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Minister's Message

The Honourable Beverley J. Oda

In 2010—2011, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) responded to a number of humanitarian and development challenges that saved lives, reduced poverty, and achieved meaningful results for millions of people in developing countries.

For example, as part of our priority to help increase food security for millions of people suffering from hunger, Canada was the first G8 country to fully meet its L'Aquila Summit commitment and disburse $1.18 billion for sustainable agricultural development.

To help saves the lives of mothers and their children, CIDA, with full accountability, played a central role in the Government's agenda as the Prime Minister championed Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5—maternal, newborn and child health—at the 2010 G8 Muskoka Summit. To ensure that developed and developing countries met their commitments, the Prime Minister co-chaired the UN Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. As part of this effort, CIDA is working with the global Scaling-Up Nutrition movement to help to fight malnutrition among pregnant women and children under 24 months, and is a contributing member to the Renewed Efforts Against Child Hunger.

This year the Prime Minister announced additional funding over three years to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). Since 2002, GFATM has provided HIV treatment to 2.8 million people, enabled the detection and treatment of seven million new cases of tuberculosis, and distributed 122 million bed nets to prevent malaria. CIDA also contributed to the current replenishment of the GAVI Alliance to accelerate the introduction of new and underused vaccines, and strengthen health and immunization systems in developing countries.

Every year, millions suffer from humanitarian disasters. In 2010—2011, devastating floods in Pakistan affected 18 to 20 million people. CIDA contributed $71.8 million for humanitarian assistance and early recovery. Canadians responded generously and donated $46.8 million, which the Government matched through the Pakistan Flood Relief Fund.

In Afghanistan, CIDA made great strides in one of its signature projects to rehabilitate or construct 50 schools in targeted districts of Kandahar province. Last year, an additional 25 schools were constructed or rehabilitated, bringing the total number to 41. Another signature project—the rehabilitation of the Dahla Dam and its irrigation systems—resulted in the reintroduction of commercial saffron cropping and improvements in other cash crops, such as mint and honey.

In Haiti, CIDA support ensured that 400,000 schoolchildren now receive a daily nutritious meal, 330,000 women have access to trained medical professionals when they give birth, and 369,000 Haitians have access to credit and financial services. Through CIDA's Haiti Call for Proposals, 15 new recovery and reconstruction projects were chosen last year that will improve the livelihood of Haitians.

I am pleased to present these achievements in greater detail for Parliament's consideration in CIDA's 2010—2011 Departmental Performance Report.

The Honourable Beverley J. Oda, P.C., M.P.
Minister of International Cooperation

Section I: Organizational Overview


The mission of the Canadian International Development Agency1 (CIDA) is to lead Canada's international effort to help people living in poverty.

Canada's aid achieves meaningful results in countries around the world. By helping to make the world more secure and by promoting sustainable economic growth, it also advances Canadian interests in security and prosperity. It provides a concrete expression of our Canadian values: compassion for the less fortunate, democracy, freedom, human rights, and the rule of law.

Our efforts have contributed to ensuring food security, generating sustainable economic growth, giving children and youth a better future, stabilizing fragile countries, and responding to natural disasters.


CIDA is the government's principal organization responsible for managing the bulk of Canada's development assistance program. CIDA manages its resources effectively, efficiently and accountably in order to achieve meaningful, sustainable results.

It engages in policy development in Canada and internationally. Its principal goal is to reduce poverty, and support sustainable development in a manner that is consistent with and advances Canadian foreign policy. The vast majority of CIDA's programming2 satisfies the eligibility requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act,3 and is therefore reported to Parliament as official development assistance.4

Orders-in-Council P.C. 1968—923 of May 8, 1968, and P.C. 1968—1760 of September 12, 1968, designate CIDA as a department for the purposes of the Financial Administration Act. The authority for the CIDA program and related purposes can be found in the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Act and in annual appropriations.

Strategic outcome and program activity architecture

CIDA's Report on Plans and Priorities reflects CIDA's revised strategic outcome and Program Activity Architecture (PAA), approved by Treasury Board in June 2009 and first taking effect in 2010—2011. The revised PAA demonstrates a greater emphasis on measurable results, as well as a closer alignment with Government priorities.

