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2007-08
Departmental Performance Report



Correctional Service Canada






The original version was signed by
The Honourable Peter Van Loan, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Public Safety






Table of Contents



 SECTION 1 OVERVIEW

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 1.1 Minister’s Message

As Minister of Public Safety, I am pleased to present the Correctional Service of Canada’s (CSC) Departmental Performance Report to Parliament for the period ending on March 31, 2008.

Public Safety is responsible for the delivery of services and activities that directly contibute to public safety, including: policing and law enforcement; correctional services; conditional release of offenders; emergency management; national security; crime prevention; and the protection of our borders.

In highligting progress made in key prioririty areas over the past Fiscal Year, this report underscores the integral role that CSC plays in enhancing public safety. Consistent with the strategic priorities identified in the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities, the Service continued to make progress in five key areas that directly contribute to public safety:

  • Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community;
  • Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions;
  • Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders;
  • Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders; and
  • Strengthened management practices.

In December 2007, after completing its in-depth review of our federal correctional system, the Independent Review Panel delivered its report, A Roadmap to Strengthening Public Safety. This report was endorsed by the Government in Budget 2008. Thanks to the clear direction provided in the report, CSC was able to acquire a more thorough understanding of its current challenges; better support its current priorities; and gain greater clarity on transformation initiatives that will help strengthen federal corrections in Canada over the long-term.

The reform of federal corrections represents a key component of the Government of Canada’s commitment to tackling crime and fostering safer communities for Canadians. The Government is determined to set the corrections system on a new foundation which significantly strengthens inmate accountability, improves offender employability programming, eliminates drugs from prisons, modernizes infrastructure and prepares the ground for earned parole. Undertaking such a fundamental transformation will help CSC ensure that it has the capacity to effectively protect Canadians in the face of complex correctional challenges for years to come.

__________________________________________
The Honourable Peter Van Loan, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Public Safety

1.2 Commissioner’s Message

For the past several years, CSC has experienced a series of new and highly complex correctional challenges that have resulted in increased pressures, demands and costs for the organization. Some of these challenges include the needs and risks associated with an ever-changing offender profile, escalating mental health needs and a deteriorating physical infrastructure.

Despite ongoing challenges, CSC exercised the creativity and flexibility needed to continue to deliver on its mandate and effectively contribute to public safety. This Departmental Performance Report provides an account of the results we achieved this past Fiscal Year against the performance expectations and priorities identified in CSC's 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities. Thanks to the ongoing efforts of our dedicated staff, valued partners and committed volunteers, CSC continues to make significant contributions to public safety in Canada.

In recognition of the Service’s operating pressures, Public Safety Minister Stockwell Day appointed an Independent Panel in April 2007 to conduct a comprehensive review of the state of federal corrections in Canada.

The Panel’s report, which was made public in December 2007, outlines numerous comprehensive recommendations that provide us with a roadmap to achieving a strong and secure correctional service that has the capacity to respond to a wide range of correctional realities.

The Government of Canada has shown its support for the proposed renewal and revitalization of our federal correctional service through the funding provided to CSC in Budget 2008. These funds will allow us to move forward with transformation, address some of our most urgent requirements and implement the changes needed to produce lasting public safety results for Canadians.

__________________________________________
Don Head
Commissioner, Correctional Service of Canada

 1.3 Management Representation Statement

I submit for tabling in Parliament, the 2007-2008 Departmental Performance Report for the Correctional Service of Canada.

This document has been prepared based on the reporting principles contained in the Guide to the Preparation of Part III of the 2007-2008 Estimates: Reports on Plans and Priorities and Departmental Performance Reports.

  1. It adheres to the specific reporting requirements outlined in the Treasury Board Secretariat guidance;
  2. It is based on the department’s Strategic Outcome and Program Activity Architecture that were approved by the Treasury Board;
  3. It presents consistent, comprehensive, balanced and reliable information;
  4. It provides a basis of accountability for the results achieved with the resources and authorities entrusted to the department; and
  5. It reports finances based on approved planned spending numbers from the Treasury Board Secretariat.

__________________________________________
Don Head
Commissioner, Correctional Service of Canada

 1.4 Program Activity Architecture (PAA)

The Management, Resources and Results Structure1 of a federal department or agency identifies the organization’s strategic outcome(s), describes the activities supporting these outcomes and establishes the structure by which the organization will manage these activities. The Program Activity Architecture, an inherent part of the Management, Resources and Results Structure, establishes an inventory of activities and sub-activities that allows the organization to clearly and accurately demonstrate results and value-for-money to Parliament, central agencies and Canadians against the priorities, expected results, plans and day-to-day operations it sets out to achieve.

CSC’s entire Program Activity Architecture is depicted in the chart on page 6. It presents CSC’s Strategic Outcome and its three Program Activities, with key results, key outputs and key performance indicators.

In all CSC activities, and all decisions that staff make, public safety is the paramount consideration. This is captured in the single Strategic Outcome which states:

"Offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into Canadian communities with due regard for public safety."

Three Program Activities that contribute to the Strategic Outcome are: Care and Custody, Rehabilitation and Case Management, and CORCAN. Corporate Services, while not a specific activity within the Program Activity Architecture (i.e. finance, human resources and similar functions at CSC), supports all three Program Activities. Resources attributable to Corporate Services have been allocated throughout the Program Activity Architecture.

This will be the final performance report based on this Program Activity Architecture. CSC has worked closely with Treasury Board Secretariat Program and policy Analysts over the course of 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 to strengthen and refine its Management, Resources and Results Structure while ensuring it complied with Treasury Board policies.

 

 

PAA

 

 

 1.5 Strategic Context for Fiscal Year 2007-2008

Operating Environment2

NUMBER OF OFFENDERS UNDER CSC RESPONSIBILITY DAILY IN 2007-2008

  • More than 13,000 incarcerated
  • More than 8,000 supervised in
    the community

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) is an agency within the Public Safety Portfolio. The portfolio brings together key federal agencies dedicated to public safety, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the National Parole Board, the Canada Border Services Agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, and three review bodies, including the Office of the Correctional Investigator.

CSC contributes to public safety through the custody and safe reintegration of eligible offenders. More specifically, CSC is responsible for administering court-imposed sentences for offenders sentenced to two years or more. This includes both the custodial and community supervision components of an offender’s sentence. CSC also administers post-sentence supervision of offenders with Long Term Supervision Orders for periods of up to ten years.3

FEDERALLY MANAGED
FACILITIES

  • 58 institutions, including 4 Aboriginal healing lodges
  • 16 community correctional centres
  • 84 parole offices and sub-offices

CSC manages institutions, treatment centres, Aboriginal Healing Lodges, Community Correctional Centres and Parole Offices. In addition, CSC has a National Headquarters (NHQ), five Regional Headquarters (RHQ) and eight District Offices that provide management and administrative support and serve as the delivery arms of CSC’s programs and services. CSC also manages an addictions research centre, a correctional management learning centre and regional staff colleges.

CORCAN, a special operating agency of CSC, provides work and employability skills training to incarcerated offenders in order to enhance job readiness upon their release to communities, and to increase the likelihood of successful reintegration. CORCAN also offers support services at 53 community-based employment locations across Canada to assist offenders on conditional release in securing employment. CORCAN’s services are provided through partnership contracts internally as well as externally with other government organizations, non-governmental organizations, and private enterprises.

The majority of CSC employees work in institutions and various community settings. Two occupational groups for the most part are exclusive to CSC: the Correctional Officer group (CX), and the Parole and Program Officer group (WP). Other groups represent positions required to operate institutions and community offices from health care professionals, to electricians, to food service staff as well as staff providing corporate and administrative functions at the local, regional and national levels. All staff work together to ensure that CSC achieves excellent public safety results for Canadians. They do so by ensuring that the institutions operate in a secure and safe fashion and that offenders are properly supervised on release. CSC is fortunate to also have the support of approximately 9,000 volunteers.

WORKFORCE
  • Over 15,000 employees 4
  • 85% work in institutions and communities
  • 40% are Correctional Officers 5
  • 15% are Parole and Program Officers
  • Over 5% are from visible minorities
  • Over 3% are persons with disabilities
  • 7% are from Aboriginal peoples
  • Approximately 46% are women

Approximately 74% of CSC’s Annual Reference Level (2007-2008) was dedicated to the provision of care and custody of offenders for the administration of the sentence through reasonable, safe, secure and humane custody in institutions and Community Correctional Centres, which includes such fixed and semi-fixed costs as salaries for correctional staff, security systems, facilities maintenance and food. The remaining 26% was allocated to rehabilitation and case management services to assist in the rehabilitation and safe reintegration of offenders into communities.6

Challenges and Key Events Impacting CSC Performance in 2007-2008

The offender population continues to present significant security and reintegration challenges for CSC. In recent years, the offender population has been increasingly characterized by offenders with extensive histories of violence and violent crimes, previous youth and adult convictions, affiliations with gangs and organized crime, serious substance abuse histories and problems, serious mental health disorders, higher rates of infection with Hepatitis C and HIV and a disproportionate representation of Aboriginal people.7

For a number of complex reasons, there has also been a trend towards shorter sentences, and for CSC this has meant an increase of 59% in the proportion of male offender admissions serving a sentence of less than three years.8 The result of this is an increasing polarization of the offender population, with roughly one in four (25%) male offenders and one in three (42%) women offenders serving sentences of three years or less, and roughly one in four (23%) male offenders and one in six (16%) women offenders serving life/indeterminate sentences adding to the complexity of the management challenges in CSC’s institutions.9

CSC expects this trend to continue. Effective management of the more complex offender population requires greater resources, new training and equipment for staff, an increase in specialized services (e.g., mental health care for offenders) and more distinct and targeted interventions.

Another concern is the aging infrastructure. CSC has one of the largest facility portfolios in the Government of Canada, consisting of a variety of institutions, community correctional centres and parole offices10 in communities across Canada. Together, these represent nearly 160 different sites.

Over the past 10 years, CSC has been facing capital and operating expenditure pressures. The rapid increase in demand for operational enhancements, to manage a different offender profile, created the need for significant reallocations of capital budgets to operations. This caused further delays to repairing and/or replacing aging physical infrastructure.

On March 19, 2007, the Government announced, in the Federal Budget, interim funding of "$122million over two years to the Correctional Service of Canada to meet its key requirements, including infrastructure, offender programs and staff training". Subsequently, on April 20, 2007, Stockwell Day, Minister of Public Safety, announced the establishment of an independent panel to review CSC’s operational policies, strategies and business plans. The Panel was mandated to determine future directions for the Service, as part of the Government’s overall commitment to Canadians to help prevent crime and enhance public safety.

Throughout spring and summer 2007, the Panel visited penitentiaries, parole offices and halfway houses to see first-hand the operations of federal corrections in Canada. They met with many groups, including front-line staff, managers and executives, union representatives, non-governmental organizations, volunteers, interested members of the public, and others.

The CSC Review Panel Report, A Roadmap to Strengthening Public Safety 11, was released to the public on December 13, 2007. The Report includes 109 recommendations, focusing on five key themes:

  1. Offender responsibility and accountability;
  2. Elimination of drugs from prisons;
  3. Offender employment and employability skills;
  4. Modernization of physical infrastructure based on more efficient and effective design, construction and operations; and
  5. Elimination of statutory release, and moving to earned parole.

The Panel stated that if these five key areas are strengthened, CSC would be in a better position to offer greater public safety results to Canadians.

The Panel also recognized that CSC is faced withsevere challenges in safely housing today's offender population in antiquated penitentiaries. Many of the federal penitentiaries in existence today were built in the 1800s and early 1900s. Newer penitentiaries that were built in the mid-1900s reflect the correctional management philosophy of that era which assumed that all inmates could function as a homogenous group. With the changing offender population over recent years, it is not uncommon today to find four or five distinct sub-populations, and two or three groups of offenders, who need to be physically separated from other offenders for their own safety, either through the use of segregation or special purpose units.

As part of the 2008 Federal Budget, the Government endorsed a comprehensive response to the recommendations of the CSC Review Panel and committed "$122million over two years to ensure that the federal corrections system is on track to implement a new vision to achieve better public safety results".

"Building on the significant funding provided in Budget 2007, Budget 2008 invests in this new vision by addressing some of the Panel’s key recommendations and by setting the foundation for changes to the federal corrections system. Budget 2008 stabilizes funding for Correctional Service of Canada while detailed planning for the transformation is undertaken. Inaddition, Budget 2008 provides funding for the first critical stage of transformation to allow Correctional Service of Canada to increase control of its institutions through enhanced safety and security, by dealing more effectively with the growing number of offenders with gang affiliations, and by detecting and eliminating drugs in penitentiaries. These investments will provide correctional staff with the tools and training they need to do their jobs safely and more effectively".12

This launched a long-term transformation agenda that will ensure that CSC is in a better position to improve results in institutions and in the community to enhance public safety. This long-term commitment will require a phased approach.

In early 2008, Treasury Board Secretariat launched a Strategic Review of CSC’s operations in order to further align its program activities and initiatives with government priorities. This review, in the long term, will better serve the needs of Canadians and will contribute to the government-wide focus on financial stewardship and the appropriate use of public funds.

 1.6 Departmental Performance

 1.6.1 Overview

In light of the challenges described earlier, and as reported in the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities, CSC continued focusing on the same five priorities as the year before in order to sustain its public safety results:

  • Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community;
  • Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions;
  • Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders;
  • Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders; and
  • Strengthened management practices.

In support of each priority, CSC developed a series of strategies and plans in order to meet performance expectations to advance contribution to public safety according to its mandate. CSC also developed a series of long-term result commitments, aligned with its priorities and in support of its Strategic Outcome. CSC focused on results that matter to Canadians and ensured that its progress against its priorities, in the long term, was measurable and transparent.

In February 2008, then-CSC Commissioner Keith Coulter13 established a Transformation Team to lead the Service’s response to the Review Panel. The Team was led by then-Senior Deputy Commissioner Don Head, and includes a number of CSC staff with extensive experience in operations and management.

The first part of 2008 was focused on informing and engaging staff and partners on the Panel’s recommendations and plans for the Transformation Agenda. This included ensuring existing and planned initiatives are aligned with the transformation vision.

The Transformation Agenda started by focusing on a series of immediate measures which would have lasting public safety impact. These measures will go a long way to improving safety for staff and offenders, both outside and inside Canada’s federal penitentiaries. These immediate measures support the theme of "eliminating drugs in the penitentiaries", including implementing scheduled visits and developing a national visitors’ database, as well as increasing the number of drug detector dog teams and hiring more Security Intelligence Officers for institutions and in the community.

Immediate measures in the area of Offender Accountability and Correctional Interventions will include implementing a revised intake assessment process; developing a revised program model for CSC; expanding employment initiatives; integrating education, employment and programs; and reviewing 12-hour day/use of leisure time. Short-term priorities for Community Interventions include strengthening policy on tandem visits; enhancing community consultation policy and standards; expanding federal-provincial-territorial partnerships; enhancing supervision and monitoring tools of offenders on statutory release and statutory release with residency; implementing an electronic monitoring pilot and holding community employment summits.

Ongoing initiatives in support of the infrastructure theme include developing a project plan; looking at opportunities of public/private partnerships for funding and building; and balancing current construction/infrastructure renewal demands that are critical for current and short-term operations.

The Budget endorsed this new vision for CSC, but deferred moving to an Earned Parole System, which includes the elimination of Statutory Release and Accelerated Parole Review. In the interim, emphasis is being placed on strengthening community infrastructure and partnerships to continue to support safe communities. This helps create the foundation for a move toward a system of Earned Parole.

The following tables identify planned and actual financial and human resources for Fiscal Year 2007-2008. After these tables, the overall performance status against the strategic outcome and priorities is reported by program activity.

Total Financial Resources for the Department ($ million)


Planned Spending14 Total Authorities Actual Spending
1,907.0 2,113.5 1,963.9

The above variance between the actual and the planned spending represents the additional 2-year interim government funding received in the 2007 Budget for Fiscal Years 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The additional funding is for addressing challenges related to items such as ageing institutional facilities, maintenance of basic safety and security within institutions and meeting basic legal and policy program obligations.

Total Human Resources for the Department (full-time equivalents)


Planned Actual Difference
15,491 15,402 (89)

CSC’s Performance by Program Activity


STRATEGIC OUTCOME
Offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into Canadian communities with due regard to public safety.
Status on Performance 2007-2008
($millions)
PAA Program Activity Expected Result Performance
Status
Referring Departmental Priority Planned
Spending
Actual
Spending
1) Care and Custody
Expected Result:
Reasonable, safe, secure and humane custody
Successfully met Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions 1,296.8 1,338.6
Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders
2) Rehabilitation and Case Management
Expected Result:
Safe reintegration to the community consistent with the law
Successfully met Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community 449.1 457.2
Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders
3) CORCAN
Expected Result:
Assisting in the safe reintegration of offenders by providing employment and employability skills
Successfully met15 Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community 0.0 -4.5
4) Corporate Services
Expected Result:
Direction and support so that offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into the community
Successfully met Strengthened management practices 161.1 172.6
    TOTAL 1,907.0 1,963.916

 1.6.2 Key Results by Priorities

The following are highlights of CSC’s performance by priority against key commitments identified in the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities to enhance public safety. More detailed information on specific initiatives associated with these priorities is presented in Section 2, at the Program Activity level.

Priority: Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community17

Preparing eligible offenders for a safe transition into the community remained a major priority for CSC in 2007-2008.

Every crime committed by an offender, either while incarcerated or while under supervision in the community is of significant concern to CSC. This is why CSC’s ultimate goal is to enhance public safety through reduced re-offending. This remains a serious challenge for CSC, as over 90% of offenders will one day return to the community. Furthermore, approximately 36% of offenders who complete their sentence will be convicted of a new crime; while the majority will receive some type of provincial sentence (i.e. less than two years)18 these recidivism results need to be improved.

In order to ensure that current results are improved, CSC has embarked on a Transformation agenda. This agenda, as outlined earlier, will help ensure greater offender accountability and stronger results in terms of inmate rehabilitation.  To ensure staff safety and effectively supervise offenders in the community, CSC provided additional training to staff and enhanced its safety processes.  Safety training for new Parole Officers is now provided as part of the Parole Officer Orientation training program.  Community supervision policies have been strengthened to further address staff safety concerns, and additional resources have been provided to small parole offices to improve staff safety.  Additional resources have also been dedicated to support the Advisory Committee on Community Staff Safety. Finally, CSC is working towards implementation of a Community Staff Safety Pilot Project to improve the safety and security of staff members who work with offenders in the community. In the fall 2008, participating staff members will be provided with a handheld device that is equipped with a distress button and voice recording and global positioning system capabilities.

