canada priorities.

The Government of Canada is committed to making its international assistance as effective as possible through greater efficiency, focus, and accountability for results. This includes ensuring that CIDA's multilateral and global programming and partnerships are effective in contributing to the achievement of real results on the ground and remaining in line with Canadian priorities.

In 2010—2011, CIDA developed its first Multilateral Effectiveness Strategy and accompanying institutional strategies to guide its work with its 18 key multilateral partners. The goal of this strategy is to increase the effectiveness of CIDA's multilateral programming. Summaries of the strategies were subsequently published on CIDA's website.

Multilateral and global organizations are key players in Canada's efforts to improve aid effectiveness, to improve the lives of people across a wide range of developing countries and sectors, to provide assistance in emergency situations, and to address the complex challenges of fragile states.15 Multilateral and global organizations also have an important role in implementing the bilateral geographic programs of CIDA and other donor agencies. Therefore, CIDA's efforts to increase multilateral effectiveness benefit Canada's aid program as a whole. To guide CIDA's strategic relationships with its 18 key multilateral partners, CIDA is taking action to implement four overall objectives:

  • advocate for multilateral partners to deliver and report on results;
  • ensure that multilateral institutions and initiatives support the priorities of developing country partners and make use of country systems;
  • ensure that multilateral partners focus on their areas of comparative advantage;
  • ensure that multilateral partners coordinate and collaborate with other relevant partners at country level and at the international level.

CIDA continued to be a leading member of the Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN). CIDA and other donor agencies involved in MOPAN assess the effectiveness of multilateral organizations using a methodology called the "Common Approach", which takes a systematic look at the internal effectiveness of multilateral organizations by examining organizational effectiveness. In 2010 the work of four multilateral organizations—the Asian Development Bank, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the United Nations Population Fund, and the World Health Organization—was assessed in 10 developing countries. The reports are now published on the MOPAN website.16

CIDA evaluation of the Canadian Foodgrains Bank

CIDA provides long-term institutional support to the Canadian Foodgrains Bank (CFGB), one of two main food aid partners. An evaluation conducted in 2010—2011 was largely positive and concluded that CFGB made significant progress towards the achievement of outcomes in all areas of programming and contributed to CIDA's food security objectives. The evaluation also pointed to the need for greater integration of gender equality into the organization's programming and for better outcome-level reporting.

Canada is a strong supporter of UN reform, helping to strengthen the UN's ability to meet new demands and deliver vital services in the most effective and efficient ways.

CIDA has continued to play a constructive role in helping to strengthen the UN system in order to improve results and reduce poverty. For example, Canada was an early supporter of the UN's "Delivering as One" initiative and is its fourth largest donor. So far, eight countries are working together with key UN institutions to pilot the approach, experimenting with ways to increase the UN system's development impact through more coherent, country-led programs, as well as lower long-term overhead costs for the UN system.

CIDA undertook a number of measures to improve the coordination and accountability of its humanitarian assistance in 2010—2011, including providing long-term institutional support to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), as well as providing funds that had not been earmarked to other key humanitarian organizations.

Lessons Learned

The complexity of the multilateral system and the diversity of CIDA's multilateral and global partners pose challenges to Canada's ability to manage its strategic relationships with those organizations in a coherent and coordinated fashion. Therefore, it is important to lay out CIDA's expectations for those relationships based not just on CIDA's overall objectives, but also on the particular context for each partner.

CIDA partners saving lives

With the support of CIDA and other shareholders and donors, the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) has:

  • Saved 6.2 million lives;
  • Provided HIV/AIDS treatment to 3.2 million people;
  • Detected and treated 8.2 million cases of tuberculosis; and,
  • Distributed 190 million bed nets to prevent malaria.

Between 2008 and 2011, with the support of CIDA and other donors, the African Development Bank has:

  • Given 16 million people better access to transport through 16,058 km of national roads;
  • Strengthened food security for 11 million people through its support to agriculture;
  • Built 7,452 new classrooms, trained or recruited 110,186 teachers and school staff and supplied nearly 4 million textbooks and teaching supplies; and
  • Provided 16 million people with better access to health care by building or equipping 1,932 health centres and training 17,200 health workers.

2.5 Canadian Engagement

Program activity description

This program activity involves supporting the overseas initiatives of Canadian organizations, promoting international development in Canada, and informing the Canadian public. CIDA does this by co-investing through various delivery mechanisms with a range of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) and other partners ranging from municipalities to college and universities. In turn, these organizations partner with developing-country civil society counterparts, as well as with governments and the private sector, to strengthen their capacity to deliver programs and services in support of CIDA's strategic outcome. Public engagement in Canada is achieved through the education and outreach activities of Canadian non-governmental organizations, academic institutions, labour unions, and professional associations, and through CIDA's own efforts to reach the general public.