CIDA pursues poverty reduction mainly through a focus on stimulating sustainable economic growth, increasing food security, and securing a future for children and youth.

Environmental sustainability, gender equality and good governance are cross-cutting issues that are integral to these themes. To achieve its strategic outcome, CIDA collaborates with a full range of national and international partners, including private, government, and non-governmental sectors and institutions.

The revised PAA has six program activities, including internal services, that support the achievement of the strategic outcome, providing an appropriate framework for CIDA to effectively support development assistance and shape policy within Canada and abroad.

Program Activity Architecture Diagram

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Financial resources (2010—2011)
Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
$3,247,997,000 $4,029,966,364 $3,614,580,474
2010—11 Human Resources (full-time equivalents—FTEs)
Planned Actual Difference
1,955 1,913 42

Crosswalk of CIDA Program Activity Architecture

Program Activity Architecture Diagram

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  1. In June 2009, Treasury Board approved a new PAA for CIDA, in order to make it more results-oriented
  2. The diagram above shows how financial resources would have been distributed according to the old versus the new architecture.
  3. Figures are rounded upwards, so they do not reflect the total.

Performance summary by strategic outcome

Performance Indicators Percentage of population below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day
Gender-related development index (GDI) in countries where CIDA engages in international development
Status of children and youth in countries where CIDA engages in international development
CIDA planned and actual spending by program activity from 2009—2010 throuh 2010—11
(in millions of dollars)
Program Activity 2009—10 2010—11
Alignment to Government of Canada Outcomes
Fragile countries and crisis-affected communities $860,208,300 $561,878,000 $634,863,000 $954,688,691 $955,192,839 Global poverty reduction through sustainable development
Low-income countries $783,533,120 $806,336,000 $811,636,000 $1,280,110,779 $890,074,740
Middle-income countries $373,576,084 $430,195,000 $430,573,000 $320,404,077 $321,050,289
Global engagement and strategic policy $1,457,703,873 $958,529,000 $961,969,000 $1,107,529,078 $1,078,059,884
Canadian engagement $16,203,879 $294,378,000 $296,863,000 $250,856,574 $251,493,972
Internal services $109,118,765 $102,256,000 $112,093,000 $116,377,165 $118,708,751
Total $3,600,344,021 $3,153,572,000 $3,247,997,000 $4,029,966,364 $3,614,580,474

Explanation of Variance

No significant variance is noted between 2009—2010 and 2010—2011 actual expenditures.

Since 2010—2011 is the first year of the new program activity architecture, no comparison with 2009—2010 is provided by program activity.

The variance between 2010—2011 planned and actual spending mainly reflects the supplementary funding received for programs and initiatives such as the 2010 Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) and delivery of humanitarian assistance following the floods in Pakistan.

Reduction in poverty for those living in countries where CIDA engages in international development

One billion people go hungry every day. Of those hungry people, 65 percent live in seven countries—including Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Ethiopia—which are among CIDA's 20 countries of focus.

Impressive economic growth rates in developing countries, together with weather-related supply shocks and unrest in the Middle East and Africa, have contributed to a rise in commodity prices. Further inflation will strain the budgets of low-income households who spend a larger proportion of their income on food and energy.

There is agreement within the international community that responding to global issues —such as food security and poverty— requires an inclusive and coordinated effort. The explosion of new donors (countries, foundations and NGOs) translates into more fragmented and volatile aid flows and allocations, it also offers new opportunities for development partnerships. In addition, the recent recessions and fiscal burden left by responses to financial crises have put a significant strain on ODA levels, reinforcing the need for effective and efficient collaboration between donors.

Given an increasingly challenging external environment, CIDA must effectively anticipate and respond to challenges and opportunities to ensure its success in reducing poverty.

Progress toward the strategic outcome

Performance indicator: Percentage of population below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day.