Given the constantly changing correctional environment, CSC continued to ensure that front-line staff has clarity of roles and responsibilities necessary to carry out CSC's legislative mandate in the most effective manner possible. Also in an effort to clarify roles and responsibilities to front-line staff, this included in 2007-2008 the implementation of a new Community District Infrastructure, which is expected to be completed in 2008-2009.

In support of public and staff safety, CSC continually strives to improve its supervision and monitoring of offenders in the community, particularly for those offenders with higher needs and risks. To this end, CSC has studied the feasibility of developing a pilot Electronic Monitoring Program.  Implementation was not completed in Fiscal Year 2007-2008 as originally planned; the pilot was however re-initiated in June 2008  for implementation in September of 2008.

Key results against 2007-2008 RPP commitment


Measurement  
Violent offence Results
The percentage of federal offenders in communities convicted19 of or charged with a violent offence while under CSC supervision Convictions were steady from 2002-2003 (1.5%) to 2004-2005 (1.5%) with a slight decrease in 2005-2006 (1.2%) followed by a minor increase in 2006-200720 (1.3%).

Charged: fluctuating numbers with a slight decrease between 2002-2003 (1.4%) and 2006-200721 (1.3%).
The percentage of federal offenders convicted of a violent offence and returning to federal custody within two years of the end of their sentence Slight increase from 2001-2002 (4.7%) to 2002-2003 (5.1%) holding steady in 2003-2004 (5.1%) with a marked increase in 2004-2005 (6%) followed by a small decrease in 2005-200622 (5.9%).
The percentage of federal offenders convicted of a violent offence within five years of the end of their sentence Fluctuating numbers and a slight decrease between 1998-1999 (10%) and 2002-200323 (9.5%).

Further detailed data can be found in Section 4 of this report, page 86.

 

2 More information on CSC is available in its 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities at: http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rpp/0708/csc-scc/csc-scc-eng.pdf.
3 For more information, see the Glossary at the end of this report.
4 CSC has changed its definition of ‘employee’ to be consistent with the definition used by the Canada Public Service Agency. Previously, casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees were included. Source: CSC Human Resources Management System (March 31, 2008).
5 Includes operational units and staff from National Headquarters as well as the five Regional Headquarters.
6 Corporate Services costs are factored into the above 74-26 percent distribution. Source: CSC Finance 2008-07-04.
7 Source: CSC Research Branch. For more information, see The Changing Federal Offender Population (Fall 2008).
8 Ibid.
9 Source: CSC Research Branch. For more information, see The Changing Federal Offender Population (Fall 2008).
10 Parole offices, typically being rented facilities, do not present the same maintenance issues as correctional institutions.
13 Mr. Coulter retired from the Public Service in June 2008, and Mr. Head was appointed CSC Commissioner on June 27, 2008.
14 Planned Spending includes Main Estimates plus adjustments already supported by Treasury Board Secretariat. Total Authorities include Planned Spending as well as Supplementary Estimates and access to the Treasury Board contingency Vote. For more information, see Section 3.1: Financial Information.
15 Further details on these results and the CORCAN revolving fund are in Section 2.3.
16 Actual spending reflects an increase due to interim funding received for 2007-2008 to immediately address ageing institutional facilities, maintain basic safety and security within institutions and meet legal and policy program obligations.
17 Details on these plans are in Section 2.
18 Source: CSC 2004-2005 Departmental Performance Report.
19 After further analysis, conviction data is considered a more results-based indicator of re-offending. Charge data will continue to be monitored.
20 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting these results at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
21 Ibid.
22 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
23 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within five years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2002-2003).

 


Non-violent offence Results
The percentage of federal offenders in communities convicted24 of or charged with a non-violent offence while under CSC supervision Slight decrease from 2002-2003 (5.6%) to 2003-2004 (5.2%) followed by an increase in 2004-2005 (5.4%) holding steady in 2005-2006 (5.4%). Slight increase in 2006-200725 (5.7%).
The percentage of federal offenders convicted of a non-violent offence and returning to federal custody within two years of the end of their sentence Steady increase from 2001-2002 (4.4%) to 2005-200626 (5.7%).
The percentage of federal offenders convicted of a non-violent offence within five years of the end of their sentence Steady increase from 1998-1999 (7.8%) to 2002-200327 (9.4%).

Further detailed data can be found in Section 4 of this report, page 86.

As shown in the above performance results, there was a slight overall decrease in violent offences and a slight increase in non-violent re-offending.  However, in general, current recidivism rates of 36 percent must be addressed through Correction’s transformation.

Priority: Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions28

One of CSC's fundamental responsibilities is to ensure that its institutions are safe for staff and offenders as well as for the public. As such, CSC is committed to addressing the dynamics of aggressive behaviour in institutions and implementing effective measures to both anticipate and manage it. A major contributor to institutional violence is drug trafficking, both street drugs and prescription drugs. The use of illicit drugs contributes to instability and violence in institutions. Consequently, CSC continued to develop plans and implemented measures to reduce violence and illicit drugs in its institutions.

To address the challenge of illicit drug use, in addition to regular and ongoing drug interdiction efforts, CSC continued to implement its plan to reduce illicit drugs in institutions which included developing and introducing additional measures within its Drug Interception Strategy. These additional measures included developing a heightened public awareness campaign to communicate the hazards and repercussions of smuggling drugs into institutions; adding more ion spectrometry devices to conduct more thorough, non-intrusive searches of individuals coming into an institution; conducting more urinalysis and routine searches of inmates and their cells; maintaining better control of prescription drugs in institutions; and more closely monitoring inmates suspected of being involved in the institutional drug trade.

In support of this priority, CSC continued to enhance its institutional staff safety measures through increased training and increased organizational capacity to respond effectively to institutional incidents. For example, CSC has in place business continuity plans which provide direction to management and staff on emergency situations. In addition to protecting staff, these measures were also aimed at creating a better climate and conditions conducive for successful behavioural changes and rehabilitation of offenders.

To address the increasingly complex offender population, CSC initiated enhancements to its strategic intelligence capacity including additional financial and employee resources. Certain enhancement initiatives such as the implementation of the Security Intelligence Network were completed at the institutional level in 2007-2008. CSC also continued with its previously introduced Gang Management Framework. This helped to increase CSC's ability to mitigate the risks posed by offenders, in particular gang-affiliated offenders, which contributed to a safer environment for the staff, the offenders and the public.

Key results against 2007-2008 RPP commitment

2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities Result Commitment29 was to prevent any escalation of violence, assaultive behaviour and illicit drugs within institutions, as measured by:


Measurement Results
The rate of major security incidents
  • Decrease from 2003-2004 (0.8%) to 2004-2005 (0.5%) holding steady in 2005-2006. Slight increase in 2006-2007 (0.6%) holding steady in 2007-2008.
The rate of assaults on staff by inmates
  • Slight decrease from 2003-2004 (2.5%) to 2004-2005 (2.2%) with an increase in 2005-2006 to 2.6% followed by a 0.3% decrease in 2006-2007 and a further decrease in 2007-2008 to 1.8%.
The rate of assaults on inmates by inmates
  • Overall fluctuation from 2003-2004 (2.4%) holding steady in 2004-2005 while increasing in 2005-2006 (2.8%). Slight decrease in 2006-2007 (2.7%) followed by a further decrease in 2007-2008 (2.5%).
The rate of injuries to staff caused by offenders
  • Cut by half in the past 5 years from 0.8% in 2003-2004 to 0.4% in 2007-2008.
The rate of injuries to offenders caused by offenders
  • Slight increase over the past 5 years from 2.3% in 2003-2004 to 2.5% in 2007-2008.
The percentage of offenders testing positive during random urinalysis tests
  • Decrease from 2003-2004 (13.3%) to 2004-2005 (12.3%) followed by another decrease in 2005-2006 (12.0%). A slight increase in 2006-2005 (12.5%) followed by another increase in 2007-2008 (13.2%).

Further detailed data can be found in Section 4 of this report, page 82.

Given the more challenging offender profile, the increasing offender population and the relatively constant overall number of the employee complement, most of these results show significant achievements in 2007-2008 toward safer and more secure institutions for staff and offenders. However there remains more work to do in 2008-2009.

The presence of any illicit drugs in institutions continues to be an ongoing concern for the safety and security of staff, the public and offenders. These issues will be addressed through Correction’s transformation.

Priority: Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders30

CSC continues to be committed to addressing the needs of Aboriginal offenders--who are over-represented in the federal correctional system--through enhancing effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders. CSC continued to implement its long-term Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections (2006-2011)31 that will contribute to safe and healthy communities by being more responsive to the needs of Aboriginal offenders.

CSC focused on narrowing the gap in terms of correctional results between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders and is already beginning to see improvements. For example, the percentage gap between Aboriginal offenders charged or convicted of a violent or non-violent offence while in the community under CSC supervision versus Non-Aboriginal offenders has been reduced; as outlined in the Key Results table below. Although CSC was able to meet all of its objectives and plans of 2007-2008 in support of this priority, the results still show a gap in the outcome. With respect to results, changes are incremental given that it is a long-term strategy. Full impact of these measures on reducing the gap will take time to realize.

CSC continued to improve inmate population management for Aboriginal offendersin anticipation of the continued growth of the Aboriginal offender population. More specifically, CSC will expand existing Aboriginal-specific correctional programs; increase cultural competency in case management through Aboriginal perceptions training; implement a Northern Corrections Framework; and continue to develop and implement options with territorial and provincial governments to address the unique needs of Northern offenders.

Given the unique needs and risks of Aboriginal offenders, and their disproportionate representation in the correctional system, all CSC policy has completed consultations on all policy development and changes have been reviewed through an Aboriginal lens to ensure that there are no systemic barriers that may negatively impact on Aboriginal offenders.

CSC also worked collaboratively both within the Public Safety portfolio and with other federal departments and agencies, and with other levels of government, in order to address the gap in correctional results between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. This included a more active involvement in interdepartmental committees and consolidation of efforts such as:

  • Indian Residential Schools Resolution-proposed settlement agreement (led by Indian Residential Schools Resolution Canada);
  • Housing and Homelessness Initiative renewal (led by Human Resources and Social Development Canada); and
  • Memorandum of Understanding on Aboriginal employment and employability (led by Service Canada).

Aboriginal offenders, including women Aboriginal offenders, neither participate in standard treatment programs nor complete them at the same rate as other offenders. Initial results indicate that Aboriginal offenders complete Aboriginal-specific programming at much higher rates than standard programs.32 Recognizing the need to develop Aboriginal alternatives to core programs, and the specific risks and needs of Aboriginal women offenders, CSC has undertaken the development of several program-based initiatives to improve Aboriginal offenders' safe reintegration.

Key results against 2007- 2008 RPP commitment33

2007-2008 Reports on Plans and Priorities Result Commitment was to prevent the gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal correctional results from widening, as measured by:


Measurement Results
The percentage of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal federal offenders convicted of, or charged with, violent or non-violent offences in communities while under CSC supervision Gap has narrowed slightly from 2002-2003 (0.6% for violent and 2.9% for non-violent) to 2006-200734 (0.5% for violent and 2.3% for non-violent).
The percentage of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal federal offenders convicted of a violent or non-violent offence and returning to federal custody within two years of the end of their sentence Gap increased for violent offences between 2001-2002 (0.7 %) and 2005-2006 (3.4%). It decreased slightly for non-violent offences, from 2001-2002 (0.7%) to 2005-200635 (0.4%).
The percentage of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal federal offenders convicted of violent or non-violent offences within five years of the end of their sentence Slight decrease between 1998-1999 (5.9% for violent and 0.1% for non-violent) and 2002-200336 (5.5% for violent and 0% for non-violent).

Further detailed data can be found in Section 4 of this report, page 89.

As evidenced by the above performance results, a gap still remains with respect to re-offending, both while offenders are under CSC supervision in the community and following the completion of their sentence. As such, reducing re-offending among Aboriginal offenders will continue to be a priority for CSC.

Priority: Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders37

Offenders with mental health disorders are often at higher risk of repeated arrests and incarceration, especially in the first few months following release. They are at a higher risk of failing to comply with treatment obligations and of violating their parole conditions.38 By improving its capacities to address mental health needs of offenders, CSC enhances its contribution to public safety.

CSC continues to face challenges in optimizing mental health care and ensuring that offenders’ needs are addressed both while incarcerated and during conditional release in the community. These challenges include the increasing cost of providing mental health care; the need for more comprehensive mental health screening and assessment of offenders; the need for enhanced capacity to provide a continuum of integrated mental health services for both primary and intermediate mental health care; and the need for staff training specific to the provision of mental health services.

In 2007-2008, CSC continued with the implementation of the five components of its previously introduced Mental Health Strategy in support of this priority.
More specifically in 2007-2008, CSC focused on and was able to achieve all of its objectives and plans with respect to the implementation of the Community Mental Health Initiative, which aims to better prepare offenders with serious mental health disorders for release into the community, by strengthening the continuum of specialized mental health support and providing continuity of support from institutions to the community. Ensuring continuity of care for offenders with mental disorders on release from institutions and after the expiry of their sentence is crucial to public safety. However CSC continues to experience difficulties in recruiting health professionals. Detailed progress for the Community Mental Health Initiative in 2007-2008 is outlined in Section 2 and includes: hiring of new staff for clinical discharge planning, staff training in mental health related issues, and contracts for mental health services for offenders.

CSC continued to work with the Federal Government’s recently established Mental Health Commission and its Advisory Committees, which have been mandated to develop a national mental health strategy, share best practices for the benefit of Canadians, and undertake public awareness and education in order to combat the stigma associated with mental illness.

Key results against 2007- 2008 RPP commitment

2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities Result Commitment39 was to improve correctional results for federal offender with mental health disorders as measured by:


Measurements
Violent offence Results
The percentage of federal offenders with identified mental needs in communities convicted of or charged with a violentoffence while under CSC supervision40 Charged: Increase of 0.3% from 2002-2003 (1.4%) to 2003-2004 (1.7%) holding steady through 2004-2005. Slight decrease in 2005-2006 (1.5%) with no change in 2006-2007.

Convicted: Increase from 1.7% in 2002-2003 to 2.2% in 2003-2004 with a marked reduction in 2004-2005 to 1.2%. A slight increase in 2005-2006 (1.4%) followed by a marked increase in 2006-2007 (2.6%).
The percentage of federal offenders with identified mental health needs convicted of a violent offence and returning to federal custody within two years of the end of their sentence Fluctuating results with an overall increase from 2001-2002 (6.42%) and 2005-200641 (10.36%).

Further detailed data can be found in Section 4 of this report, page 95.

As shown in the above performance results, there was a slight overall increase for offenders with mental needs charged with a violent offence and a more significant increase in offenders convicted with a violent offence within two years of ending their sentence. Therefore reducing violent re-offending among offenders with identified mental health needs will continue to be a priority for CSC.


Non-violent offence Results
The percentage of federal offenders with identified mental needs in communities convicted of or charged with a non-violent offence while under CSC supervision42 Charged: Fluctuating numbers with an overall increase from 2002-2003 (2.1%) to 2006-2007 (3.6%) of 1.5%.
Convicted: Fluctuating numbers with an overall decrease from 2003-2003 (7.2%) to 2006-200743 (6.4%) of 0.8%.
The percentage of federal offenders with identified mental health needs convicted of a non-violent offence and returning to federal custody within two years of the end of their sentence. Marked increase from 1.9% in 2001-2002 to 6.5% in 2005-200644 .

Further detailed data can be found in Section 4 of this report, page 96.

As shown in the table above, there was an increase in offenders with identified mental health needs charged with a non-violent offence and a slight decrease in offenders with identified mental health needs convicted of a non-violent offence while under supervision. There was also an increase in the non-violent offences and returning to custody within two years of ending their sentence. Based on these results, reducing non-violent re-offending among offenders with identified mental health needs will also continue to be a priority for CSC.

Priority: Strengthened management practices45

CSC recognizes that its success in achieving correctional results over the coming years in its priority areas depends on developing strong management practices, and CSC was able to meet all of its initiatives set out for 2007-2008 in support of this priority.

CSC worked collaboratively with union representatives to develop an action plan that addresses the results of the Public Service Employee Survey.

CSC also undertook to promote an organizational culture that integrates values and ethics into all decision-making while continuing to develop mechanisms in the resolution of conflicts. These efforts aim to improve decision-making, support productive working relationships, and improve trust within the organization, consistent with government-wide values and ethics objectives.

Two internal surveys were launched to improve internal communicationsand better achieve CSC’s overall correctional and public safety mandate. A new Bridge Building Award, introduced in 2007-2008 by the Commissioner, recognized employees who demonstrated excellence in improving communications and enhancing teamwork between National Headquarters and its five regions.

Attracting and retaining an innovative and representative workforce with the appropriate skills to meet CSC's business needs at all levels of the organization is fundamental to the sustainability of correctional results today and into the future. In 2007-2008, CSC completed all of its plans for strengthening its human resources management. This included, but was not limited to: improving human resources planning and governance, reviewing the Human Resources Management policy framework, and building human resources capacity.46

In 2007-2008, CSC was guided by its Corporate Risk Profile. The Reports on Plans and Priorities, the Evaluation Plan, the Audit Plan and the Research Plan for this year were all based and aligned with CSC’s corporate risks and mitigation strategies to ensure risk-based planning, decision-making and resource allocation. In response to changes in CSC’s strategic context and operating environment, the Corporate Risk Profile has been further refined during the Fiscal Year and strengthened for 2008-2009.