2010—11 Financial Resources
Planned spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
17 As defined in the TBS Guide for 2010-2011 Departmental Performance Reports, all "lessons learned" in this report are defined as "experiences acquired in the execution of programs and services that can provide clearer direction to future plans and efforts for achieving results."
$296,863,000 $250,856,574 $251,493,97217
Expected Results Performance Indicators Performance Status
Improved effectiveness in the participation of CSOs in international development activities

Percentage of developing country partners indicating that Canadian partner projects and programs are increasingly aligned with their sustainable development needs.

Average rating of integration of gender equality and environmental sustainability in partner proposals.

Somewhat met: CIDA modernized its programming with CSOs in 2010 to focus on delivering development results consistent with local development priorities. Developing country partners indicate the extent to which project proposals align with their sustainable development needs as part of the application process. It is too early to measure whether planned projects are delivering results that are aligned.

Somewhat met: All proposals selected for funding must achieve a minimum standard in their integration of gender equality and environmental sustainability, and areas for improvement must be rectified before entering into a funding agreement. It is too early to measure whether planned integration is delivering sustainable results.

Increased information for, and participation in, development efforts by Canadians Value of human and financial resources mobilized by Canadian partners Somewhat met: The number of information activities increased and the new calls for proposals process encouraged many organizations to seek funding. However, CIDA has not yet developed baseline data in order to measure whether there was an increase in the value of human and financial resources mobilized.

Explanation of Variance
The variance between 2010—2011 planned spending and actual spending is largely due to the modernisation of partnership programming and new financial resources for the call for proposals for Haiti Reconstruction.

Performance Summary

As part of CIDA's Aid Effectiveness program, in July 2010, the Agency announced the modernization of its Canadian Partnership Branch to create the Partnerships with Canadians Branch (PWCB). Through this name change, CIDA reaffirmed the importance of partnerships with Canadian civil society organizations in international development and introduced a new approach to engaging Canadian citizens and organizations in international development. The new programs focus on three key objectives: streamlining PWCB as a key pillar in the delivery of aid to the poor in developing countries; generating concrete results from its Canadian engagement activities and ensuring the most meritorious partners and projects are funded. The Partnerships for Development Program (P4D) and the Global Citizens Program (GCP) are the key mechanisms to deliver on this approach.

Analysis of program activity

Improved effectiveness of CSOs in international development activities

To enhance the effectiveness of its programming, PWCB has encouraged Canadian partners to focus their efforts by working in fewer countries and concentrate in thematic priorities. In July 2010, PWCB committed to directing at least 50 percent of Branch funding to CIDA's 20 countries of focus with the remaining funding to be disbursed in other ODA-eligible countries where Canada has a presence. At least 80 percent of PWCB funding is to support the Agency's three thematic priorities, while the remaining funding may be used to support programming outside of the priority themes where needs exist. In 2010—2011, PWCB disbursed 37.5 percent of funding in countries of focus—up from 34.5 percent in 2009—2010. It also disbursed 80 percent in CIDA's thematic priorities, up from 77 percent in 2009—2010.These results reflect the transition to a more focused approach which began in the second half of 2010—2011.

CIDA also established funding mechanisms to support high-performing partners. PWCB moved from continuous intake of proposals to a calls for proposals process in order to identify, through a rigorous assessment process, the most meritorious partners and projects to deliver development results on the ground. CIDA has fostered increased local alignment by ensuring funding mechanisms are consistent with local development priorities and capacity-building requirements. Proposals are assessed, in part, against the degree to which they align to local needs. This includes an on-the-ground assessment by CIDA field staff and a rigorous assessment of gender equality, environmental sustainability and governance in partner proposals. PWCB's new mechanisms have retained the unique feature of leveraging the capacity and value-added of Canadian organisations and institutions to achieve greater sustainable impact.

Examples of CIDA partners' results

The Canadian Co-operatives Association (CCA) and Développement International Desjardins (DID) provided technical assistance and micro-insurance to small and medium enterprises and to local financial institutions, credit unions, or farmers' cooperatives. As a result, over the past 4 years, 1.6 million women benefited from increased access to financial services and adapted products provided by DID's local CSO partners. 11 new co-operatives were created and 34,784 women were reached (over 12,000 of them new members) thanks to CCA's integration of gender into all of its projects undertaking and some specific women's projects to support the development of women-managed savings and credit co-operatives. The total of women members' savings rose from $1,892,009 to $24,814,591.