Strong economic growth across the greater part of the developing world reduced the number of people living on less than $1.25-a-day by almost 500 million people between 2005 and 2010. However, poverty has increased in some countries where CIDA engages in international development. In Tanzania, for instance, although the country has seen strong economic growth, its rapid population growth has meant poverty still affects one-third of the population and has kept it dependent on foreign aid. Indonesia has also experienced strong economic growth, countered, however, by major regional disparities and environmental threats that have left many in poverty and vulnerable to reversals. For more details on developing countries' economic situation.

Performance indicator: Gender Inequality Index5 in countries where CIDA engages in international development.

The low-income countries where CIDA engages in international development rank between 83rd (Rwanda) and 137th (Democratic Republic of the Congo) on the Gender Inequality Index; for fragile states, Sudan ranks 106th, Haiti 119th and Afghanistan 134th. Of the countries in which CIDA engages, middle income countries are faring better in terms of addressing gender inequality, with the best ranking in that category going to China in 38th place and the worst at 108th for Egypt.

Global progress on achieving MDG 3 (Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women) is lagging. The target of eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005 has already been missed, although progress has been made. In the developing regions as a whole, 96 girls were enrolled in primary school for every 100 boys in 2008, compared to 91 in 1999. Eliminating gender disparity at all education levels by 2015 may still be possible, but the other indicators for MDG 3 show progress to be slow. For example, in parliamentary representation, while global proportion of seats held by women continues to rise slowly—averaging 19 percent as of January 2010—a third of developing countries still have less than 10 percent female representation in parliament or none at all. For more details on gender disparities in developing countries.

Performance indicator: Status of children and youth in countries where CIDA engages in international development:Status of children and youth in countries where CIDA engages in international development.

Child mortality rates in CIDA's 20 countries of focus dropped 19 points from 2005 to 2009, to an average of 74 deaths per 1,000 live births6. The majority of CIDA's countries of focus are on target to meet MDG 2, i.e. providing universal access to primary education.

While the majority of CIDA's countries of focus are on target to meet MDG 2, i.e. providing universal access to primary education, globally, 69 million girls and 28 million children living in conflict-affected and fragile states remain out of school.
For more details on the state of the world's children.

Contribution of priorities to strategic outcome

This section provides some concrete examples of progress achieved for each priority. Section II of the report provides more in-depth performance.

Progress achieved for key priorities
Operational Priority Type Status Linkages to strategic outcome
7 In CIDA's Report on Plans and Priorities 2009-2010, Contributing to mitigating the food crisis was identified as a distinct Agency priority. Given that Increasing Food Security is one of the three thematic priorities announced by the Minister of International Cooperation in the last year, the former priority was adapted and is being presented under the heading "Thematic Priorities" to avoid redundancy.
1) Canada's strategic role in Haiti and Afghanistan Ongoing Mostly met Increased achievement of development goals consistent with Canadian foreign policy objectives
2) Increasing food security7 On-going Mostly met
3) Securing a future for children and youth New Mostly met
4) Stimulating sustainable economic growth New Mostly met
Management priority
5) Achieving management and program delivery excellence Ongoing Mostly met

1) Canada's strategic role in Haiti and Afghanistan

The security, humanitarian assistance, and development needs of fragile states are rising in importance. The Agency applied its experience to strengthen Canada's role in the reconstruction and development of fragile states in 2010—2011. A balance between short and long-term intervention is found in supporting stability, good governance, and progress for sustainable development over the longer term.


CIDA provided $215 million in assistance to Afghanistan in 2010–2011. Canada is the lead donor to the Education Quality Improvement Project (EQUIP) which provides resources for the Ministry of Education to implement Afghanistan’s Education Interim Plan 2011-2013. Last year, at the national level,105 schools were rehabilitated or constructed, and 700 other schools are under construction. In 2010, as part of Canada’s signature project to eradicate polio in Afghanistan, eight immunization campaigns targeted more than seven million children. Significant progress on another signature project, the Arghandab Irrigation Rehabilitation Project (Dahla Dam), was made. For the first time in decades, the improved irrigation of farm land resulted in the substantial harvest and processing of saffron. New wheat and barley crops were also planted and harvested on improved irrigated land.