Key results against 2007-2008 commitment

Result commitments were to continue to make a strong contribution to public safety in priority areas, as measured by:


Measurement Results
Achievement of targeted operational results, as defined under the previous four priorities Targeted operational results are described in Section 1 and Section 2 of this report
Maintain positive results in management practices as reflected in Management Accountability Framework assessments by the Treasury Board Secretariat Official MAF Round V results from Treasury Board Secretariat are pending

 

24 After further analysis, conviction data is considered to be a more results-based indicator of re-offending. Charge data will continue to be monitored.
25 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting these results at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
26 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
27 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within five years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2002-2003).
28 Details on these plans are in Section 2.
29 In view of the fiscal restraint measures introduced in November 2006, CSC adjusted its performance expectations from improving public safety results, as per the 2006-2007 Report on Plans and Priorities, to sustaining public safety results, as reflected in its 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities.
30 Details on these plans are in Section 2.
33 The data source for the following charts is the Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).
34 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting these results at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
35 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
36 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within five years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2002-2003).
37 Details on these plans are in Section 2.
38 Lurigio, A. J, et al. The Effects of Serious Mental Illness on Offender Re-entry. Federal Probation, Vol 68, No. 2 September 2004.
39 In view of the fiscal restraint measures introduced in November 2006, CSC adjusted its performance expectations from improving public safety results, as per the 2006-2007 Report on Plans and Priorities, to sustaining public safety results, as reflected in its 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities. In the short term, CSC is limited to reporting results based on the mental health condition of offenders at admission. In the longer term, CSC will work toward improving its capability of reporting correctional results based on the mental health condition of offenders prior to their release into the community.
40 Revocation statistics require a case-by-case analysis in order to determine the appropriateness of any given case. As a result, revocation data, while it will continue to be monitored closely, will not be used as a result indicator in future years.
41 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
42 Revocation statistics require a case-by-case analysis in order to determine the appropriateness of any given case. As a result, revocation data, while it will continue to be monitored closely, will not be used as a result indicator in future years.
43 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting these results at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
44 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
45 Details on these plans are in Section 2.
46 Further details on results can be found in Section 2 on page 59.

 

 1.7 Link to the Government of Canada Outcome Areas47

A "whole-of-government" framework groups all federal departments’ Strategic Outcomes and Program Activities into 13 long-term benefits to Canadians--referred to as "Government of Canada Outcomes"--in three broad sectors: social, economic, and international.

Through three Program Activities--Care and Custody, Rehabilitation and Case Management and CORCAN--CSC contributes directly and indirectly to the social affairs sector, under the Government of Canada Outcome, "Safe and Secure Communities".

The Government of Canada is committed to strengthening the justice system and reinforcing Canada's capacity to prevent and combat crime. To ensure the safety of Canadian communities, the Government of Canada also works in partnership with volunteers, academics, governments, and community organizations on ways to prevent crime by investing in approaches that help stakeholders address the root causes of crime and victimization, such as family violence, gang recruitment, or substance abuse.


Government of Canada Outcome CSC’s Direct Contribution CSC’s Indirect Contribution
Canada’s Social Affairs
Safe and Secure Communities
  • Decreased levels of crime and victimization by offenders through the delivery of programs and services that reduce recidivism;
  • Enhanced community capacity to deliver programs and services that meet the needs of at-risk populations, through partnerships and formal arrangements with the voluntary sector; and
  • Enhanced intelligence gathering and information-sharing capacity, both internally and with criminal justice partners, has allowed for a more cooperative response to ensuring security and safety in institutions and communities.
  • Maintain safe and secure communities
  • Reduced social costs of crime
Canada’s Economic Affairs
Income Security and Employment for Canadians
  • Provision of work opportunities and employability skills to offenders, through work and training in institutions and support in finding employment when released to the community.
  •  This contribution will be further enhanced as with the Government’s focus on increasing offender employment and employability skills while in the custody of the Correctional Service of Canada.
  • A larger, more productive Canadian workforce

CSC’s third Program Activity, CORCAN, also contributes to the economic sector, under the Government of Canada Outcome, "Income Security and Employment for Canadians."

CSC also contributes to the Government’s cross-cutting theme on Aboriginal peoples and the Aboriginal Horizontal Framework of the Government of Canada. Specifically, through its Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections48, CSC has developed a modern approach to correctional interventions aimed at implementing care and services to Aboriginal offenders that fully respects the diversity of First Nations, Inuit and Métis offenders and their communities.


Directly Indirectly
  • Aboriginal community capacity development and engagement in the development and delivery of correctional services for Aboriginal offenders;
  • Improved health status of Aboriginal offenders;
  • Culturally appropriate accommodation options for safe transition to communities;
  • Enhanced participation in education programs; and
  • Development of employment and employability skills.
  • Improved life chances for individual Aboriginal offenders
  • Healthier and more economically viable Aboriginal communities
  • Enhanced Aboriginal relationship with the Government of Canada

International Contributions

Canada has long cooperated internationally in judicial and correctional matters. Transfer of Offenders Treaties enable offenders, with their explicit consent and with the discretionary approvals of the sentencing country and country of citizenship, to serve their foreign-imposed sentence in their country of citizenship. The International Transfers Program is administered by CSC, with the assistance of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade's Consular Services.

Building a foundation for the rule of law continues to be an integral and indispensable part of the Afghanistan reconstruction program. As part of the Government’s commitment to help Afghanistan become stable and self-sufficient, CSC has been playing a key role in prison reconstruction in Kandahar in southern Afghanistan.

In 2007-2008, CSC officers continued to work with front-line staff and administrators in order to improve security and make advancements in the general living conditions of prison facilities. They provided advice on infrastructure improvement and on equipment acquisition for prisons in poor condition and worked in collaboration with the United States' Correctional Sector Support Program (CSSP) to finalize the national training curricula. The officers conducted ongoing projects, mentoring and compliance review pursuant to the United Nations Minimum Standard Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners within Sarpoza prison. These initiatives will ensure that a long-term capacity will be developed within the Central Prison Department of the Afghan Ministry of Justice.

CSC has a long history of providing assistance and support for programs and initiatives operating in Haiti. Various exchanges and visits started in the mid-1990s, leading to the deployment of CSC experts through the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Following the 2004 Assessment Mission to Haiti, CSC deployed four staff members in July 2007 for a one-year assignment with the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). As part of the security component of MINUSTAH, the CSC officers are providing security sector reform, as well as training and mentoring of Haitian correctional services staff. They are part of a mission that will help to build a strong correctional system that respects international standards of human rights and contributes to Haiti's stability and democracy.

CSC has been providing a Training Program to officials of the Corrections and Prisons Service of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Training to a third delegation of Saudi Prison Service Officials was provided in August of 2007.

This project responds to two of Canada's slated foreign policy priorities, namely improved security for Canadians and greater engagement with global partners, and would be considered as an example of bilateral technical cooperation under the CSC Framework for International Development.

In addition to these collaborations, CSC also hosts, on a regular basis, visits from Justice System representatives from various countries interested in our expertise on corrections. In 2007-2008, CSC such visits included representatives from Switzerland, Guatemala, Malaysia,  United Kingdom, Scotland, Kenya, The Netherlands, Singapore, France, China, Australia, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, South Africa, Sweden, Belgium and Bahamas.

International Recognition

On February 14, 2008, four CSC officers received the United Nations Peacekeeping Medal for their ongoing contribution to the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti.

Health Contributions

CSC is working closely with the Federal Government’s recently established Mental Health Commission, which has been mandated to develop a national mental health strategy; share knowledge and best practices for the benefit of Canadians; and undertake public awareness and education in order to combat the hurtful stigma associated with mental illness.

CSC also partners with the Public Health Agency to address issues of public health, including:

  • infectious diseases surveillance and control within federal institutions; and
  • provision of harm reduction programs that reduce the impact of high-risk behaviour.

Finally, CSC is a member department of the Federal Healthcare Partnership (FHP). The FHP is a voluntary alliance of federal government organizations whose responsibilities include delivery of healthcare to select members of the Canadian population such as offenders. The objectives of the Partnership are to achieve economies of scale, while ensuring provision of care for clients; and to provide leadership on key healthcare issues.

Environmental Contributions

Government-wide, federal departments have sustainable development obligations and have been required to submit a Sustainable Development Strategy to Parliament every three years since 1997. CSC continues to move ahead with its sustainable development agenda with the adoption and publication of its fourth Sustainable Development Strategy guided by the departmental goal of "Contributing to a just, peaceful and safe Canadian society, respectful of natural resources and ecological capacities".

47 The Whole-of-Government Framework is used for whole-of-government reporting, as reflected in documents such as the annual Canada’s Performance reports: www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/report/govrev/06/cp-rc_e.pdf


 SECTION 2 ANALYSIS OF PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

This section presents each Program Activity in detail vis-à-vis expected results as reported in CSC’s 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities. The table below is a summary of where each plan is situated within the Program Activity Architecture.


Program Activity Departmental Priority Plans
Care and Custody
Administering a sentence through reasonable, safe, secure and humane custody
Safety and Security in Institutions:
Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions

Community transition:

Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community

Mental Health:
Improved capacity to meet the mental health needs of offenders.
Institutional Staff Safety
*
Community Staff Safety
*
Clarify Roles & Responsibilities of Frontline Staff
*
Strategic Intelligence
*
Strategic Plan to Reduce Illicit Drugs in Institutions
Infectious Diseases
*
Community Mental Health Initiative
*
Intake Mental Health Assessment Pilot Projects
Rehabilitation and Case Management
Assisting in the safe rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders into communities
Community transition:
Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community

Aboriginal Offenders: Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders
Electronic Monitoring
*
Offender Intake Assessment Process
*
Improve Population Management for Aboriginal Offenders
*
Classification Tools for Women Offenders
*
Systemic Policy Barriers
*
Horizontal Collaboration on Aboriginal issues
CommunityPrograms
*
Violence Prevention
*
Aboriginal Programming
CORCAN

Assisting in the safe reintegration of offenders by providing employment and employability skills
Community transition:
Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community
Employment Continuum
*
National Employment Strategy for Women
Corporate Services49 Management:
Strengthened Management Practices
Respond to the Public Service Employee Survey
*
Promote Values and Ethics
*
Internal Communications
*
Strengthen Human Resources Management

 

 2.1 Care and Custody Program Activity

Description of Program Activity: Administering a sentence through reasonable, safe and humane custody.

CSC is mandated to provide custody to offenders in a secure and safe environment while preparing eligible offenders for a safe release. As CSC institutions are, by necessity, isolated from society, CSC provides for many of the day-to-day needs of offenders in custody. The Care and Custody Program Activity includes a wide range of activities that address health and safety issues, including providing basics such as food, clothing, mental, and physical health care. It also addresses security within (as well as outside) the walls of institutions, including secure facilities, drug interdiction, and appropriate control practices to prevent incidents such as an escape or an assault on staff or inmates.50

Expected Result:  Reasonable, safe, secure and humane custody

For Fiscal Year 2007-2008, the corporate priorities associated with the Care and Custody Program Activity were:

  • Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions;
  • Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community; and
  • Improved capacity to meet the mental health needs of offenders

The total planned and actual spending, and human resource allocations, related to this Program Activity were:

2007-2008 Total Financial Resources ($ millions)


Planned Spending Authorities Actual Spending
1,410.3 1,556.3 1,460.3

2007-2008 Total Human Resources (full-time equivalents)


Planned Actual Difference
11,005 10,594 - 411

2.1.1 The Plans and Results

Institutional and Staff Safety

Ensuring the security and health of offenders as well as that of CSC employees are fundamental to CSC’s mandate. The following outlines results based on the plans in the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities.

Staff safety is an ongoing concern for the Service. In response, additional tools to improve security measures have been implemented. For example, CSC has provided stab-proof vests to correctional officers in its maximum-security institutions.

A further measure taken by the Service in 2007-2008 to address increased supervision of CSC’s highest risk offenders was the creation of additional correctional officer positions at the Special Handling Unit. The Special Handling Unit is where the most serious offenders in Canada serve their sentences, in CSC’s Quebec region.

Also at maximum-security institutions, CSC has continued the delivery of specialized training modules for select correctional officers in the areas of gang management and related safety measures. Representatives from each region were trained in this specialization so that they could then provide ongoing training to frontline staff.

Implementation of firearm improvements is also on target. Phase one is underway, which involved the decision to replace .38 calibre revolvers with 9 millimetre pistols, based on assessments of both cost and equipment quality. The contract was awarded for the 9 millimetre pistols in July 2008. Phase two will involve the replacement of existing 9 millimetre and .223 calibre rifles to a new singular .223 calibre rifle; while Phase three will include replacing existing 12 gauge shotgun with a newer model and conversion of gas guns from the current 37 to a 40 millimetre gas gun platform. Specification development for rifles has also been started.

CSC has also considered various additional security intervention tools. Taser technology was deemed to be worthy of further investigation. To this end, the Executive Committee approved a pilot project in February 2004, to take place at two sites. The Emergency Response Team members and Health Services staff at both sites have been extensively trained. The development of an appropriate Health Care protocol, as well as a number of investigations and Commissions undertaken by various outside agencies, delayed the implementation of the pilot project. The Kennedy Report from the Commission for Public Complaints against the RCMP is currently being reviewed by CSC and a determination will be made in the near future as to the direction CSC will take with respect to Taser technology.

Non-lethal and new methods of deploying tear gas products have been piloted at two maximum-security institutions. Various aspects related to the training; both positive and negative were considered and it was concluded that further assessment at multiple sites was required in order to obtain a sufficient amount of comparative data.

Additional security interventions evaluated by the Service include 40 millimetre impact munitions pepper spray and specific direct impact munitions. These assessments will continue in 2008-2009.

Another initiative undertaken by the Service in 2007-2008 to contribute to the safety of both staff and offenders is the assessment of pandemic contingency plans. Such reviews were completed for institutions and for the community. Contingency plans are reviewed annually.

Community and Staff Safety

CSC continually strives to improve the safety and security of its staff who work with offenders in the community. In Fiscal Year 2007-2008, CSC explored implementing a staff safety program for community Parole Officers. Project planning got underway in the spring of 2008, and CSC expects to implement the Community Staff Safety Pilot Program in fall 2008.

The Community Staff Safety Pilot Project will utilize a central support system to monitor the safety and security of community staff while they are conducting supervision contacts (or related duties) with offenders in the community. Community staff will be provided with a handheld device that is equipped with a distress button and voice recording and Global Positioning System capabilities.

The Community Staff Safety Pilot Program will be implemented in the Central Ontario and Nunavut District. Decisions on implementing the program nationally will flow from the assessment of the pilot.

In addition, the Service addressed its commitment to implement safety training standards for all community staff members (non-Parole Officers), which will serve to enhance staff safety. The target group consists of all clerical staff working in community operations, including Case Management Assistants and Program Clerks. The newly developed training standard, entitled Community Personal Safety Training for Clerical Staff, includes condensed Parole Officer training and has been approved for the 2008-2009 National Training Standards. Individuals meeting this standard will be provided with the necessary tools and knowledge to develop additional skills which will enhance their personal safety in their interactions with offenders.

CSC also amended community supervision policies to incorporate strengthened processes to address community staff safety. All relevant policy directions regarding staff safety were integrated into the new Commissioner’s Directive 715 "Community Supervision Framework", which was promulgated in October 2007.

A further initiative was the provision of additional resources for community infrastructure including CSC’s small parole offices. A recommendation to increase resources in this area was approved in June 2007. Additional resources were allocated to CSC’s small parole offices in 2008-2009.

As planned, in April 2007, CSC provided funding to support the Community Safety Committee, jointly chaired by CSC/Union of Solicitor General Employees. The Committee's mandate is to examine issues and recommend measures related to community staff safety in, but not limited to, the areas of staff training, technological support, facility standards, operating policies and practices, and resources. The Committee held four national meetings in 2007-2008, as per the Terms of Reference for this forum. The meeting minutes are distributed internally and policy issues are also provided to the CSC National Joint Occupational Health and Safety Policy Committee.

Clarifying Roles and Responsibilities of Frontline Staff

The majority of CSC employees work directly with offenders either inside CSC facilities or in the community. In 2007-2008, the Service committed to implement several new processes to clarify the roles and responsibilities of various frontline staff positions.

Work continues towards completion of a new Parole District Infrastructure. National Generic Work descriptions for District Director, Associate District Director and Area Director positions have been developed and approved, and staffing actions in relation to these positions is complete. The Parole Officer Supervisor Work Descriptions and accompanying staffing strategy were reviewed and approved by CSC’s National Human Resource Management Committee in October 2007. Due to workload pressures in 2007-2008 however, classification reviews for the three remaining National Generic Work Descriptions were delayed. Decisions for these positions are anticipated in fall 2008, as it is first necessary to identify and address infrastructure gaps in relation to the new structure.

 Over the past year, new correctional officer schedules have been implemented at all CSC sites across the country. A national committee of CSC and union representatives developed a more effective and efficient correctional officer scheduling practice. Each site now has an institutional committee (which includes employer and union representatives) that works with a scheduling committee to develop sustainable scheduling solutions. As a result, schedules are adapted to take into consideration the quality of life for frontline staff who work in a correctional environment and schedules are now also more cost effective. The national committee will continue to review and approve scheduling revisions to ensure CSC adheres to the principles of effective scheduling as outlined in the Correctional Officer Collective Agreement51. Furthermore, a training package on the principles has been provided to all scheduling committees and will be reviewed on an ongoing basis.

Implementation of a new institutional management structure was completed in September 2007, including the publication of a new corresponding Commissioner's Directive. The new policy established national management and reporting structure standards for operational units in both institutions and community districts.

CSC has taken steps towards the introduction of new Correctional Officer Deployment Standards. These new standards will assist in regulating security activities and enhance supervision capacities and interactions with offenders. However, this project was postponed in 2007-2008 to ensure alignment with the recommendations identified in the CSC Review Panel Report. The Transformation Team is currently reviewing the Panel Recommendations and moving forward on several initiatives that will impact the recommended Deployment Standards.

Consultation with the various unions, partners and stakeholders is currently ongoing to finalize the Deployment Standards with a planned implementation date of April 1, 2009.

Strategic Intelligence

In addressing the increasingly complex offender population, CSC has made enhancements to its strategic intelligence capacity, including the completed implementation of the Security Intelligence Network at the institutional level during 2007-2008. The Network contributes to an overall increase in the ability of CSC and its criminal justice partners to mitigate and respond effectively to security threats by enhancing traditional intelligence gathering, analysis and dissemination of security intelligence information.

In 2007-2008, CSC increased its videoconferencing capacity enabling inmates to participate in court and administrative meetings without leaving the institution. This feature guarantees a safer court hearing, while also reducing transportation costs for the provinces and CSC.