With Canadian financial support, Right to Play's programme, which used sport and play to develop leadership skills and raise awareness around social issues among African children and youth, contributed to a 20 percent increase in school retention and a 50 percent increase in enrolment in participating schools in Benin, Ghana, Liberia, Mali and Rwanda.

Canada increased participation of local CSOs and promoted democracy, accountable public institutions and the rule of law in Xai-Xai Mozambique, through the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM). Efficiencies in land management and taxation through the new GIS system reduced the time it takes for business land transfers and property research from three months to less than two weeks.

Lessons Learned

2010—2011 was a transition year, with both PWCB and Canadian organizations learning lessons as the calls for proposals were developed and launched. By March 31, 2011, all proposals for the Haiti Reconstruction had been assessed, and the calls for the Muskoka Initiative Partnership Program and Projects Over $2 million had been launched and the bid period concluded. In addition, the call for Projects Under $2 million was launched.

The use of assessment teams provided for greater rigour and opportunities for mutual learning of staff across CIDA. This approach allowed PWCB to recommend the most meritorious partners and projects, but logistical challenges remained when high volumes of proposals were assessed within short timeframes. Questions related to the new Calls for Proposals highlighted the need to clarify program guidelines and application forms, a process that is ongoing.

Many proposals submitted to PWCB were weak in the integration of cross-cutting themes – gender equality, environmental sustainability and governance. In response, Results-Based Management training for Canadian partners was updated and delivery of this training is a priority for 2011-2012. In addition, PWCB's technical analysis of proposals identifies areas for partners to improve and this information is shared with both successful and unsuccessful project proponents.

Increased information for, and participation in, development efforts by Canadians

By supporting the development activities of Canadian civil society, CIDA has created opportunities for thousands of Canadians to contribute to international development programming. This has helped build relationships and mutual understanding between Canadians and people throughout CIDA's partner countries, as well as supported the achievement of concrete development results. CIDA's public-engagement activities encouraged a wide spectrum of Canadians to support and participate in international development as volunteers, interns and election observers.

As part of PWCB modernization, the Global Citizens Program (GCP) was developed to support public awareness, education, knowledge, and youth participation initiatives. CIDA launched two new initiatives to target previously under-represented youth: International Aboriginal Youth Internships and the International School Twinning Initiative pilot project.

CIDA's International Youth Internship Program (IYIP) supported Canadian organizations to send 574 interns for six-month internships with developing country partners. Canadian youth aged 19 to 30 gained international experience and knowledge, increased their skills for employment and deepened their understanding of and engagement in international development.

CIDA supported Canadian volunteers through Volunteer Cooperation Agencies (VCAs) which sent 1942 Canadians overseas. The volunteers ranged in age from 18 to 80 and worked from 2 weeks to 2 years to strengthen the capacity of local partners.

Through its Multilateral Elections Observation Programme, Canada contributed 516 Canadian observers to 32 international election observation missions in 23 countries.

Support to the OAS-CARICOM joint election observation mission to Haiti was instrumental in ensuring a relatively peaceful and democratic transition of power.

The twenty-first annual International Development Week (IDW) activities were announced in the online IDW 2011 Calendar of Events and, for the first time, were accessible through geo-positioning. IDW activities reached thousands of Canadians, including a total of 118,000 people who took part in CIDA-funded activities. Tens of thousands took part in other IDW events put in place by partner organizations. With a focus on youth engagement, the seven Provincial Councils for International Co-operation organized a youth campaign across Canada using traditional and new media. This campaign reached 24,000 Canadians directly. Fifty-six videos and written profiles of young Canadians who are making a difference in the world were produced as part of a Youth Campaign funded by CIDA and organized by regional and provincial councils for international cooperation.


Through CIDA's participation in three regional trade shows and in 25 outreach events across Canada, Canadians, including the Haitian Diaspora and other stakeholders, were informed of CIDA's support for Haiti. Stakeholders showed up in large numbers to acquire an understanding of how they could participate in the delivery of international assistance in Haiti.


Through Afghan Eyes 2010, a photo exhibit produced by 15 youth from Afghanistan's Kandahar province, was presented in Ottawa and Washington DC, and toured across different schools and locations in Canada. Afghanistan360, an interactive multimedia exhibit featuring a selection of images and videos that illustrated Canada's civilian and military engagement in Afghanistan, toured different locations across Canada.