Haiti remains the poorest country in the Americas and the devastating earthquake in January 2010 set back development progress achieved in recent years. Overall,  CIDA  disbursed a total of $238 million in assistance to Haiti in 2010-2011. Commitments made by Canada following the earthquake, as well as the Agency’s five-year program (2006-2011) to Haiti, allowed a number of results to be achieved. They included: strengthened health services through the establishment of seven health centres to serve over 1.5 million Haitians; strengthened financial services for 369,000 Haitians who belong to a network of savings and credit unions; and, the improved capability to rapidly detect cholera epidemics in order to alert Haitian authorities.

2) Increasing food security

With food prices reaching a 30-year high in early 2011, the poor in developing countries are finding it increasingly difficult to purchase food. Consequently, the number of hungry people in the world remains near one billion. Canada, working through CIDA's Food Security Strategy, continues to play a leading role both in delivering aid effective food security programming and in influencing related international policies. As Chair of the Food Aid Convention—which brings together the leading food aid donors—CIDA is playing a key role in renegotiating the Convention, and thus shaping the global response to hunger.

In line with its Food Security Strategy, CIDA supports improved access to sufficient quantities of food, security through the availability of quality and nutritious foods, and long-term sustainability through efforts in agricultural development and in research and development. Canada's approach to increasing food security is helping communities address immediate food needs and find solutions for lasting food security so they can rise out of the cycle of poverty. As of April 2011, Canada had fully disbursed its $1.18 billion L'Aquila commitment, made at the 2009 G-8 Summit, for sustainable agricultural development, which includes $600 million in additional resources. Canada is the first G-8 country to fully disburse its commitment. Results achieved in food security programming include:

  • In 2010, with Canada's support, the Micronutrient Initiative's work provided an estimated 267.6 million children with vitamin A supplementation, ensured that 328 million people had iodized salt, distributed 5.6 million zinc tablets to children, and fortified 39,550 metric tonnes of food with iron.
  • In 2009—2010, through a CIDA-funded Pan-African initiative, more than 4 million households accessed improved seeds. Fifty-eight percent of those who obtained seeds were women farmers. CIDA continues to support the $62-million Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, jointly administered with the International Development Research Centre. Its aim is to encourage applied research between Canadian and developing country organizations. Research focuses on finding practical solutions to food-security challenges, such as crop resilience, nutrition and infectious diseases related to crops and animal production.

3) Securing the future of children and youth

Progress has been made to improve the nutritional status of women and children. But despite this progress, each year 3.5 million children die of malnutrition. In 2009, nearly a quarter of children in the developing world were underweight, with the poorest most affected. In the past year, Canada has ramped up its investments in nutrition. Through the G-8 Muskoka Initiative, Canada committed new funding of $1.1 billion and to maintaining base funding levels of $1.75 billion for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health, including nutrition from 2010 to 2015. This has meant that partnerships with global leaders on nutrition such as the Micronutrient Initiative, the World Food Programme and UNICEF have been expanded.

CIDA's Children and Youth Strategy—Securing a Future for Children and Youth— supports Canadian efforts to advance the Millennium Development Goals 2, 3, 4, and 5 and builds on those areas where the greatest results have been achieved, such as education, gender equality, health, child protection, and human rights.8

Over the past fiscal year, CIDA has been working to ensure the full implementation of the Strategy through all investment channels. Children and Youth has been identified as a thematic priority for 16 of CIDA's countries of focus and relevant programs are being designed and launched. For example:

  • Child survival, including maternal health: CIDA supported the Primate's World Relief and Development Fund allowing more than 250,000 women, children, youth and men in Bangladesh, Mozambique and Tanzania to directly benefit from HIV/AIDS prevention measures, access to safe water, enhanced nutrition, and food security through the program.
  • Access to a quality education: As the lead donor in the education sector in Senegal, CIDA supported the training of over 20,000 new teachers. In collaboration with UNICEF, CIDA also supported 230 child-friendly schools in Senegal that provide healthy, protective, inclusive, and gender-sensitive learning environments.
  • Safe and secure futures for children and youth: In Sudan, CIDA collaborates with UNICEF to support the reintegration of children into their communities and provides at-risk children with skills and resources to prevent recruitment into armed groups.
Maternal, Newborn and Child Health

At the June 2010 G-8 Summit in Muskoka, US$7.3 billion in new funding for the Muskoka Initiative for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health was announced from G-8 and like-minded partners, which included a commitment of C$1.1 billion of new funding between 2010-2015. This funding is in addition to a commitment to maintain Canada's current funding level of C$1.75 billion for the period 2010-2015, for a total commitment of C$2.85 billion over five years.