In response to the commitment to introduce several key elements of CSC’s Gang Management Strategy, the Service has completed "Train the Trainer" sessions with representatives from each region. This training provides the necessary tools to assist correctional officers in gang awareness. In addition, CSC participated in a two-month project at the end of 2007-2008 related to the Management of Aboriginal gangs in institutions and in the community (The MAGIC Project). CSC partnered with the Canadian Intelligence Services of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, as well as representatives from CSC institutions, the community and unions. This project aims to address the multidisciplinary approach needed to improve knowledge on Aboriginal gang structure and activities in the Winnipeg area.

Measures to reduce illicit drugs in institutions

CSC continues its efforts to reduce the introduction of illicit substances within its institutions. Elements of the Drug Audit have been implemented including an update on Commissioner’s Directive 85 (National Drug Strategy), the implementation of a human resources management strategy and a revised policy on staff searching. In 2008-2009, the Transformation Team will address the implementation of a revised national policy on processes for searching, detaining and arresting individuals believed to be introducing drugs into an institution; as well as establishing a visitors’ database, increased institutional security staff, drug detection dogs and handlers, new contraband detection equipment, and new communication tools. The Service will also sponsor an international symposium on practical solutions to combat drugs in 2008-2009.

Infectious Diseases

The prevention and management of infectious diseases among the federal offender population is a priority for CSC. Accordingly, the Service has taken steps to enhance existing programs to provide inmates with the knowledge and skills necessary to lead healthier lives and to prevent the acquisition and transmission of infectious diseases both in CSC institutions and in the community following release. Throughout 2007-2008, CSC:

  • expanded health promotion initiatives to encourage healthy behaviours by inmates within the correctional environment by establishing Regional Health Promotion Coordinator positions;
  • improved discharge planning activities for offenders with complex infectious diseases re-entering into the community, through the issuing of discharge planning guidelines and the creation of coordinator positions in discharge planning who keep focus on offenders’ needs through coordination and consultation with institutional services and community partners; and 
  • delivered Aboriginal-specific public health programming in the Pacific and the Prairie Regions via Aboriginal Health Coordinators.

Community Mental Health Initiative

While CSC is experiencing pressures in all areas of health care service delivery, it is in the area of mental health services that CSC is facing its most serious challenges, as discussed in Section 1. The following activities detail the results of CSC’s work in the area of Community Mental Health for 2007-2008:

  • Created 44 new clinical positions to improve discharge planning and clinical service delivery to offenders;
  • Delivered two-day national Community Mental Health training to approximately 600 frontline workers, including halfway house staff, at selected parole sites;
  • Monitored existing mental health contracts to provide specialized services to offenders with mental disorders in the community;
  • Expanded data collection for a national evaluation of the Community Mental initiative in keeping with the Results-Based Management Accountability Framework; and
  • Enhanced services in the community for women and Aboriginal offenders. This including the implementation of several contracts to specifically address the mental health needs of these two populations. In addition, CSC delivered specialized mental health training focused on the needs and risks of both Aboriginal and women offenders with mental health disorders to front-line staff.

Intake Mental Health Assessment Pilot Projects

In 2007-2008, CSC finalized the development and piloted a computerized Mental Health Intake Screening System. Full Implementation will begin in 2008-2009. This system will enable CSC to systematically screen and identify the mental health needs of inmates at intake and provide more accurate data on the prevalence of mental health problems in the offender population.

2.1.2  Key performance and other indicators

The following data addresses CSC’s performance in 2007-2008 in relation to the Care and Custody Program Activity. Although the number of offenders flowing through institutions has increased over the last five years, the number of incidents has declined slightly, and the rate of major incidents has remained relatively stable. This suggests that staff efforts at managing the changing offender profile have had some limited success.

49 Although Corporate Services is not a Program Activity, it supports all CSC’s Program Activities
50 For related statistical information, see "Major Institutional Incidents" table on page 41

 

Major Institutional Incidents Details52


  03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08

Major Disturbance

14 3 12 6 15

Murder - Staff

0 0 0 0 0

Murder - Inmate

7 2 3 3 0

Hostage Taking / Forcible Confinement

9 5 6 5 3

Suicide

9 9 10 9 5

Assault on Staff

0 0 1 0 1

Assault on Inmate

40 31 37 40 49

Inmate Fight

6 6 5 12 6

Escapees from Maximum

0 0 0 0 0

Escapees from Medium

1 1 0 0 0

Escapees from Minimum

54 31 26 37 33

Escapees from Multi-Level

1 1 0 0 0

Escapees from Escort (Max)

0 0 0 0 0

Escapees from Escort (Med)

0 0 0 0 0

Escapees from Escort (Min)

0 0 0 0 0

Escapees from Escort (Multi)

1 0 0 0 0

Major Institutional
Incidents Total

year 142 89 100 112 112
3-year average 136 120 110 100 108

Institutional Flowthrough

year 18,534 18,624 19,040 19,569 20,021
3-year average 18,567 18,582 18,733 19,078 19,543

Rate

year 0.8% 0.5% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6%
3-year average 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.6%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Source for Escapees: Security Branch Institutional Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

In 2007-2008, of the approximate53 21,000 federal offenders under the supervision of CSC, there were thirty-one offender deaths. Twenty-two of these were categorized as by natural causes, four were cases of suicide, one overdose, and four were categorized as "other"54.  Although the numbers of certain institutional incidents have decreased, CSC is still working to improve results.

In spite of the increasing numbers of offenders being supervised in the community over the last five years, the number and rate of community incidents has declined overall. In 2006-2007, there was a dramatic decline in major assault occurrences, which remained fairly stable through 2007-2008. With respect to sexual assault incidents, despite an increase in 2006-2007 the rate declined in 2007-2008. Other incidents that have declined include murder and armed robbery, yet occurrences of robbery and unlawful confinement have increased.

The following table shows the number and rate of incidents in the community.


  2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Murder 4 12* 7 7 5
Attempted Murder 8 4 2 5 8
Sexual Assault 14 15 15 26 21
Major Assault 61 59 42 13 15
Hostage Takings 1 2 0 1 1
Unlawful Confinement 4 1 3 3 11
Armed Robbery - - - 51 24
Robbery 124 94 112 65 90
Other 19 21 19 16 11
Total year 235 208 200 187 190
3-year average 229 227 214 198 192
Community Flowthrough year 16158 16,144 16,354 16,358 16,599
3-year average 16,380 16,226 16,219 16,285 16,437
Incident Rate year 1.5% 1.5% 1.3% 1.2% 1.1%
3-year average 1.4% 1.4% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2%

Source: Security, Community Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.
* Includes the murder of a CSC Staff member.

 2.2 Rehabilitation and Case Management Program Activity

Description of Program Activity: Assisting in the safe rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders into communities.

Case management begins when offenders enter the correctional system, and continues for as long as they are under sentence, whether in an institution or in the community. Case management is closely aligned with rehabilitation. Incarceration and supervision alone do not produce the long-term changes that many offenders require in order to lead productive, law-abiding lives in the community. Correctional interventions, which include programs in the institution and in the community, are necessary to help bring about positive changes in behaviour. These interventions are aimed at addressing problems that are directly related to offenders’ criminal behaviour and that interfere with their ability to function as law-abiding members of society.

In 2007-2008, 8,483 offenders were granted some form of conditional release55 into the community. In the same year, 3,360 offenders had their conditional release revoked and were re-admitted to federal custody for the following reasons: 2,183 for a technical violation of their conditional release; 833 for the commission of a new offence; 336 for an outstanding charge; and 8 for "other" reasons.

Expected Result:  Safe reintegration into the community when appropriate and consistent with the law

For Fiscal Year 2007-2008, the priorities associated with this Program Activity were:

  • Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community; and
  • Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders.

The total planned spending and human resource allocations related to this Program Activity were:

2007-2008 Total Financial Resources ($ million)


Planned Spending Authorities Actual Spending
496.7 543.6 508.1

2007-2008 Total Human Resources (full-time equivalents)


Planned Actual Difference
4,101 4,370 269

2.2.1  The Plans and Results

Activities surrounding the rehabilitation and case management of federal offenders are an integral part of CSC’s day-to-day business. The following outlines the results based on plans outlined in the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities.

Electronic Monitoring

The resource assessment, program purpose, goals and scope for the Electronic Monitoring Program pilot for offenders under community supervision were developed in 2007. However, CSC was unable to implement the pilot as planned. A new program was designed and went into implementation in August 2008.

The Electronic Monitoring Program Pilot utilizes Global Positioning System technology. The one-piece device can track offenders on a 24/7 basis. The system  functions by having the offender wear an ankle bracelet that reports the offenders’ position to a monitoring network. Based on the offenders release conditions, areas are programmed into the system to identify/alert the monitor when the offender enters a restricted area.

Consistent with CSC’s policy and legislative framework, the Electronic Monitoring Program Pilot will contribute to public safety by providing additional offender supervision and monitoring tools for staff in our community offices.

The purpose of the Electronic Monitoring Pilot Program is to:

  • Test CSC’s capacity to manage information received through Electronic Monitoring Program Pilot technology;
  • Ensure that an appropriate policy framework and response protocols are in place;
  • Assess staff readiness to use Electronic Monitoring as a tool to assist in monitoring higher-risk offenders in the community;
  • Identify, in conjunction with police, appropriate response protocols when an electronic monitoring alert/alarm is registered; and
  • Identify future needs and requirements in relation to a larger-scale, national electronic monitoring program.

The Pilot has been implemented for testing in the Ontario. A maximum of 30 offenders will be approved to participate in the program pilot at any one time. Upon the Pilot’s conclusion, CSC will assess the viability of the technology, as well as the efficacy of using Electronic Monitoring as a supervision tool.

Offender Intake Assessment Process

The purpose of CSC’s Offender Intake Assessment Process is to place offenders in the most appropriate institution to address both security and offender needs. This process normally takes 70 to 90days. It is designed to assist the Service in the timely preparation for the safe reintegration of offenders, in order to protect society. In 2007-2008, it was determined that a valid but streamlined Offender Intake Assessment process could be completed in 45 days for certain types of offenders. A revised Offender Intake Assessment process is currently under development as part of the Transformation agenda.

One component of the Offender Intake Assessment process, the Dynamic Factor Identification and Analysis was also revised and tested at operational units. The pilot showed that the reduced scale (reduced by approximately 100 items), was effective. Consultations indicated the need for further work to be completed in the context of the overall Intake Assessment Process. A report on the pilot test will be completed by December 2008 and additional testing will be completed in 2009 to finalize the new instrument.

Improve Population Management for Aboriginal Offenders

The delivery of Aboriginal-specific Correctional Programs requires a contingent of trained and qualified Program Facilitators. The 2007- 2008 Fiscal Year saw the hiring of 25 addditonal Aboriginal Correctional Program Officers across the regions bringing the current number to forty-three. Ongoing recruitment efforts will see this number continue to rise. Training initiatives in the areas of Substance Abuse, Violence Prevention, Family Violence, and Women Offender Programming saw the cross-training of approximately seventy-five Program Facilitators and Elders. Noteworthy is a Regional Program Managers Symposium held in February 2008. As a result of this event, regions are now more autonomous in their capacity to provide regionally-based training and quality assurance of Aboriginal Correctional Programs.

Program development was also focused on a much needed Aboriginal Women’s Maintenance Program. This program was developed under contract with Native Counselling Services of Alberta in 2006- 2007 but was implemented across the regions in the 2007- 2008  Fiscal Year. As well, with a goal of holistic healing, adaptations were made to the "Spirit of a Warrior Program" (violence prevention for women offenders) to include the issues of substance abuse and gang associations. The needs of Inuit offenders were addressed through adaptations to the Aboriginal Offender Substance Abuse Program, the High Intensity Aboriginal Offender Family Violence Program, and the "In Search of Your Warrior" Program. This included the translation of program manuals into Inuktitut.
 
Correctional Programs were formally evaluated in 2007. The evaluation measured achievements and outcomes and included findings and recommendations with the intent of guiding decisions regarding the design and delivery of the targeted Correctional Programs. The evaluation examined violence prevention programs, family violence programs, substance abuse interventions, sex offender programs, life skills interventions, and community maintenance programs. Where appropriate, this included Aboriginal Correctional Programs within these respective domains. The Evaluation found that positive correctional outcomes, such as reductions in re-offending, were associated with offenders who participated in institutional and community-based programs. The evaluation report also associated these positive outcomes with a cost-saving attributed to reduced re-offending. The final report is scheduled for release in the fall of 2008.

Aboriginal Perceptions training to improve understanding of Aboriginal culture and history was also developed. In 2007-2008, the Service held "Train the Trainers" sessions to train appropriate facilitators to deliver such training. Parole Officers in CSC’s Prairie Region, where the majority of the federal Aboriginal offender population is situated, have now received Aboriginal perceptions training. The remaining Parole Officers will receive this training in 2008-2009. While this training is geared towards front-line staff, it has also been adapted for National and Regional Headquarters employees to improve the overall understanding of Aboriginal culture and spirituality when developing policies and new programs.

In 2006-2007, CSC implemented a Northern Corrections Framework to partner with the Provinces and Territories in addressing the unique needs of Inuit offenders. This initiative is geared towards facilitating the reintegration of offenders to their northern home communities upon release. In 2007-2008, the Service worked with Nunavut to plan a needs assessment for federal offenders who wish to return to the Territory upon their conditional release. This included assessing housing options and the provision of specialized training to Territorial staff to address the unique needs of northern offenders.

Security Classification Tool for Women Offenders

The main purpose of this pilot is to gather information and to establish cut-off scores for the Security Classification Scale. There was a delay in the development of the culturally-sensitive actuarial dynamic risk assessment tool for women due to unforeseen complications. The pilot project started in January 2008 in New Westminster, Edmonton, Toronto and Montreal, and will continue until December 31, 2008. There is a need to assess a minimum of 200 new Warrant of Committal admissions (new sentences) prior to completion of this pilot project. Upon completion of the pilot project, the contractor will require approximately two months to assess the information and make the necessary recommendations for change.

Field testing will then commence in order to verify the information collected during the pilot. CSC will work with the contractor to organize the training needed to begin field testing which will be on a larger scale than the current pilot project in 2009.

Systemic Policy Barriers

A formal policy consultation process is now in place to ensure that all new Commissioners’ Directives are reviewed through an Aboriginal lens to ensure the needs of Aboriginal offenders are considered prior to approval by the Commissioner. Potential systemic barriers in the areas of inmate redress and inmate discipline were examined, given that the existence of institutional charges is a key factor in correctional decision making for participation in Work Release, Temporary Absences and conditional release.

Horizontal Collaboration on Aboriginal Issues

CSC is represented on the Federal Steering Committee on Inuit Priorities, established by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada in December 2007. Broader government direction on a Northern Strategy will dictate how this agenda will proceed. A revised organization structure to address gaps in external collaborative capacityfor the Directorate was approved in March 2008.

Community Programs

The promotion of the Community Maintenance Program which assists offenders to continue the change they’ve made as a result of other program taken continues to be a priority for the Service. Finding a better balance between institutional and community programs is a key recommendation made by the CSC Review Panel.

A recent evaluation found that male and female offenders who participated in a community maintenance program were more likely to have positive community correctional outcomes when compared to their respective comparison groups. Offenders who participated in the Community Maintenance Program were 40% less likely to re-offend and 56% less likely to re-offend violently than those who did not participate.
 
CSC’s Maintenance Programs were developed based on best practices and accredited by an international panel of experts. These programs are delivered within a clearly defined management structure and staff undergo rigorous training and quality review. During the 2007-2008 Fiscal Years, a number of activities were undertaken to ensure the Service would achieve the expected results. In particular, three national trainings and six refresher trainings were delivered. This resulted in 42 staff being trained within the Fiscal Year, 17 of whom were individuals who work for CSC’s Community Partners. As a result of the efforts, the number of active facilitators increased with an associated increase in offender enrolments. Specifically, the number of enrolments increased from 347 to 444 offenders during this time period. The Community Maintenance Programs funding levels and expenditures have increased 46.4% from 2005 to 2008. This increase is due to gradual internal reallocations within the Correctional Program Budget.

The Attitudes, Associates and Alternatives program is a crime prevention program that targets crime committed for gain such as the risk factors associated with property, fraud or drug trafficking offences not related to substance abuse. The program’s implementation priority is linked to the Speech from the Throne (2007) which specified the need to address the serious problem of property crime. The program was developed, piloted and implemented in Fiscal Year 2007-2008 across CSC with the exception of Québec where it was piloted in July 2008. Currently, 58 institutional and community sites have the capacity to implement the program and 98 program facilitators have been trained to deliver the program to offenders.

CSC contributed towards the Department of Public Safety Circles of Support and Accountability Service Delivery Conference in January 2008 and will continue to provide assistance towards this important initiative which works with offenders upon release who have little or no community support. The National Crime Prevention Council has received a proposal for a multi-site intervention augmentation project in order to provide sufficient data for a rigorous independent third-party evaluation of the program.

Ongoing investment in Community Chaplaincy initiatives is being supported. This is an integral element of the continuum of effective spiritual service delivery. Chaplaincy engages the faith communities as a source of volunteers and support both during the period of incarceration and successful reintegration. New resources were provided to support participation in active dialog at the Interfaith Committee on Chaplaincy with representatives from Canadian Faith Communities, regarding community reintegration needs and faith-based partnerships.

Violence Prevention

A pilot for the delivery of Violence Prevention and Substance Abuse Programs to male offenders who are undergoing intake assessment has been implemented. In order to target the criminal behaviour of offenders serving short sentences, these effective correctional programs were modified to be delivered as early as possible in an offender’s sentence. This has been implemented successfully in all reception centres in all five regions.

A June 2008 summative evaluation was conducted on both programs. Both demonstrated significant success, cost-effectiveness and relevancy. The evaluation found that when compared to those who did not participate in the Violence Prevention Program, offenders who participated were 41% less likely to be returned to custody for a new offence and 52% less likely to be readmitted with a new violent offence. Those who completed the Substance Abuse Program were 45% less likely to return to custody for a new offence and 63% less likely to be readmitted with a new violent offence.

During Fiscal Year 2007-2008 CSC provided one day of training to 1,757 Parole Officers on dealing with resistant offenders, as part of the Parole Officer Continuous Development Program. This training based on basic principles of motivational interviewing, includes techniques to both motivate resistant offenders and to reinforce positive behaviour.