Other outreach activities

The CIDA Speakers Program reached out to hundreds of Canadians in 2010—2011, through 21 events organized at various educational facilities and other locations across Canada.

The CIDA Exhibits Program helped to facilitate dialogue with Canadians and sought to engage them through on-the-ground presence in communities across Canada. In 2010—2011, 24 exhibit program activities took place, reaching tens of thousands of Canadians.

Use of social media and other participatory media

More than 3,200 profiles of projects funded by CIDA, as well as their corresponding results, are available to Canadians through CIDA's online Project Browser. CIDA also manages a Twitter account through which it has sent more than 180 messages informing Canadians about the Agency's announcements, Ministerial messages, results, events, call for proposal and publications. Twitter has proven to be a fast and effective way to reach thousands of Canadians interested in development issues and CIDA, with many of our daily tweets being re-tweeted to a wider audience.

CIDA has also posted a number of videos on its priorities and results on Youtube, as well as published event-related photo galleries on Flickr. In addition, CIDA has published a "Stay in touch" page on its website, thereby allowing Canadians to freely access all CIDA's social media channels, as well as subscribe to its media room updates and its RSS feed. An "Add This" button was inserted on all CIDA web pages in order to give users the opportunity to share content across their social networks, thereby increasing CIDA's reach and relevance.

Lessons Learned

Increased cohesion between branches on the development and execution of communications objectives have been show to yield more significant results, both with respect to the ability to reach out effectively to Canadians and in terms of our overall relevance to both partners and the Canadian public.

The current fiscal environment where communications efforts are tied to the availability of funds significantly reduces the departments' ability to forward plan for communications activities, which has a detrimental impact on the agency's overall reach.

Successful engagement going forward will entail a coordinated effort within the Agency to effectively leverage its partners. In addition, future initiatives must be able to create inclusivity with the Agency's employees so that they are mobilized to promote the Agency. In addition, a successful strategy will be one where the public is both motivated into action and finds the Agency relevant to their lives.

Finally, greater lead time in planning and executing future engagement initiatives will enhance the Agency's ability to diligently track and measure results.

With respect to the Agency's communications efforts on both the website and social media, Twitter has proven to be a fast and effective way to reach thousands of Canadians interested in development issues and CIDA, with many of our daily tweets being re-tweeted to a wider audience.

Due to PWCB Modernisation, funding for public engagement, which had been scattered throughout the branch, has become more targeted, thereby eliminating public engagement activities as a part of projects and programs. In the future, measuring results for public engagement in order to evaluate its impact may become less onerous once a common methodology is accepted. Stronger performance indicators have been drafted to demonstrate results that are more consistent.

2.6 Internal services

Program activity description

This program activity provides support services to CIDA programming for the delivery of the Canadian aid program. It includes governance and management support, resources management services and asset-management services.

2010—11 Financial Resources
Planned spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
$112,093,000 $116,377,165 $118,708,751

Performance Summary

During the 2010—2011 reporting period, the centrepiece of human resource management renewal at CIDA continued to be Excellence in People Management (EPM), defined as: upholding values, ethics and key leadership competencies of the public service; having a workplace centred on respect, teamwork, learning and innovation and a commitment to excellence; creating an enabling environment where we effectively communicate CIDA's priorities; aligning people; providing necessary tools and support; managing and rewarding performance; and celebrating success. As described below, the Human Resources Branch mostly met all its objectives.

Analysis of program activity


In 2010—2011, CIDA finalized its national recruitment campaign for its New Development Officer Program (NDOP) that was launched in 2009—2010 for entry-level PM-02 Development Officers. As of November 15, 2010, a total of 48 candidates were found qualified, and 4 were hired. Over 3,800 applications were received confirming a strong interest from Canadians to work for CIDA.

Renewing the Workplace

The Agency took innovative steps towards transforming the workplace through introduction of new Web 2.0 technologies supporting a more collaborative work environment. E-Collaboration tools were introduced, better connecting people to people and people to information on a modern Web 2.0 platform, facilitating establishment of focused online communities, thematic discussions and knowledge-sharing fora. These tools have been enabled both within the Agency, and between key trusted stakeholders and knowledge intermediaries external to the Agency.

In response to the Public Service Employee Survey in the fall of 2008, CIDA developed an Agency-wide harassment and discrimination action plan. One achievement was the implementation of "A Respectful Workplace: Discrimination and Harassment" mandatory training. A total of 55 training sessions were delivered to 1281 employees in 2010—2011, which forms part of a 2-year commitment to train all staff.