Canada's contribution to the Muskoka Initiative supports comprehensive and integrated approaches that provide the necessary health services for mothers and children. It pursues three paths: strengthening health systems, reducing the burden of disease and improving nutrition. Eighty percent of this funding flows to Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to support for multilateral and Canadian partners, Canada has made bilateral support for 10 countries—Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Haiti, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Sudan, and Tanzania—a priority.

In the first year of the Muskoka Initiative, Canada has taken decisive action to support its developing country partners in their efforts to improve maternal, newborn and child health. For example:

  • In Haiti, CIDA is supporting the training of health workers and the construction of 10 new maternity clinics and a paediatric ward.
  • In Mozambique, CIDA will support the Ministry of Health to deliver life-saving HIV treatment to 38,000 young children, and treat 94,000 pregnant women to prevent new HIV infections in their children.
  • In Bangladesh, CIDA's investments are expected to increase the number of women receiving post-natal care from 18.9 percent to 28.1 percent and the proportion of women delivering children with the support of skilled healthcare workers from 19.9 percent to 25.7 percent
  • Multilateral and global programming is a major component of the Muskoka Initiative, which includes programming such as the H4 Initiative to Accelerate Support for Maternal and Newborn Health; a partnership of the United Nations Population Fund, World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank and UNAIDS to prevent maternal and newborn mortality.

The G-8 Muskoka Initiative was instrumental in building support for the UN Secretary-General's Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. The Global Strategy was a multi-stakeholder effort launched in September 2010 and raised more than $40 billion in resources for women's and children's health, which includes the $US7.3 billion committed by the G-8 and its partners. In addition to its funding commitment, Canada played a significant role in the development of the Global Strategy, including co-chairing the Accountability Working Group with Rwanda and the World Health Organization.

In recognition of Canada's leadership on these critical issues, Prime Minister Harper was asked to co-chair a UN Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health, along with the President of Tanzania. This action-oriented and time-limited Commission proposes the most effective international institutional arrangements for global reporting, oversight and accountability on women's and children's health.

4) Stimulating sustainable economic growth

Launched in 2010, CIDA's Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy intends to harness the potential of sustainable economic growth to reduce poverty in developing countries. This strategy focuses on three paths: building economic foundations, growing businesses and investing in people.

In 2010—2011, efforts focused on creating a solid basis from which to implement the Sustainable Economic Growth approach across relevant programs. It is expected that the new approach will become increasingly evident in programming results as new projects are approved and implemented under its framework in 2011-2012 and subsequent years.

  • The extractive sector in developing countries is an increasingly important driver of sustainable economic growth, generator of jobs, and source of revenue. CIDA programming helped to enhance the capacity of developing countries to manage the development of their mining, oil, and gas sectors. For instance, CIDA has assisted Bolivia in establishing a tax collection unit that administers hydrocarbon taxes. As a result, the Government of Bolivia's revenues from the hydrocarbon sector increased from C$494 million to C$2.77 billion between 2004 and 2010, and now represent over 30 percent of total budgetary revenues. Some of the hydrocarbon revenues are channelled directly to pay for social programs.
  • In Pakistan, the Capacity Building and Women Focused Value Chain Development project has provided skills training to 17,493 women producers and entrepreneurs to improve the quality of their products and make links to more profitable markets. Both the producers and entrepreneurs have reported significant increases in their incomes due to the project (36 to 117 percent depending on the sector).

5) Achieving management and program delivery excellence

In September 2009, the Agency brought all of its business modernization activities together under one umbrella project to ensure coherence and mutual reinforcement. For example, responsive programming turn-around time in Canadian Partnership Branch has been cut by more than half. In addition, the new Directive Project Development Process, approved for implementation on April 1, 2010, is demonstrating encouraging results. Lessons learned from both initiatives are influencing the development of Agency-wide programming processes that are being piloted in the 2011–2012 fiscal year.