In support of the priority to reduce violence, the Service piloted and initiated the implementation of the Moderate Intensity Violence Prevention Program in 2007-2008. Four training sessions, including a "Train the Trainer" session, were held to facilitate regionally based training. This resulted in 46 CSC staff being trained which, in turn, allowed the program (at Moderate Intensity) to be delivered at 12 sites in 2007-2008 with 244 offenders enrolled in the program. Regions are now in a position to provide further training to increase facilitators and thus program availability. Eight Violence Prevention Program trainings have already been scheduled in 2008-2009. As a result, an increase in offender enrolments in the Violence Prevention Program is anticipated.

A program that addresses violence prevention specifically for women offenders has been developed, and the first group of facilitators were trained in January 2008. The pilot project was successfully implemented at four women’s institutions across the country between February and April 2008.

Training for Correctional Program Officers on violence prevention for women (Women’s Violence Prevention Program) has been developed and delivered. Correctional Program Training is not normally evaluated separately and is usually subsumed under Program Evaluation; however, the performance measures are in place to conduct an evaluation.

Aboriginal Programming

An Aboriginal Relapse Prevention/Maintenance Program has been developed and successfully integrated in the Community Maintenance Program. A recent evaluation of the Community Maintenance Program for Aboriginal offenders demonstrated that Aboriginal male offenders who were exposed to the Community Maintenance Program, were 42% less likely than the comparison group to return to custody for any form of recidivism including technical revocations. Aboriginal Community Maintenance Program group members were 53% less likely to return to custody for a new offence, and 59% less likely to be readmitted for a new violent offence than those who did not take the program.

The recommendations from the Preliminary Evaluation of the Aboriginal-specific high intensity violence prevention program "In Search of Your Warrior" were implemented in 2007-2008. A recent evaluation demonstrated however that there were no significant differences in the likelihood of returning to custody with a new offence or violent offence between offenders who participated in the program and those who did not. CSC will retain the program and examine ways to enhance its impact.

Revisions have been made to the "Spirit of Your Warrior Program", a violence prevention program targeted for female Aboriginal offenders. Components were added to address substance abuse and gang membership components.

2.2.2 Key Performance and Other Indicators

The cornerstone of CSC’s correctional model is a comprehensive assessment that leads to an integrated Correctional Plan for every federal offender. To maximize the effectiveness of the Correctional Plan, particularly with sentences of four years or less, the Plan must be promptly and accurately completed if offenders are to obtain maximum benefit from their incarceration. The Plan is incomplete until the Post-Sentence Community Assessment is received and the information incorporated.

The table below indicates that the case preparation process is functioning reasonably well. An increasing inmate population is putting some pressure on completing reports on time, and as a result, streamlining strategies are being examined to improve performance.

The percentage of correctional plans completed on-time has increased since 2005-2006. At the same time, the number of offenders flowing through the institutions has been steady over the past five years. In 2007-2008, 8,747 offenders were admitted to federal custody, and 89% of these offenders had their correctional plans completed in the required time frames.56  With the increasing incidence of shorter sentences in the federal system completion of correctional plans in the required timeframes is an ongoing challenge.

52 Assaults on staff, assaults on inmates and inmate fights are included only if they result in a major injury.
53 Source: Corporate Reporting System, August 18, 2008
54 other includes all cases where a cause of death could not be identified as one of the other five main causes or is still under investigation.
55 Day Parole, Full Parole, Statutory Release, Warrant Expiry, Long Term Supervision Order, Court Order, or Deceased.
56 Required timeframes: Correctional Plan completed within 70 calendar days from admission date for offenders serving sentences on four years or less; within 90 calendar days from the admission date for offenders serving sentences more than 4 years; and within 70 calendar days for young offenders transferred to federal jurisdiction.

 

Timeliness of Completion of Correctional Plans and Post-Sentence Community Assessments


  2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
% Correctional Plans
Completed On-time
93% 83% 81% 88% 89%
% Post Sentence Community Assessments Completed On-time 92% 90% 90% 93% 94%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Number of Successful Transfers to Lower Security Levels

Offenders are gradually transferred from higher to lower security levels to prepare for release back to the community.57  Offender transfers to lower security level are only done where there is a reduction in the risk presented by the offender. Such transfers are considered successful when the offender does not return to a higher security level for at least 120 days. Only transfers due to programming needs or for security reclassification are included in the statistics below.


  2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
% Transfers to Lower Security Completed Successfully 95% 94% 95% 94% 95%

Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

Programs serve as a critical vehicle in providing offenders with the skills they will require to find work, control their behaviour, make better choices, and overcome addictions in order to live a law-abiding lifestyle. Offenders are encouraged to participate and fully complete a program to obtain the maximum benefit from it.

Offender Program Outcomes58 by Type of Program


    2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Violence Prevention Programs All Outcomes 649 577 560 488 568
% Completions 65% 62% 62% 65% 80%
Sex Offender Programs All Outcomes 1,370 1,213 1,123 1,087 1,047
% Completions 59% 59% 58% 63% 67%
Substance Abuse Programs All Outcomes 5,257 5,048 5,250 5,473 5,505
% Completions 63% 60% 62% 66% 68%
Family Violence Prevention Programs All Outcomes 977 748 822 847 652
% Completions 78% 69% 73% 74% 75%
Living Skills Programs All Outcomes 3,622 2,995 2,822 2,536 1,239
% Completions 76% 76% 78% 79% 81%
Community Correctional Programs All Outcomes 487 563 610 764 1,082
% Completions 59% 64% 58% 55% 66%
Special Needs Programs All Outcomes 144 189 151 285 160
% Completions 45% 52% 42% 53% 59%
Women Offender Programs All Outcomes 149 300 358 405 282
% Completions 52% 39% 35% 28% 37%
Aboriginal Initiative Programs All Outcomes 268 290 220 304 179
% Completions 49% 35% 37% 29% 60%
Educational Programs All Outcomes 11,915 11,346 11,136 10,733 10,436
% Completions 29% 30% 30% 31% 31%
Personal Development All Outcomes 1,425 615 499 282 315
% Completions 89% 92% 74% 91% 70%

Source: Corporate Reporting System (June 22, 2008).

The data shows that the percentage of program completion has increased or remained stable for almost all Offender Programs. This is particularly significant with respect to the improved results for the Violence Prevention Programs, Community Correctional Programs and Aboriginal Initiative Programs, as they are linked to the commitments made in the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities. While not part of these specific commitments, improving the percentage of completion for Education Programs is part of CSC’s Transformation agenda.

 2.3 CORCAN Program Activity

Description of Program Activity: Assisting in the safe reintegration of offenders by providing employment and employability skills.

Employment and employment-related skills are major factors in an offender’s ability to pursue a crime-free life. Many offenders lack specific training or qualifications in a field of work but also lack the behavioural and planning skills needed to maintain work once they have acquired marketable skills.

CORCAN is a Special Operating Agency of CSC which functions via a revolving fund. This Agency contributes to the safe reintegration of offenders into Canadian society by providing employment and training opportunities to offenders incarcerated in federal penitentiaries and to offenders after they are released into the community.59

For Fiscal Year 2007-2008, the strategic priority associated with the CORCAN Program Activity was:

  • Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community.

Expected Result:  Provision of work opportunities and employability skills to offenders

2007-2008 Total Financial Resources ($ millions)


Planned Spending Authorities Actual Spending
0.0 13.6 -4.5

2007-2008 Total Human Resources (full-time equivalents)


Planned Actual Difference
385 438 53

CORCAN experienced unprecedented sales growth60 in 2007-2008. As a consequence, staff levels increased from the original plan to support the increased demand.

2.3.1  The Plans and Results

Employment Continuum

The Employment Continuum, aimed at providing inmate employment assistance from intake to post-release, has been implemented. As part of the skills training component, over 6,700 third-party certifications were issued. Obtaining vital documents, such as Birth Certificates and Social Insurance Numbers, continues to be an issue for some inmates. CSC will continue to work in 2008-2009 with the various jurisdictions involved to seek solutions.

In addition, a National Employment Skills program was delivered at 34 minimum and medium-security institutions. Over 250 inmates received certificates from the Conference Board of Canada for successful completion of this program, as was targeted for the year.

National Employment Strategy for Women

The implementation of the National Employment Strategy for Women continued in 2007-2008 as scheduled. Guiding Circles, an assessment process specifically for Aboriginal offenders was piloted at the Edmonton Institution for Women, the Fraser Valley Institution and at the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge. The next step will be the implementation of Guiding Circles in all Women’s Institutions in 2008-2009.

In Fiscal Year 2007-2008, 598 certifications were earned by women including 153 for the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. CORCAN continues to work with sites for the diversification of employment opportunities and skills development within women’s institutions. CSC supported such programs as the Core Construction Training Project, Horticultural Programs and Certification Cooking Courses.

With regards to the National Employment Skills Program, there is now a trainer at all women’s institutions, and 29 women received certificates in Fiscal Year 2007-2008. The National "Train the Trainer" course was completed in partnership with CORCAN. A National Social Integration Program Training was also delivered by CSC and as of December 2007, all women’s institutions now have a trainer.

These results will help to enhance women offenders’ abilities to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary to obtain meaningful employment in the institution and in the community, which is a key component of their safe transition back to the community.

The implementation of the National Employment Strategy has a two-year implementation period, and as such, the implementation of the plan continues.

2.3.2 Key Performance and Other Indicators61

1. Number/percentage of inmates enrolled in employment training:

  • 4,430 male and 135 female inmates worked a total of 2.850 million hours in CORCAN shops - an increase of 10% from 2006-2007.
  • 12,537 male and 533 female inmates worked in other assignments through Institutional Operations.
  • 9,544 offenders stayed in one work assignment within CORCAN and CSC over 90 days (research indicates that a minimum of 90 days is required to maximize skill development).

The focus in 2007-2008 remained on ensuring that employment training opportunities were provided to those inmates assessed at intake as having some or considerable need in this area. Despite our efforts, 1,265 (21%) non-Aboriginal male offenders still had an employment gap at the end of the Fiscal Year - a result similar to 2006-2007. Aboriginal male offenders had an employment gap of 20%.

The employment gap for non-Aboriginal women offenders increased from 16% in 2005-2006 to 23% in 2006-2007. The gap for Aboriginal women offenders increased from 22% in 2006-2007 to 29% in 2007-2008.

2. Number of certificates earned:62

6,739 certificates issued by provincial or industry organizations were earned in 2007-2008: 1,452 by Aboriginal men, 4,689 by non-Aboriginal men, 188 by Aboriginal women, and 410 by non-Aboriginal women.

The average age of the offenders who earned certificates was 36 years old. This can be broken down into these categories: Ages 18-30 earned 2,482 certificates,  ages 31-40 earned 2,198 certificates, ages 41-50 earned 1,612 certificates, ages >51 earned 447 certificates.

The majority of certificates were in Basic Food Safety, Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System, Safe Start Pre-employment, First Aid, Construction Safety and Recognition, National Employability Skills Program.

3. Number of offenders receiving services63 at community employment centres:

  A total of 3,214 offenders received employment counselling and job placement services, of which 2,980 were men and 234 were women.

4. Number of offenders finding employment in the community:

1,869 offenders (1,758 men and 111 women) found employment with the assistance of a CORCAN Community Employment Centre, an increase of 16% from 2006-2007.

Improving employment training programs and offenders’ employment skills are part of the objectives of the Correctional Transformation Agenda.

 2.4 Corporate Services: CSC’s Management Improvement Agenda

While not formally part of CSC’s Program Activity Architecture, CSC’s management improvement agenda influences all Program Activities across the organization.

For example, CSC entered into a Master Service Agreement with the National Parole Board whereby CSC assumes responsibility for providing all information technology services to the National Parole Board, including the development and management of the Board’s portion of the Offender Management System. The objectives are to:

  • ensure greater effectiveness in shared operations and greater efficiency in the use of  resources and expertise; and
  • empower the management cadre to direct the information technology functions in the best interests of both organizations.

In addition, CSC has completed a disaster recovery exercise for National Headquarters, as well as an information technology disaster recovery plan for Regional offices.

Responding to the Public Service Employee Survey

The co-developed Public Service employee survey action plan (CSC and bargaining agents) targetted the health of the organization. This Action Plan purposely identified areas to improve CSC’s health workplace. More specifically, the following initiatives have been undertaken during this period:

  • Joint Anti-harassment training is ongoing and being delivered at each site. Competency profiles for harassment coordinator positions have been established. Guidelines on managing the harassment complaint program are being finalized. Roles and responsibilities related to the management of harassment have been clarified in the revised instrument of delegation. The use of external facilitators and investigators for harassment was approved in 2007-2008 and a monitoring framework for facilitators and investigators will be developed.
  • Training in awareness for grievances: The roles and responsibilities relevant to the grievance process have been published. Roles and responsibility changes are in the Instrument of Delegation in the area of Human Resources document64. Presentations on the new instrument of delegation and roles and responsibilities have been delivered to all Regional Management Committees by NHQ Labour Relations.

Conflict Management training for managerswas delivered from between April 2007 and March 2008 to approximately 1,440 managers/supervisors and union representatives across Canada. The course was designed to improve skills necessary for various levels of Conflict Management by giving the participants further knowledge on how to prevent conflicts from becoming disputes and resolve disputes when they occur. An ongoing training and program maintenance proposal is under development by the Informal Conflict Management System office.

The roles and responsibilities relevant to the grievance process have been published. Roles and responsibility changes are in the Instrument of Delegation document65.

Labour Management Consultation Committee commitments and Commissioner’s Dashboard reporting have been implemented in order to assist the Service to monitor and review its corporate indicators. Some of the indicators include harassment complaints and grievances.

Promoting Values and Ethics

Focus group sessions were held in the fall of 2007 and information from the sessions has been compiled and communicated, including being used in Ethical Leadership and Ethics training sessions.

Workshops on Ethics have been conducted at 17 pilot sites and involved over 1,300 participants in the training on ethical decision-making and ethical dialogue. Assessments from participants found a significant majority of staff viewed the sessions as directly applicable to their work. To maintain the momentum, subsequent sessions are planned for the balance of employees at these sites before the end of fiscal 2008-2009. Other workshops will be delivered upon request.

The mandate of the Ethics Advisory Committee has been revised and approved. The Committee is established for the purpose of ensuring that ethical values are embedded throughout the organization. To achieve this, the Committee will provide independent objective advice and considered opinion on ethical issues or concerns within the Service.

Work descriptions for the Informal Conflict Management System co-ordinators have been classified and approved. Staffing commenced in 2007-2008 and will be completed in 2008-2009. Regional Conflict Management Advisors are responsible for providing informal conflict management services throughout their regions. These services include, but are not limited to, coaching, facilitated discussions, mediation, and delivery of conflict management training.

Internal Communications

A number of new and improved print and electronic publicationshave been developed and implemented as part of efforts to enhance internal communications. These include an Internal Communications guide and sector-specific newsletters. In 2007-2008 several areas of the organizations started the newsletters. In August of 2008, a message was sent encouraging other groups to follow suit. Further improvements have been made to the weekly internal electronic newsletter News@Work, including developing a number of series of feature stories on key CSC and Public Service- wide initiatives (e.g., International Women’s Week). The series were well received by staff so will be continued. A publications plan has been developed to establish a national inventory of CSC publications and to evaluate future publications needs.

The Service has increased the frequency and improved the efficacy of face-to-face meetings, teleconferences, and training sessions through the increased use of multimedia presentations including developmental web sites.

CSC Awards policy was last updated in 1994 and was no longer in line with practices in other federal departments. Changes were made to update, clarify and reorient the policy from awards to a recognition program that values people for their contribution and ensures national consistency for recognition. The new CSC Recognition policy was approved in spring 2008.

The Internal Communications Advisory Committee met in March 2008. The Committee, which includes representatives from a variety of levels across the organization, was consulted on communications activities and products. Consultation with the committee will be ongoing to ensure communications are clear and effective.

Staff receive regular, ongoing messages to keep them informed of CSC priorities and initiatives. For example, a phased, comprehensive internal communications plan on the CSC Review/Transformation was developed and is being implemented to ensure that employees are aware of the changes to the organization and are engaged in the Transformation. Every message also provides a feedback mechanism, in the form of an internal mailbox, so that employees can make comments on messages.
 
The Service also took steps in the last year to provide staff with information at the same time or earlier than the public. Enhanced internal communications through the use of internal messages, policy notices, News@work, etc. has assisted in informing staff of key initiatives in a timely manner.

Tracking and delivery on National Labour Management Consultation Committee commitments has been improved through the establishment of a secretariat. The Labour Relations for Managers training program has been reviewed and the pilot was planned for June 2008.

An Internal Communications Survey was held in March 2008 in order to evaluate ongoing efforts to build internal communications capacity. This survey is a follow-up to a previous survey, permitting CSC to evaluate current initiatives and identify areas for improvement. Staff can provide comments and feedback through several methods, including by e-mail through internal communications mailboxes.

Conducting face-to-face meetings with staff via town hall meetings, visiting sites and addressing employee groups continues to be an internal communications priority. The Commissioner and Senior Deputy Commissioner traveled across Canada in early 2008 to speak to regional management teams about the recommendations of the Independent Review Panel and the Transformation Agenda. Information-sharing sessions were held with NGOs, partners and stakeholders to engage key partners in advancing the Transformation Agenda.

The "Coffee with the Commissioner" which provides staff at all levels an opportunity for informal access to the Commissioner [initiative at National Headquarters], is ongoing. In 2007-2008, nine sessions were held.

The Commissioner’s Bridge-Building Award was created to recognize best practices in enhancing internal communications and horizontal coordination between employees at National Headquarters and in the regions. In 2007-2008, a representative from each region, as well as one from National Headquarters was presented with this Award.

Strengthen Human Resources Management

The CSC Strategic Plan for Human Resource Management 2007-2010, was launched in April 2007. CSC is one of 17 departments to have met the Clerk of the Privy Council’s commitment to have the Plan posted on CSC’s Intranet and Internet Sites. The Strategic Plan for Human Resource Management provides direction for addressing human resource priorities in CSC in order to mitigate risks and support the business needs of the organization as outlined in the Report on Plans and Priorities. A comprehensive business gap analysis was conducted including a review of the regional resource indicators for the Strategic Plan for Human Resource Management.

In reference to the Human Resources Management Policy Framework66, various Labour Relations policies as well as the Area of Selection Policy have been updated. Additional policies will be reviewed as per the three-year review cycle 2007- 2010.

The Performance Management Program now has commitments for the CSC Executive cadre that are aligned to the corporate objectives. Performance Agreements must now demonstrate that the four key leadership competencies are achieved.