In addition to more efficient business processes, over the next five years the Agency will complete the process of decentralizing most of the bilateral program management to the field. Full implementation activities are under way for Ethiopia, Mozambique, Peru and Tanzania, and plans are advancing to decentralize Bangladesh, the Caribbean program, Bolivia, Colombia, Ghana, Honduras, Indonesia, Mali, Senegal, Ukraine and Vietnam.

As part of this comprehensive re-engineering of program management, procedures are being reviewed to ensure that key services—including contracting, financial management, thematic expertise, communications, and information management and technology systems—are sufficient to support decentralized program management.

The current plan for decentralization is based on lessons learned from earlier decentralization efforts. Our implementation approach is more flexible and focused. Further, access to corporate systems and clear roles and responsibilities between HQ and the field are being addressed, resulting in improved communication, authority and accountability.

During the reporting period, the Agency launched a pilot project which provided field staff with direct real-time access to corporate systems such as financial, reporting and data warehousing. In addition to reducing transaction costs (errors in double entry of data, multiple filing systems in various locations, etc.), the project also provides staff with improved connectivity and bandwidth to permit the use of e-collaboration tools and video conferencing, key productivity tools for a decentralized agency. The project is now being expanded in the fall of 2011, to include Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania.

As well, the Agency continues to implement measures to improve excellence in people management. This means clear and stable Agency priorities, strengthened corporate governance, leadership training programs, and mandatory harassment and discrimination awareness training programs.

Aid effectiveness

The Government's efforts to improve the focus, efficiency and accountability of Canada's aid program have resulted in major reforms in CIDA's development operations and programming. As a result, through the implementation of CIDA's Aid Effectiveness Action Plan (2009—2012), there have been significant changes to Canada's aid program across many areas. For example:

  • Food aid was fully untied in 2008, and as of 2010—2011, 99 percent of all aid was untied.
  • In 2010—2011, the concentration ratio of CIDA's bilateral country program assistance to its 20 Countries of Focus reached approximately 88 percent, surpassing the 2010—2011 target of 80 percent. Summaries of the country strategies, for the 20 countries of focus, are published on the CIDA web site.
  • In 2010—2011, CIDA had completed a multilateral effectiveness review, including development of detailed institutional strategies for CIDA's eighteen largest institutional partners. These strategies have been published on the CIDA web site.
  • CIDA also undertook a renewal of partnership programming to ensure that all channels for Canadian aid are as effective as possible.
  • To improve accountability and transparency, and provide better information on Canada's contribution to development efforts, the Agency revamped its Project Browser to make more project-specific information (e.g., project numbers, value of CIDA's contribution, targeted sectors) publicly available on more than 3,000 projects.
Risk Management

CIDA produced the Agency's first comprehensive risk management framework, entitled Managing Risks at CIDA: 2010 to 2020. This work has been recognized by Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS) for best practice in risk management across the government.

In CIDA's Corporate Risk Profile 2010—2011, two areas rated as higher risks:
1) attracting, developing and retaining staff, and 2) stakeholders' confidence. To respond to these risks, CIDA has: a) stepped up its human resources planning and management; and, b) further improved its accountability and transparency.

CIDA received a "Strong" rating on its risk management from TBS's Management Accountability Framework Assessment. Positive aspects of TBS Observations on CIDA's Risk Management Capacity included: excellent governance; the risk tolerance methodology; the leading edge tool on fiduciary risk management; integrating risk into Agency; and, processes and building an international network.

Spending Trend
($ in thousands)

Spending Trend

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Explanation of variance

In 2009—2010, CIDA was granted an authority to forgive up to $449 million owed by the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in relation to loan agreements, conditional on the Government of Pakistan making qualified investment in its education system. Amounts of $16 million and $49 million were forgiven in 2009—2010 and 2010—2011 respectively, based on audits of qualified spending. The balance of the authority is available for use in future years.

Estimates by Vote

For information on our organizational votes and/or statutory expenditures, please see the 2010—11 Public Accounts of Canada (Volume II) publication. An electronic version of the Public Accounts.