In an effort to build Human Resources capacity, a development program for Human Resources Advisors is in the final consultation phase. In November 2007, a National Learning Forum for Human Resources Advisors was held. In February 2008, a Compensation Community Forum was held.

57 Offenders may also be transferred to a lower security facility in order to be closer to their family, community.
58 "Outcomes" include all program assignments that ended within the Fiscal Year, whether as a result of successful completion, the offender dropping out of the program, transfer of the offender to another institution, and so on.
59 Further information on CORCAN can be found on CSC’s website.
60 CORCAN’s total revenue have increased approximately $24.4 million or 35% from 2005-2006 to 2007-2008, including increases of approximately $14.8 million or 65% in our manufacturing business line, $4.7 million or 65% in our construction business line, and $3.3 million or 87% in our textile business line.
61 "Employment gap" is when the offender has been identified as requiring intervention in relation to employment and we have not been able to provide that intervention.
62 An offender may earn more than one certificate.
63 Services offered include: individual confidential employment counselling, resume writing, job search, interview preparation, office resources, educational upgrading, Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System, aptitude and assessment testing.

In order to contribute to the modernization of Human Resources process tools, CSC has undertaken the following major initiatives:

  • CSC is pursuing the feasibility of developing an automated tool addressed to managers for Integrated Human Resource Planning. An initial prototype has been developed including the completion of identification of its key components. A decision to pursue the development of this tool will be taken in fall 2008.
  • CSC has also launched a Business Process Re-engineering exercise. The first major deliverable of this important initiative is underway including "Express Lane Staffing".
  • Development began in 2007-2008 on a Human Resource Planning Framework that will be submitted for approval in the summer of 2008. This framework is aligned with the CSC planning cycle.

CSC has developed 17 comprehensive workforce profiles. These have been completed for each occupational group in CSC’s workforce; however, this will be an ongoing exercise in order to reflect the largest occupational groups in CSC. The workforce profiles provide ten-year trends related to population, regions, employment equity, retirement rates, etc. The profiles are shared with all managers, employees and stakeholders. An updated cycle process of these profiles has also been implemented to ensure accurate and timely information. These profiles are updated at the beginning of each Fiscal Year.

All of the Human Resources Strategies related to Aboriginal Initiatives; to the Institutional Management Review, to Health Services Governance and to the District Infrastructures have been launched and implementation is well underway. For example:

  • The Aboriginal Strategy: CSC and the Canadian Human Rights Commission began working together to create an Aboriginal employment program unique to the CSC which will allow CSC to recruit Aboriginal people beyond employment equity Labour Market Availability numbers.
  • The Human Resources Institutional Management Structure: The structure was put into place on September 4, 2007. Most key management positions were already staffed while the remaining management positions were staffed during the remainder of the Fiscal Year.
  • The Human Resources Health Strategy: Three staffing strategies for the Health Services governance was developed which include a comprehensive plan for the creation, classification, and staffing of all new professional and support staff positions.

A National Recruitment Strategy has also been implemented. The strategy includes an Aboriginal-specific recruitment plan. A Recruitment Framework has also been implemented. With enhancements in the areas of infrastructure; communication; outreach activities; and selection processes. To date, a national and regional specialised recruitment infrastructure has been created and positions are being staffed. CSC revamped its branding and several outreach activities have been conducted to attract and recruit new staff in all major occupational groups of the organization.

In the next year, the current recruitment models and tools used will be reviewed in order to be streamlined and modernized. Important emphasis is put on communicating recruitment activities to all levels of the organization to support managers in their staffing needs and involve them in recruitment activities to speak to their rewarding daily experiences and challenges.

The CSC Succession Planning Framework was approved in September 2007 for EX groups and EX feeder groups. This framework aims at creating a common understanding of succession planning, ensuring that CSC has a ready supply of qualified candidates for leadership roles, and that strategies are in place for knowledge transfer. This framework involves an integrated, systematic approach to identify, develop and retain talent for key positions. During the period under review CSC has implemented specific processes to internally identify talented individuals at the EX-1, EX-2 and EX-3 levels. Subsequent phases will be implemented in 2008-2009.

The re-designed Correctional Officers Training Program has been successfully piloted in the Pacific region. The evaluation report has also been completed. Based on the results, CSC will begin implementation commencing in the fall 2008 and all regions will be in a position to offer this training by summer 2009.

The re-designed Parole Officer Orientation Program has been developed. This revised version integrates the latest knowledge related to risk assessment, sex offender management and community supervision. It has been tested in the Atlantic region in summer 2008. National implementation is planned for the fall 2008.

The training for a revised Institutional Management Structureaims to train managers on change management and their revised roles and responsibilities under the new Management Structure. Each region identified individuals who were trained as facilitators. This training was delivered and completed in the fall of 2007.

The Employee Assistance Program framework has been implemented. This framework includes: targeted funding to support both counselling and the promotion of employee well-being and revisions of the Guidelines for the Employee Assistance Program in the area of Critical Incident Stress Management. The revisions provide clarification related to the definitions, principles, selection of volunteers and impartiality of interveners. In addition, these revisions also better reflect the current practices and trends of the field and further elaborate on the program’s framework. The revisions were completed during Fiscal Year 2007-2008 and were promulgated early in 2008-2009. These changes better support the provision of equivalent services across the Service.

The Grievance Delegation Strategyhas been implemented. Grievances are now being dealt with at a lower level and delegated managers have been trained on grievance management. This should make grievance management more efficient.

In reference to pursuing national consistency in the implementation of all collective agreements and clarification bulletins/communiqués to all regions are issued and cross-country briefing sessions are held when necessary. A Management Steering Committee which operates as a forum for consultation on all bargaining issues has been created.

CSC engages in regular internal and interdepartmental consultation, information-sharing and outreach sessions with the Treasury Board Secretariat, the National Joint Council and the Labour Relations Council. These sessions improve understanding/consistent application of Employer policies affecting all staff. It also maintains knowledge and provides an opportunity to discuss jurisprudence, precedents, policy application from the perspective of CSC’s unique operational reality.

 SECTION 3 Supplementary Information

 

 3.1 Financial Information

List of Tables Page

 

Strategic Outcome: Offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into Canadian Communities with due regard to public safety.

In 2007-2008, the actual spending for CSC is $1,963,935,350 and is comprised of the following main elements:


Program Activity $ Millions Actual Spending 2007-08
($ millions)
Alignment to the Government of Canada Outcome Area
Budgetary Non-Budgetary Total
Care and Custody 1,460.3 0.0 1,460.3 Social Affairs - Safe and secure communities
Rehabilitation and Case Management 508.1 0.0 508.1 Social Affairs - Safe and secure communities
CORCAN (4.5) 0.0 (4.5) Economic Affairs - Income Security and Employment for Canadians
Total 1,963.9 0.0 1,963.9  

Table 1 - Comparison of Planned to Actual Spending (including FTEs)


$ Millions 2005-06
Actual
2006-07
Actual
2007-2008
Main
Estimates
Planned
Spending
Total
Authorities
Total
Actual
Care and Custody 1,197.1 1,397.9 1,379.8 1,410.3 1,556.3 1,460.3
Rehabilitation and Case Management 452.9 470.4 490.2 496.7 543.6 508.1
CORCAN 1.8 (2.8) 0.0 0.0 13.6 (4.5)
Total Planned Spending 1,652.1 1,865.5 1,870.0 1,907.0 2,113.5 1,963.9
Less: Non-respendable Revenue (13.4) (9.6) N/A (7.4) N/A (11.6)
Plus: Cost of services received without charge 91.2 106.1 N/A 90.7 N/A 107.2
Total Department Spending 1,729.9 1,962.3 N/A 1,990.3 N/A 2,059.5
             
Full Time Equivalent 14,638 14,803 N/A 15,491 N/A 15,402

The increase in expenditures is mainly due to signed collective agreements, in price (inflation) for basic goods and services and additional resources addressing immediate and urgent pressures

Explanations of variances between the Estimates and the actual expenditures for 2007-2008:

The Service has spent the amount of $1,963.9M or $93.9M in excess of the amount approved in the PART II of the Estimates; i.e. $1,870M. In order to analyze the financial results of the Service, additional resources provided via Supplementary Estimates and Treasury Board should be taken into consideration.

The following reconciliation from Main Estimates to Total Authorities is provided below:


Main Estimates $ Million   1,870.0
Plus    
Operating Expenditures - Supplementary Estimates   101.2
Adjustments, Warrants and Transfers    
TB Vote (Internal Audit) 0.5  
TB Vote (Collective Agreements) 39.8  
TB Vote (Operating Budget Carry Forward) 59.0  
TB Vote (Paylist Shortfalls) 30.3  
Transfers 2.8 132.4

 

   
Decrease to Employee Benefit Plans   (5.6)

 

   
Non-Estimates Items    
CORCAN - ANCAFA   12.9
CORCAN - Transfer from TB Vote (Paylist Shortfalls)   0.7
Others (including Crown Assets, etc.)   1.9
Total Authority available for use   2,113.5

 

   
Less    
CORCAN & Crown Assets Disposal   (19.2)

 

   
Total Available to CSC   2,094.3
Less    
Actual   (1,963.9)

 

   
Variance   130.4

Table 2 - Voted and Statutory Items


$ Million   2007-2008
Vote or Statutory Items Truncated Vote or Statutory Wording Main Estimates Planned Spending Total Authorities Total Actuals
  Correctional Services        
25 Operating Expenditures 1,529.5 1,540.8 1,727.1 1,645.8
30 Capital expenditures 153.7 179.4 189.7 140.6
           
S Contributions to Employee Benefit plans 186.8 186.8 181.2 181.2
S CORCAN Revolving Fund     13.6 (4.5)
S Spending of proceeds from disposal of Crown Assets     1.9 0.8
           
S Refund of previous year’s  revenues        
           
  Total 1,870.0 1,907.0 2,113.5 1,963.9

Table 3 - Loans, Investments and Advances (Non-Budgetary)

Not Applicable.

Table 4- Sources of Respendable and Non-respendable Revenue

Respendable Revenue


($ million) Actual
2005-2006
Actual
2006-2007
2007-2008
Main Estimates Planned Revenue Total Authorities Actual
Care and Custody 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 0.9
Rehabilitation 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
CORCAN Revolving Fund 69.1 83.0 77.5 77.5 77.5 94.3
Total Respendable Revenue (1) 69.1 83.0 77.5 77.5 79.4 95.3

Non-Respendable Revenue


($ million) Actual
2005-2006
Actual
2006-2007
2007-2008
Main Estimates Planned Revenue Total Authorities Actual
Care and Custody 12.0 8.6 N/A 6.5 6.5 10.2
Rehabilitation 1.4 1.0 N/A 0.9 0.9 1.4
CORCAN Revolving Fund 0.0 0.0 N/A 0.0 0.0 0.0
Total Non-Respendable Revenue (2) 13.4 9.6 N/A 7.4 7.4 11.6

Notes: 1 The main source of this revenue is the CORCAN Revolving Fund. Revenues are mainly from the sale of products made by inmates.
2 The main sources of these revenues are: offender canteen sales, revenues such as contracted offender temporary detention; offender board and lodgings; and miscellaneous revenues

Table 5 - Revolving Fund (Online Table)

CORCAN Revolving Fund ($ million)
Statement of Operations


($ millions) Actual
2005-2006
Actual
2006-2007
2007-2008
Main
Estimates
Planned
Spending
Authorized Actual*
Revenue 69.9 82.9 77.5 77.5 77.5 94.3
Expenses            
Salaries & employee benefits 34.2 34.1 31.8 31.8 31.8 36.6
Depreciation 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.7
Repairs & maintenance 1.3 2.6 1.2 1.2 1.2 2.3
Admin & support services 8.9 9.5 8.1 8.1 8.1 9.3
Utilities 25.1 33.1 34.9 34.9 34.9 41.1
  70.8 80.8 77.5 77.5 77.5 91.0
Net Results (0.9) 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3

Since the table on the previous page refers to the Revolving Fund's operating surplus or deficit and not to cash requirements, the Fund has been calculated through accrual accounting. Therefore, the cash expenditures in the estimates do not affect the operating balance, and other items that must be considered when calculating the surplus or deficit do not require a direct cash outlay. The two can be reconciled as follows:

Statement of Cash Flows



($ millions)
Actual
2005-2006
Actual
2006-2007
2007-2008
Main Estimates Planned Spending Authorized Actual
Net Results (0.9) 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3
             
Adjustment for non-cash items:            
Provision for Employee Termination Benefits 0.6 0.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 0.7
Amortization of fixed assets 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Other 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.3
             
Change in non-cash working capital            
Accounts receivable 1.0 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5
Inventory (2.4) 0.6 (1.0) (1.0) (1.0) (0.5)
Payment on changes in provision for Employee Termination Benefits (0.4) (0.4) (0.3) (0.3) (0.3) (0.6)
Accounts payable 3.4 0.5 (0.2) (0.2) (0.2) 2.3
Vacation pay and salary accrual (2.1) 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5
Deferred revenue 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 (0.4)
Other (0.2) 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2
             
Investing activities:            
Net capital Assets Purchased (2.2) (3.4) (3.0) (3.0) (3.0) (3.5)
             
Increase (decrease) in accumulated net charge against the Fund’s authority (ANCAFA) (1.8) 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5

Projected Use of Authority


($ millions) Actual
2005-2006
Actual
2006-2007
2007-2008
Main
Estimates
Planned
Spending
Authorized Actual
    Restated        
Authority 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
             
Drawndown:            
ANCAFA balance as of April 1 13.3 11.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 14.3
Increase (decrease) in ANCAFA (1.8) 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5
ANCAFA balance as of March 31 11.5 14.3 10.5 10.5 10.5 18.8
 Net PAYE/RAYE adjustment to authority (4.4) (6.4) 0.0 0.0 0.0 (5.7)
  7.1 7.9 10.5 10.5 10.5 13.1
Unused authorities carried forward as originally reported 12.1 12.9 15.5 15.5 15.5 18.1
*Restatement of prior year figures 0 0.7 0 0 0 0
Unused authorities carried forward as restated 12.1 13.6 15.5 15.5 15.5 18.1

 

Table 6a - User Fees Act (Online Table)


A. User
Fee
Fee Type Fee
setting Authority
Date Last Modified 2007-2008 Planning Years
Forecasted Revenues
($000)
Actual Revenues
($000)
Full Cost
($000)
Performance Standards Performance Results Fiscal Year Forecasted Revenue
($000)
Estimated Full Cost
($000)
Fees charged for the processing of access requests filed under the Access to Information Act (ATIA) R Access to Information Act April 2004 3.3 3.0 2,400 Requests should be responded to within 30 working days, unless extensions are warranted as per section 9 of the Act. TB Secretariat is presently reviewing all policies related to the ATI legislation. For more info, see ATI legislation on the Justice website. 68% on time 2008-09


2009-10


2010-11
3.3



3.5



3.5
3,800



5,300



5,300
      Sub-Total (O)

Sub-Total (R)

Total
0.0


3.3


3.3
0.0


3.0


3.0
0.0


2,400


2,400
    2008-09

2009-10

2010-11
3.3


3.5


3.5
3,800


5,300


5,300

B. Date Last Modified: N/A

C. Other Information N/A


Table 6b - Policy on Service Standards for External Fees


A. External Service Standard Performance Result Stakeholder Consultation
Fees charged for the processing of access requests filed under the Access to Information Act (ATIA) Response provided within 30 days following receipt of request; the response time may be extended pursuant to section 9 of the ATIA. Notice of extension to be sent within 30 days after receipt of request. Due to staff shortage and a realignment of ATI responsibilities, there has been a significant decrease in the compliance rate. 68 percent on time for ATI requests The service standard is established by the Access to Information Act and the Access to Information Regulations. Consultations with stakeholders were undertaken by the Department of Justice and the Treasury Board Secretariat for amendments done in 1986 and 1992.

Table 7 - Details on Project Spending

Capital Projects by Program Activity ($ millions)


Program Activity Current
Total Estimated
Cost
Actual
2005-2006
Actual
2006-2007
2007-2008
Main Estimates Total
Planned Spending
Total
Authority (1)
Actual
Care & Custody              
A. New Accommodation Projects (2)              
RHC Pacific Expansion 71.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Archambault New CRSM & Redevelopment 33.0 0.4 0.1 1.8 1.8 1.8 0.7
Saskatchewan Pen 96-Bed Maximum Unit 21.7 0.0 6.3 9.0 12.0 9.0 11.2
Edmonton 96-Bed Maximum Unit (unapproved) (3) 33.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.0
Kent 96-Bed Maximum Unit 23.1 0.0 0.6 13.4 15.0 13.4 10.8
               
B. Major Asset Preservation              
Springhill Institution Refurbish/ Replace 32.2 7.9 9.2 2.1 2.3 2.1 0.7
Collins Bay Refurbish/ Replace 57.6 22.0 19.1 7.4 5.4 7.4 3.0
Cowansville Refurbish/ Replace 49.5 0.6 4.2 18.8 18.5 18.8 0.9
Saskatchewan Pen Refurbish/ Replace (4) 180.0 1.2 0.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 0.0

(1) Main Estimates plus Supplementary Estimates and other authorities.
(2) CSC's delegation authority level is $18 million according to TB decision of December 14, 1995; therefore, only capital projects with total estimated cost of $18 million or above have been listed.
(3) The Edmonton 96-Bed Maximum Unit had been planned prior to the issue of the CSC Transformation Study Report, and inserted into the Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007-2008; it is not approved at this time.
(4) Saskatchewan Penitentiary Refurbish/Replace funding is beyond the Department's current reference level; the project requires approval and funding from Treasury Board of Canada, if supported.

Table 8 - Status Report on major Crown Projects

Not Applicable

Table 9 - Details on Transfer Payment Programs (TPPs)

Not Applicable

Table 10 - Foundations (Conditional Grants)

Not Applicable

Table 11 - Horizontal Initiatives

CSC participates in, but does not lead any horizontal initiatives. TBS's Horizontal Results database is available at: www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/rma/eppi-ibdrp/hrdb-rhbd/dep-min/dep-min_e.asp

Table 12 - Sustainable Development Strategies (non-financial)

Link to Table

For supplementary information on the Correctional Service Canada’s Sustainable Development Strategy 2007-2010, please visit:
HTML Format:  http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/environmentRpt/toc-eng.shtml
PDF Format:  http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/environmentRpt/sds-eng.pdf

Table 13 - Response to Parliamentary Committees and External Audits


Response to Parliamentary Committees
Information to be provided Executive Office and relevant sectors
 
Response to the Auditor General (including to the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development)
Correctional Service Canada was not subject to any recommendations by the Auditor General or the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development duringthe period under review.
 
External Audits
Correctional Service Canada was not subject to any recommendations by external organizations during the period under review.

Table 14 - Internal Audits and Evaluations


Table 14a - Internal Audits

In 2007-2008, the following audits were completed and approved by CSC’s Audit Committee:


Name of Internal Audit Audit Type Completion Date
Audit of Contracting for Goods and Services Contracting and Procurement May 2007
Audit of Staff Safety in the Community Correctional Operations May 2007
Audit of Administrative Segregation Correctional Operations May 2007
Offender Management System Renewal - Project Closure Review IM/IT September 2007
Health Information Management Module Annual Review IM/IT September 2007
Audit of Assistance to Employees Human Resource Management January 2008

Since the beginning of 2008-2009, the following audit reports were also completed and approved by CSC’s Audit Committee:


Name of Internal Audit  Audit Type Completion Date
Audit of Physical Health Care Delivery to Inmates Health Services April 2008
Review of Change Management Management Practices April 2008
Audit of Logical Access Controls IM/IT May 2008

These reports, which also contain the Management Action Plans to address the recommendations, can be found on the CSC website at the following address:  http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pa/adt-toc-eng.shtml

Table 14b - Evaluations

Evaluations 2007-2008


1. Name of
Evaluation
2. Program Activity 3. Evaluation
Type
4. Status 5. Completion Date 6. Electronic
Link to Report
Evaluation of the Safer Tattooing Practices Initiative Care and Custody Summative Completed June 2007 Not yet available
(publication in progress)
Ochichakkosipi Healing Lodge Evaluation Care and Custody Formative Completed October 2007 Not yet available
(publication in progress)
Lifers’ Resource Strategy Care and Custody Summative Completed
(To be presented to CSC Evaluation Committee in September 2008)
March 2008 Not yet available
(report not yet approved)
Contract with Institute Philippe-Pinel de Montréal Care and Custody Summative & formative
(3 separate populations evaluated)
Ongoing
(Delayed due to data collection, analysis, and contracting issues - was finalized in May 2008)
May 2008 Not yet available
(report not yet approved)
CSC-A (Canada-New Brunswick Initiative) Care and Custody Outcome & summative Ongoing
(Delayed due to consultation and scheduling issues - to be finalised in September 2008)
FY 2008-09 Not yet available
(report not yet approved)
7. Electronic Link to Evaluation Plan:  Finalized and approved, publication in progress, link not yet available.

Table 15 - Travel Policies

Correctional Service Canada follows the Treasury Board Secretariat Travel Directive, Rates and Allowances. For more information on CSC’s travel and hospitality proactive disclosures, see: www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/travel/travel-eng.shtml

Table 16a - Correctional Service Canada Financial Statements

Link to Table

Table 16b - CORCAN Revolving Fund Financial Statements

Link to Table

Note: the statement of cash flows can be found in Table 5



 SECTION 4  OTHER ITEMS OF INTEREST

 4.1 Additional Data on Correctional Results

Complaints and Grievances

Upheld Inmate Health Care-Related Complaints and Grievances


  2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Complaints 268 226 248 252 271
Institutional Level Grievances 40 32 27 37 56
Regional Level Grievances 17 16 24 17 20
National Level Grievances 15 4 9 13 10
Institutional Flowthrough 18,534 18,624 19,040 19,569 20,021
Total 340 278 308 319 357
Rate 1.83% 1.49% 1.62% 1.63% 1.78%

Source: Corporate Reporting System (June 8, 2008). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Upheld Accommodation-Related Complaints and Grievances


  2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08
Complaints 160 181 144 116 162
Institutional Level Grievances 11 20 9 18 24
Regional Level Grievances 3 1 6 9 8
National Level Grievances 2 1 1   1
Institutional Flowthrough 18,534 18,624 19,040 19,569 20,021
Total 176 203 160 143 195
Rate 0.95% 1.09% 0.84% 0.73% 0.97%

Source: Corporate Reporting System (June 8, 2008). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Institutional Incidents

Major Institutional Incidents67


    03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Major Incidents year 142 89 100 112 112
3-year average 136 120 110 100 108
Institutional Flowthrough68 year 18,534 18,624 19,040 19,569 20,021
3-year average 18,567 18,582 18,733 19,078 19,543
Rate year 0.8% 0.5% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6%
3-year average 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.6%

Source:  Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Source for Escapees:  Security Branch Institutional Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Staff Assaults (by Inmates)


    03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Staff Assaults year 283 240 289 284 214
3-year average 347 289 271 271 262
Institutional Staff69 year 11,151 11,114 10,913 12,153 11,841
3-year average 11,158 11,190 11,059 11,393 11,636
Rate year 2.5% 2.2% 2.6% 2.3% 1.8%
3-year average 3.1% 2.6% 2.4% 2.4% 2.3%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). HRMS (March 31, 2008)

 

67 Details on major institutional incidents are presented in Section 2.1.1. Major Institutional Incidents include staff murders, inmate murders, hostage taking/forcible confinement, escapees from institutions or escorts, suicides, as well as any assaults on staff, assaults on inmates or inmate fights that result in a major injury.
68 "Institutional Flowthrough" refers to the number of offenders who spend at least one day during the fiscal year in an institution.
69 "Institutional Staff" reflects the number of CSC employees in institutions at a given point in the year. This number is thus a snapshot, rather than a flowthrough.

 

Inmate Assaults (by Inmates)


    03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Inmate Assaults year 446 445 537 538 497
3-year average 488 470 476 507 524
Institutional Flowthrough year 18,534 18,624 19,040 19,569 20,021
3-year average 18,567 18,582 18,733 19,078 19,543
Rate year 2.4% 2.4% 2.8% 2.7% 2.5%
3-year average 2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.7% 2.7%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Staff Injuries due to Assaults by Inmates


    03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Staff Injuries year 90 67 91 85 45
3-year average 91.3 82.3 82.7 81.0 73.7
Institutional Staff year 11,151 11,114 10,913 12,153 11,841
3-year average 11,158 11,190 11,059 11,393 11,636
Rate year 0.8% 0.6% 0.8% 0.7% 0.4%
3-year average 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.7% 0.6%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). HRMS (March 31, 2008)

Inmate Injuries due to Assaults by Inmates


    03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Inmates Injuries year 423 435 492 498 496
3-year average 458 447 450 475 495
Institutional Flowthrough year 18,534 18,624 19,040 19,569 20,021
3-year average 18,567 18,582 18,733 19,078 19,543
Rate year 2.3% 2.3% 2.6% 2.5% 2.5%
3-year average 4.9% 4.8% 4.8% 5.0% 5.1%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Random Urinalysis Test
Positive Results


    03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Positive results year 765 728 764 857 828
3-year average 748 752 752 783 816
Samples tested year 5,733 5,932 6,350 6,876 6,290
3-year average 5,765 5,819 6,005 6,386 6,505
Rate year 13.3% 12.3% 12.0% 12.5% 13.2%
3-year average 13.0% 12.9% 12.5% 12.3% 12.6%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Random Urinalysis Test
Refusal Rate


    03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Refusals year 835 804 893 836 861
3-year average 917 856 844 844 863
Samples requested year 6,655 6,831 7,412 7,940 7,613
3-year average 6,778 6,769 6,966 7,394 7,655
Rate year 12.5% 11.8% 12.0% 10.5% 11.3%
3-year average 13.5% 12.6% 12.1% 11.4% 11.3%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Re-Offending Data

Section 1 presented summarized results of various measurement strategies on rates of violent and non-violent re-offending convictions during community supervision and post-sentence completion (2 years and 5 years). The following tables provide a comprehensive statistical account for the same period.

Under Supervision

Offenders charged while on Supervision70

    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Charges year 670 623 672 707 750
3-year average 616 643 655 667 710
Release Flowthrough year 16,376 16,158 16,144 16,354 16,358
3-year average 16,651 16,380 16,226 16,219 16,285
Rate year 4.1% 3.9% 4.2% 4.3% 4.6%
3-year average 3.7% 3.9% 4.0% 4.1% 4.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).
Re-Offending with Any Conviction while on Supervision71

    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Convictions year 1,163 1,095 1,108 1,091 1,146
3-year average 1,230 1,146 1,122 1,098 1,115
Release Flowthrough year 16,376 16,158 16,144 16,354 16,358
3-year average 16,651 16,380 16,226 16,219 16,285
Rate year 7.1% 6.8% 6.9% 6.7% 7.0%
3-year average 7.4% 7.0% 6.9% 6.8% 6.8%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).
Offenders charged while on Supervision72

    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Charges year 223 188 211 184 213
3-year average 200 204 207 194 203
Release Flowthrough year 16,376 16,158 16,144 16,354 16,358
3-year average 16,651 16,380 16,226 16,219 16,285
Rate year 1.4% 1.2% 1.3% 1.1% 1.3%
3-year average 1.2% 1.2% 1.3% 1.2% 1.2%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).
Re-Offending with a Violent Conviction while on Supervision73

    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Violent Convictions year 251 249 238 200 209
3-year average 262 250 246 229 216
Release Flowthrough year 16,376 16,158 16,144 16,354 16,358
3-year average 16,651 16,380 16,226 16,219 16,285
Rate year 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.2% 1.3%
3-year average 1.6% 1.5% 1.5% 1.4% 1.3%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).
Re-Offending with Non-violent Conviction while on Supervision74

    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Non-violent Convictions year 912 846 870 891 937
3-year average 967 896 876 869 899
Release Flowthrough year 16,376 16,158 16,144 16,354 16,358
3-year average 16,651 16,380 16,226 16,219 16,285
Rate year 5.6% 5.2% 5.4% 5.4% 5.7%
3-year average 5.8% 5.5% 5.4% 5.4% 5.5%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Return to Federal Custody within 2 years75 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)

Return to Federal Custody with Violent Conviction within 2 years76 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


    01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission
for violent offence
year 217 232 224 267 265
3-year average 217 227 224 241 252
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 4,586 4,554 4,420 4,461 4,488
3-year average 4,475 4,557 4,520 4,478 4,456
Rate year 4.7% 5.1% 5.1% 6.0% 5.9%
3-year average 4.8% 5.0% 5.0% 5.4% 5.7%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

70 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
71 Ibid.
72 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
73 Ibid.
74 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
75 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
76 Ibid

 

Return to Federal Custody with Non-violent Conviction 2 years77 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


    01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission
for a non-violent offence
year 203 242 242 222 256
3-year average 196 214 229 235 240
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 4,586 4,554 4,420 4,461 4,488
3-year average 4,475 4,557 4,520 4,478 4,456
Rate year 4.4% 5.3% 5.5% 5.0% 5.7%
3-year average 4.4% 4.7% 5.1% 5.3% 5.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Return to Federal Custody within 5 years78 of Warrant Expiry
(End of Sentence)

Return to Federal Custody with Violent Conviction within 5 years79 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


    98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03
Re-Admission
for violent offence
year 446 370 435 404 433
3-year average 451 421 417 403 424
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 4,443 4,306 4,532 4,586 4,554
3-year average 4,533 4,427 4,427 4,475 4,557
Rate year 10.0% 8.6% 9.6% 8.8% 9.5%
3-year average 9.9% 9.5% 9.4% 9.0% 9.3%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Return Federal Custody with Non-violent Conviction within 5 years80 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


    98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03
Re-Admission for a non-violent offence year 347 340 366 387 427
3-year average 357 345 351 364 393
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 4,443 4,306 4,532 4,586 4,554
3-year average 4,533 4,427 4,427 4,475 4,557
Rate year 7.8% 7.9% 8.1% 8.4% 9.4%
3-year average 7.9% 7.8% 7.9% 8.1% 8.6%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders: Comparative Data

The following tables present reintegration results for Aboriginal and for non-Aboriginal offenders during community supervision and post-sentence completion (Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence). Summary versions of these tables, showing the gap in results between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders, appear in Section 1.6: Departmental Performance.

Under Supervision

Re-Offending with Any Conviction while on Supervision81


Aboriginal   02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Convictions year 245 229 221 237 246
3-year average 249 238 232 229 235
Release Flowthrough year 2,452 2,478 2,561 2,640 2,633
3-year average 2,516 2,486 2,497 2,560 2,611
Rate year 10.0% 9.2% 8.6% 9.0% 9.3%
3-year average 9.9% 9.6% 9.3% 8.9% 9.0%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

 


Non-Aboriginal   02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Convictions year 918 866 887 854 900
3-year average 981 908 890 869 880
Release Flowthrough year 13,924 13,680 13,583 13,714 13,725
3-year average 14,136 13,894 13,729 13,659 13,674
Rate year 6.6% 6.3% 6.5% 6.2% 6.6%
3-year average 6.9% 6.5% 6.5% 6.4% 6.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

 

77 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
78 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within five years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2002-2003).
79 Ibid.
80 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within five years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2002-2003).
81 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.

 

Re-Offending with Violent Convictions while on Supervision82


Aboriginal   02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Violent Convictions year 50 60 60 49 44
3-year average 57 57 57 56 51
Release Flowthrough year 2,452 2,478 2,561 2,640 2,633
3-year average 2,516 2,486 2,497 2,560 2,611
Rate year 2.0% 2.4% 2.3% 1.9% 1.7%
3-year average 2.3% 2.3% 2.3% 2.2% 2.0%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

 


Non-Aboriginal   02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Violent Convictions year 201 189 178 151 165
3-year average 206 193 189 173 165
Release Flowthrough year 13,924 13,680 13,583 13,714 13,725
3-year average 14,136 13,894 13,729 13,659 13,674
Rate year 1.4% 1.4% 1.3% 1.1% 1.2%
3-year average 1.5% 1.4% 1.4% 1.3% 1.2%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Re-Offending with Non-violent Conviction while on Supervision83


Aboriginal   02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Non-violent Convictions year 195 169 161 188 202
3-year average 192 181 175 173 184
Release Flowthrough year 2,452 2,478 2,561 2,640 2,633
3-year average 2,516 2,486 2,497 2,560 2,611
Rate year 8.0% 6.8% 6.3% 7.1% 7.7%
3-year average 7.6% 7.3% 7.0% 6.7% 7.0%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

 


Non-Aboriginal   02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Non-violent Convictions year 717 677 709 703 735
3-year average 775 715 701 696 716
Release Flowthrough year 13,924 13,680 13,583 13,714 13,725
3-year average 14,136 13,894 13,729 13,659 13,674
Rate year 5.1% 4.9% 5.2% 5.1% 5.4%
3-year average 5.5% 5.1% 5.1% 5.1% 5.2%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Return to Federal Custody within 2 years84 of Warrant Expiry
(End of Sentence)

Return to Federal Custody for Any Conviction within 2 years85 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


Aboriginal   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for any type of offence year 69 97 98 113 113
3-year average 84 86 88 103 108
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 761 743 719 781 768
3-year average 747 762 741 748 756
Rate year 9.1% 13.1% 13.6% 14.5% 14.7%
3-year average 11.3% 11.3% 11.9% 13.7% 14.3%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 


Non-Aboriginal   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for any type of offence year 351 377 368 376 408
3-year average 329 355 365 374 384
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 3,825 3,811 3,701 3,680 3,720
3-year average 3,727 3,796 3,779 3,731 3,700
Rate year 9.2% 9.9% 9.9% 10.2% 11.0%
3-year average 8.8% 9.3% 9.7% 10.0% 10.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Return to Federal Custody for Violent Conviction within 2 years86 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


Aboriginal   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for a violent offence year 40 54 59 68 67
3-year average 50 52 51 60 65
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 761 743 719 781 768
3-year average 747 762 741 748 756
Rate year 5.3% 7.3% 8.2% 8.7% 8.7%
3-year average 6.7% 6.8% 6.9% 8.1% 8.5%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 


Non-Aboriginal   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for a violent offence year 177 178 165 199 198
3-year average 166 175 173 181 187
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 3,825 3,811 3,701 3,680 3,720
3-year average 3,727 3,796 3,779 3,731 3,700
Rate year 4.6% 4.7% 4.5% 5.4% 5.3%
3-year average 4.5% 4.6% 4.6% 4.8% 5.1%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

82 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
83 Ibid.
84 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
85 Ibid.
86 Ibid.

Return to Federal Custody for Non-violent Conviction within 2 years87 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


Aboriginal   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for a non-violent offence year 29 43 39 45 46
3-year average 34 35 37 42 43
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 761 743 719 781 768
3-year average 747 762 741 748 756
Rate year 3.8% 5.8% 5.4% 5.8% 6.0%
3-year average 4.5% 4.6% 5.0% 5.7% 5.7%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 


Non-Aboriginal   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for a non-violent offence year 174 199 203 177 210
3-year average 163 180 192 193 197
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 3,825 3,811 3,701 3,680 3,720
3-year average 3,727 3,796 3,779 3,731 3,700
Rate year 4.5% 5.2% 5.5% 4.8% 5.6%
3-year average 4.4% 4.7% 5.1% 5.2% 5.3%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Return to Custody within 5 years88 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)

Return to Federal Custody for Any Conviction within 5 years89 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


Aboriginal   98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03
Re-Admission for any type of offence year 163 144 169 155 175
3-year average 151 149 159 156 166
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 712 700 781 761 743
3-year average 635 670 731 747 762
Rate year 22.9% 20.6% 21.6% 20.4% 23.6%
3-year average 23.8% 22.4% 21.7% 20.9% 21.9%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 


Non-Aboriginal   98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03
Re-Admission
for any type of offence
year 630 566 632 636 685
3-year average 657 617 609 611 651
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 3,731 3,606 3,751 3,825 3,811
3-year average 3,898 3,757 3,696 3,727 3,796
Rate year 16.9% 15.7% 16.8% 16.6% 18.0%
3-year average 16.9% 16.4% 16.5% 16.4% 17.2%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Return to Federal Custody for Violent Conviction within 5 years90 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


Aboriginal   98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03
Re-Admission
for violent offence
year 107 83 120 95 105
3-year average 101 95 103 99 107
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 712 700 781 761 743
3-year average 635 670 731 747 762
Rate year 15.0% 11.9% 15.4% 12.5% 14.1%
3-year average 16.0% 14.2% 14.1% 13.2% 14.0%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 


Non-Aboriginal   98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03
Re-Admission
for violent offence
year 339 287 315 309 328
3-year average 350 326 314 304 317
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 3,731 3,606 3,751 3,825 3,811
3-year average 3,898 3,757 3,696 3,727 3,796
Rate year 9.1% 8.0% 8.4% 8.1% 8.6%
3-year average 9.0% 8.7% 8.5% 8.1% 8.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Return to Federal Custody for Non-violent Conviction within 5 years91 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


Aboriginal   98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03
Re-Admission
for a non-violent offence
year 56 61 49 60 70
3-year average 50 55 55 57 60
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 712 700 781 761 743
3-year average 635 670 731 747 762
Rate year 7.9% 8.7% 6.3% 7.9% 9.4%
3-year average 7.8% 8.2% 7.6% 7.6% 7.9%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 


Non-Aboriginal   98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02 02-03
Re-Admission
for a non-violent offence
year 291 279 317 327 357
3-year average 308 290 296 308 334
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 3,731 3,606 3,751 3,825 3,811
3-year average 3,898 3,757 3,696 3,727 3,796
Rate year 7.8% 7.7% 8.5% 8.5% 9.4%
3-year average 7.9% 7.7% 8.0% 8.2% 8.8%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

87 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
88 Ibid.
89 Ibid.
90 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within five years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2002-2003).
91 Ibid.

 

Mental Health: Comparative Data

Under Supervision

Mental Health Cases
Revocation while on Supervision


    03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Revocations year 445 510 529 657 654
3-year average 388 445 495 565 613
Release Flowthrough year 695 806 936 1,069 1,114
3-year average 528 673 812 937 1,040
Rate year 64.0% 63.3% 56.5% 61.5% 58.7%
3-year average 76.1% 67.0% 61.3% 60.4% 58.9%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Mental Health Cases
Offenders charged while on Supervision92


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Charges year 18 36 46 39 55
3-year average 22 28 33 40 47
Release Flowthrough year 517 695 806 936 1,069
3-year average 358 528 673 812 937
Rate year 3.5% 5.2% 5.7% 4.2% 5.1%
3-year average 7.3% 5.6% 4.8% 5.0% 5.0%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Mental Health Cases
Re-Offending with Any Conviction while on Supervision93


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Convictions year 46 67 62 56 96
3-year average 56 57 58 62 71
Release Flowthrough year 517 695 806 936 1,069
3-year average 358 528 673 812 937
Rate year 8.9% 9.6% 7.7% 6.0% 9.0%
3-year average 19.7% 11.5% 8.7% 7.8% 7.6%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

Mental Health Cases
Offenders Charged with a Violent offence while on Supervision94


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Charges year 7 12 14 14 16
3-year average 6 8 11 13 15
Release Flowthrough year 517 695 806 936 1,069
3-year average 358 528 673 812 937
Rate year 1.4% 1.7% 1.7% 1.5% 1.5%
3-year average 1.7% 1.6% 1.6% 1.7% 1.6%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

92 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
93 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
94 Ibid.

Mental Health Cases
Re-Offending with a Violent Conviction while on Supervision95


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Violent Convictions year 9 15 10 13 28
3-year average 15 13 11 13 17
Release Flowthrough year 517 695 806 936 1,069
3-year average 358 528 673 812 937
Rate year 1.7% 2.2% 1.2% 1.4% 2.6%
3-year average 5.6% 2.7% 1.7% 1.6% 1.7%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

Mental Health Cases
Re-Offending with a Non-Violent Conviction while on Supervision96


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Violent Convictions year 37 52 52 43 68
3-year average 41 44 47 49 54
Release Flowthrough year 517 695 806 936 1,069
3-year average 358 528 673 812 937
Rate year 7.2% 7.4% 6.5% 4.6% 6.4%
3-year average 14.1% 8.8% 7.0% 6.2% 5.9%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Mental Health Cases
Non-Violent Offenders charged while on Supervision97


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
All Charges year 11 24 32 25 39
3-year average 16 20 22 27 32
Release Flowthrough year 517 695 806 936 1,069
3-year average 358 528 673 812 937
Rate year 2.1% 3.5% 4.0% 2.7% 3.6%
3-year average 5.6% 4.0% 3.2% 3.3% 3.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

Return to Federal Custody within 2 years98

Mental Health Cases
Return to Federal Custody with Violent Conviction within 2 years99 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


    01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission
for violent offence
year 14 14 24 17 35
3-year average 11 14 17 18 25
Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence
year 218 256 261 300 338
3-year average 189 218 245 272 300
Rate year 6.42% 5.47% 9.20% 5.67% 10.36%
3-year average 5.5% 6.6% 7.0% 6.8% 8.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Mental Health Cases
Return to Federal Custody with Non-Violent Conviction within 2 years100 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


    01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for non-violent offence year 4 14 11 18 22
3-year average 5 8 10 15 17
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 218 256 261 300 338
3-year average 189 218 245 272 300
Rate year 1.9% 5.4% 4.2% 6.0% 6.5%
3-year average 2.9% 3.3% 3.9% 5.2% 5.6%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

Mental Health Cases
Return to Federal Custody for New Offence within 2 Years101 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


    01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission year 18 28 35 35 57
3-year average 16 22 27 33 42
Offenders Reaching WED year 218 256 261 300 338
3-year average 189 218 245 272 300
Rate year 8.3% 10.9% 13.4% 11.7% 16.9%
3-year average 8.4% 9.9% 10.9% 12.0% 14.0%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

95 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
96 Ibid.
97 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.
98 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
99 Ibid.
100 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
101 Ibid.

Mental Health Cases
Return to Federal Custody for New Offence within 2 years102 of Warrant Expiry
 (End of Sentence)


Men   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission year 18 25 35 33 55
3-year average 15 20 26 31 41
Offenders Reaching WED year 197 237 244 280 310
3-year average 169 199 226 254 278
Rate year 9.1% 10.5% 14.3% 11.8% 17.7%
3-year average 9.0% 10.3% 11.3% 12.2% 14.6%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 


Women   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 04-05
Re-Admission year 0 3 0 2 2
3-year average 1 1 1 2 1
Offenders Reaching WED year 21 19 17 20 28
3-year average 20 19 19 19 22
Rate year 0.0% 15.8% 0.0% 10.0% 7.1%
3-year average 3.5% 7.2% 5.3% 8.6% 5.7%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

Men and Women Offenders: Comparative Data

The following tables present reintegration results for men and women offenders during community supervision and post-sentence completion Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence).

Under Supervision

Mental Health Cases
Revocation while on Supervision


Men   03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Revocations year 418 468 483 582 595
3-year average 357 412 456 511 553
Release Flowthrough year 640 725 825 946 980
3-year average 482 611 730 832 917
Rate year 65% 65% 59% 62% 61%
3-year average 77% 68% 63% 62% 60%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 8, 2007.

 


Women   03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07 07-08
Revocations year 27 42 46 75 59
3-year average 31 33 38 54 60
Release Flowthrough year 55 81 111 123 134
3-year average 46 61 82 105 123
Rate year 49% 52% 41% 61% 44%
3-year average 70% 54% 47% 51% 49%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

Re-Offending with Violent Convictions while on Supervision103


Men   02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Violent Convictions year 246 245 235 195 207
3-year average 258 246 242 225 212
Release Flowthrough year 15,533 15,334 15,295 15,439 15,438
3-year average 15,796 15,540 15,387 15,356 15,391
Rate year 1.6% 1.6% 1.5% 1.3% 1.3%
3-year average 1.6% 1.6% 1.6% 1.5% 1.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

 


Women   02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07
Violent Convictions year 5 4 3 5 2
3-year average 4 4 4 4 3
Release Flowthrough year 843 824 849 915 920
3-year average 855 841 839 863 895
Rate year 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.5% 0.2%
3-year average 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008). Release Flowthrough as of April 13, 2008.

 

102 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
103 CSC has implemented a one-year delay in reporting new convictions for offenders in order to allow time for the judicial process. Reporting data at the end of each Fiscal Year would misrepresent the actual results since the courts would not have had the opportunity to process the charges.

Return to Federal Custody within 2 years104

Return to Federal Custody for Violent Offence within 2 years105 of Warrant Expiry (End of Sentence)


Men   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for a violent offence year 213 227 222 261 258
3-year average 213 222 221 237 247
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 4,347 4,310 4,179 4,269 4,248
3-year average 4,252 4,321 4,279 4,253 4,232
Rate year 4.9% 5.3% 5.3% 6.1% 6.1%
3-year average 5.0% 5.1% 5.2% 5.6% 5.8%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 


Women   01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06
Re-Admission for a violent offence year 4 5 2 6 7
3-year average 4 4 4 4 5
Offenders Reaching WED for any type of offence year 239 244 241 192 240
3-year average 222 236 241 226 224
Rate year 1.7% 2.0% 0.8% 3.1% 2.9%
3-year average 1.8% 1.8% 1.5% 2.0% 2.3%

Source: Offender Management System (April 13, 2008).

 

104 2007-2008 data indicating the number of federal offenders who have re-offended and been admitted to CSC custody within two years after reaching the end of their sentence (i.e. 2005-2006).
105 Ibid.

 

 4.2 Incident Investigations 

CSC’s investigations process includes national and local investigations of incidents and issues affecting its operations. Investigations into inmate deaths or serious bodily injury are convened under section 19 of the CCRA, at either the national or the local level. CSC’s Commissioner can also convene investigations under section 20 of the CCRA to report on any matter relating to the operations of CSC.

Other than investigations convened under section 19 and section 20 of the CCRA, the Director General, Incident Investigations and heads of operational units may convene investigations under Commissioner’s Directive 041, Incident Reports, to report on incidents and issues affecting CSC’s operations.

During Fiscal Year 2007-2008, CSC convened 89 national investigations, including 32 investigations convened under Section 20 of the CCRA, and 57 Tier II Investigations--either convened under Section 19 of the CCRA (death or serious bodily injury) or under paragraph 18 of Commissioner’s Directive 041.

Section 20 Investigations


Investigation Type Incident Type Total
Community Aggravated Sexual Assault 1
  Death 1
  Hostage Taking, Forcible Confinement, Assault with a Weapon etc. 1
  Murder 5
  Murder and Attempted Murder 1
  Offering an Indignity to a Body / Accessory to Murder 1
  Sexual Assault 1
  Kidnapping, Possession of Prohibited Weapon and Schedule 1 Substance. 1
  Attempted Murder, Sexual Assault and Robbery 1
  Multiple Drug and Weapons offences 1
  Sexual Assaults, Forcible Confinements, Robberies 1
Community Total   15
Institutional Allegations of Assault and Multiple Use of Force 1
  Assault and Forcible Confinement of a staff by Inmate 1
  Death 1
  Death and Serious Bodily Injuries 1
  Death Unknown Causes 1
  Hostage Taking 3
  Hostage Taking and Attempted Suicide 1
  Suicide 6
  Alleged Inappropriate Injections 2
  Major Disturbance and Inmate Injuries 1
Institutional Total   18
Institutional and Community Deaths by Natural Cause* 3
Institutional and Community Total   3
Grand Total   36

* 38 Deaths by Natural Cause were grouped into three Investigations

Tier II Investigations


Investigation Type Incident Type Total
Community Aggravated Assault 1
  Alleged Sexual Assault & Forcible Confinement 1
  Assault Causing Bodily Harm 1
  Attempted Murder 5
  Death 1
  Death by Overdose 1
  Death Unknown Cause 1
  Drug Trafficking 2
  Drug Trafficking and Weapons 1
  Possession for the Purpose of Trafficking 1
  Robbery 1
  Sexual Assault 6
  Sexual Assault, Sexual Interference and Invitation to Sexual Touching 1
  Suicide 3
  Uttering Threats to Cause Death or Harm 1
  Offender Death 1
Community Total   28
Institutional Assault on Inmate 9
  Attempted Murder 1
  Attempted Suicide 2
  Attempted Suicide / Self-Inflicted Injuries 1
  Death 1
  Death Overdose 1
  Death Unknown Cause 5
  Escape from ETA 1
  Medication Error 1
  Self-Inflicted Injuries 2
  Self-Injurious Behaviours 2
  Use of Force 1
  Overdose Interrupted / Attempted Suicide 1
Institutional Total   28
Grand Total   56

 

 4.3 Glossary

Aboriginal
First Nation, Métis or Inuit.

Aboriginal community
Aboriginal community is a First Nation, tribal council, band, community, organization or other group with a predominantly Aboriginal leadership.

Administrative segregation
Administrative segregation is confinement to keep the offender from associating with other inmates in order to maintain the security of the institution. Inmates may be segregated involuntarily or voluntarily.

Community Residential Facilities (CRF)
The Community Residential Facilities, commonly referred to as halfway houses, are operated by non-governmental organizations and private after-care agencies under contract with the Correctional Service of Canada. CRFs accommodate offenders who have been released to the community on Unescorted Temporary Absence, Day Parole, Full Parole, Work Release, Statutory Release, Statutory Release with Residency and those subject to Long-Term Supervision Orders.

Community Correctional Centres (CCC)
Community Correctional Centres are federally operated Community-based Residential Facilities that provide a structured living environment with 24 hour supervision, programs and interventions for the purpose of safely re-integrating offenders into the community. Like Community Residential Facilities, these facilities accommodate offenders who have been released to the community on Unescorted Temporary Absence, Day Parole, Full Parole, Work Release, Statutory Release, Statutory Release with Residency and those subject to Long-Term Supervision Orders.

Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA)
The legislative framework governing Correctional Service Canada.

Conditional Release
Conditional release helps inmates make a gradual, supervised return to society while serving their sentence. Regardless of the type of conditional release, all offenders are supervised until their Warrant Expiry Date.

  • Temporary Absences (TAs)
    Temporary Absences may be granted to offenders for medical, administrative, community service, family contact, and personal development reasons.

    • Escorted temporary absence (ETA) may be granted at any time during the sentence.
    • Unescorted temporary absence (UTA) may be granted after an offender has served one-sixth of the sentence or six months, whichever is greater.
  • Work Release (WR)
    Work release allows an offender, classified as minimum or medium security and who is judged not to pose an undue risk, to do paid or voluntary work in the community under supervision.
  • Day Parole (DP)
    Day parole allows an offender to participate in community-based activities to prepare for release on full parole or statutory release.
  • Full Parole (FP)
    Inmates are normally eligible to be considered for full parole by the National Parole Board, after serving one-third of their sentence, or seven years, whichever is less.
  • Statutory Release (SR)
    By law, most offenders who are serving sentences of fixed length, and who have not been granted parole or had their parole revoked, must be released on statutory release after serving two-thirds of their sentence.

CORCAN
A Special Operating Agency (SOA) that employs federal offenders for its workforce and, in doing so, provides them with working skills and working habits necessary to compete in the workforce.


Correctional Programs
Correctional programs are designed to improve offenders’ current knowledge and skill level, improving the likelihood of successful reintegration into the community upon release.

Healing Lodge
These types of facilities may or may not be located on First Nations’ reservation land. There are two distinct types of Healing Lodges available to offenders under the care and custody of CSC.

A Section 81 Healing Lodge is an Aboriginal community based correctional facility where the community has entered into an agreement with the Minister of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada for the provision of correctional care and custody to Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The second type is located on CSC property and run by CSC with the assistance of community Aboriginal people.

Ion scanner
An ion scanner is an electronic device that has the ability to detect residual amounts of particular drugs on personal items such as money or credit cards.

Long Term Supervision Order (LTSO)
A Long Term Supervision Order is an order imposed by the court. The offender who has received such an order is supervised in accordance with the CCRA. The Long Term Supervision Order commences when the offender has finished serving all sentences for offences for which he or she had been convicted. The period of supervision to which the offender is subject at any time must not total more than 10 years.

Maximum Security Institutions
House offenders who pose a serious risk to staff, other offenders and the community. The perimeter of a maximum-security institution is well defined, highly secure and controlled. Offender movement and association are strictly regulated and directly supervised.

Medium Security Institutions
House offenders who pose a risk to the safety of the community. The perimeter of a medium-security institution is well defined, secure and controlled. Offender movement and association is regulated and generally supervised.

Minimum Security Institutions
House offenders who pose a limited risk to the safety of the community. The perimeter of a minimum-security institution is defined but not directly controlled. Offender movement and association within the institution are regulated under minimal supervision.

Multi-level Institutions
House offenders of different security classifications in different secure areas of the institution.

Offender Management System (OMS)
The automated information system used by CSC as its main database for offender information.

Revocation
If parolees violate the conditions of their conditional release, or have been charged with a criminal offence, their conditional release (day parole, full parole) is suspended and they are re-incarcerated. Upon reviewing the case at a formal hearing, the National Parole Board may then decide to revoke parole and have the offender remain incarcerated. If the offender is not revoked, the conditional release is reinstated.

Sections 81/84 of CCRA
Section 81 enables CSC to enter into agreements with Aboriginal communities for the provision of correctional services to Aboriginal offenders. These agreements permit CSC, with the consent of the offender and the Aboriginal community, to transfer the care and custody of the offender to an Aboriginal community. Under Section 84 of the CCRA, CSC gives the Aboriginal community an opportunity to propose a plan for the inmate’s release to, and integration into, the Aboriginal community.

Security Classification
Each offender is reviewed initially on admission and then periodically throughout their sentence and is classified as a maximum, medium or minimum security risk and normally placed in an institution of the same classification. The security risk level is based on an assessment of factors related to public safety, escape risk and institutional adjustment.

Warrant Expiry Date (WED)
The date the sentence imposed by the courts officially ends.

 

 4.4 Further Information

Correctional Service of Canada Internet site: www.csc-scc.gc.ca

CSC Contacts:

Catherine Bélanger
Director
Integrated Strategic Business Planning
Performance Management
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P9
Telephone:  (613) 947-6436
Facsimile: (613) 995-5064
Email: BelangerCAE@csc-scc.gc.ca

Bill Staubi
Director General
Performance Management
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P9
Telephone:  (613) 992-8723
Facsimile: (613) 995-5064
Email: StaubiBH@csc-scc.gc.ca

Lynn Garrow
Assistant Commissioner
Performance Assurance
340 Laurier Avenue West
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0P9
Telephone:  (613) 996-1710
Facsimile: (613) 943-9292
Email: GarrowLY@csc-scc.gc.ca