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Section II: Analysis of Program Activities by Strategic Outcome

Generate and Sustain Relevant, Responsive, Effective, Combat-Capable Integrated Forces

In general, the CF was able to respond well to all assigned missions, both international and domestic and gave Canadians confidence that DND and the CF have relevant and credible capability to meet Defence and security commitments.

Noticeable improvements are taking place throughout the CF. The land, maritime and air forces implemented new initiatives to enhance productivity. These included mitigating personnel shortfalls through increased use of Reservists and DND civilians, exploring joint and amphibious warfare concepts, and creating an Air Force Strategy Paper and the CF Aerospace Doctrine.  Current and planned capital acquisition projects will also serve to improve force protection and enhance CF mobility and deployability.

The following highlights Defence’s accomplishments in the “Generate and Sustain Integrated Forces” program activity during fiscal 2006–2007.

Resources Consumed

Financial Resources

($ Thousands)




Departmental Spending




Capital Spending (included in departmental spending)




Source: Assistant Deputy Minister (Finance and Corporate Services) Group

Human Resources




Military(Regular Force)









Note: For information on the Reserve Strength see Section II, page 41.

Sources: Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff Group, Chief Military Personnel Group and Assistant Deputy Minister – Human Resources (Civilian) Group

Generate and Sustain Integrated Operational Forces Capable of Maritime Effects

During fiscal 2006–2007, the navy successfully executed its mission to generate and maintain combat-capable, multi-purpose maritime forces for employment at home and abroad, meeting all operational commitments. This included maintaining a ready duty ship on both coasts and a Composite Contingency Task Group at the required readiness levels 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The navy defended the nation by safeguarding and upholding sovereignty in Canada’s three ocean approaches through Defence’s support to other government departments, including the completion of 171 sea days of maritime security patrols, 112 sea days of fishery patrols, and 47 sea days of counter drug operations.  A sustained presence in Arctic waters, consisting of 68 sea days, was also maintained. 

Global maritime security was maintained through command of NATO Standing Naval Maritime Group One and HMCS OTTAWA’s deployment to the Gulf region with a US Expeditionary Strike Group. The navy also progressed constant situational awareness, maintaining an interagency Maritime Security Operations Center 24/7 on both coasts, and conducted integrated tactical effects experiments related to littoral manoeuvre.

Standing Contingency Force - Integrated Tactical Effects Experiment

In November 2006, the navy conducted the Integrated Tactical Effects Experiment (ITEE) with the participation of more than 1,000 CF members. The ITEE included a naval task group of HMCS ATHABASKAN, HALIFAX, PRESERVER and WINDSOR; an air expeditionary unit of CH-124 Sea King helicopters and CP-140 Aurora maritime patrol aircraft; and a landing force comprising soldiers from the Royal 22e Régiment. Support was provided from the United States Navy, consisting of mentors and the participation of USS GUNSTON HALL, a Whidbey Island-class amphibious ship, and USS DOYLE, an Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate.

The ITEE helped the CF assess the challenges associated with developing a maritime expeditionary force.  Due to operational and fiscal pressures, work on the SCF has been stood down. CMS, supported by CLS and CAS, will continue, however, to sponsor the development of operational and tactical joint littoral manoeuvre integrated effects and amphibious warfare concepts through the CF Maritime Warfare Centre.

Generate and Sustain Integrated Operational Forces Capable of Land Effects

Throughout the reporting period, Land Force Command (LFC) continued to produce a combat-effective, sustainable Land Force delivering focussed, integrated, strategically relevant, operationally responsive and tactically decisive land effects.

During the reporting year, two rotations of approximately 2,100 soldiers, totalling 4,200 or 21 percent of the army’s total strength throughout the reporting year, played a vital role on the international scene by leading the NATO Joint Task Force into southern Afghanistan, in a UN-mandated mission conducted at the request of the Afghan government. This mission is being conducted primarily by army forces, augmented by navy and air force personnel, through the semi-annual generation of high-readiness task forces. However, this impressive strategic contribution to international security was made possible only by surpassing the capacity of LFC to generate substantial forces at home. Thus, conducting major operations in Canada will be challenging, and will remain so until our commitment in Afghanistan is progressively reduced or concluded.

CF Operations, Transformation, Expansion and Sustainment

LFC intends to expand aggressively to improve its force-generation base, making it more adaptable to other CF elements and capable of generating integrated land effects. As a result of attrition and the personnel demands of Transformation, the size of the army stayed the same during fiscal 2006–2007. CF Transformation initiatives shifted a significant number of recruits from the army to other Environmental Commands, and LFC will carry the resulting imbalance between operations, transformation and sustainment into fiscal 2007–2008.

Attrition is most pronounced in the specialized military occupations, and the lack of personnel to replace deployed technicians has caused equipment maintenance deficiencies. The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) mitigated the shortfalls by authorizing units to replace deployed Regular Force personnel with Reservists and Defence civilians.

The nuclei of Territorial Defence Battalion Groups have been established across Canada.

During fiscal 2006–2007, 3,900 Army Reservists — just short of 23 percent of the Army Reserve establishment of 16,973 — were deployed, or working full-time to replace Regular Force personnel. This situation created unit-level leadership gaps in the Reserve that must be monitored closely to ensure that Reserve units remain capable of generating forces.

Generate and Sustain Integrated Operational Forces Capable of Aerospace Effects

The air force continued to carry out its responsibility for the development of military aerospace power to defend Canada and North America, and to deploy on operations with allies and coalition partners.

Versatile, highly skilled personnel continue to be the source of air force agility and responsiveness. Defence aims to maintain a highly skilled workforce that is large enough to support and sustain its assigned missions. Sufficient progress toward that objective was made, especially with air technician training, to ensure that production capacity matches requirement; to increase system productivity; and to foster the professional development of serving technicians. These efforts are also enhancing the capability of the Canadian Forces School of Aerospace Technology and Engineering (CFSATE) into the modern training world through the use of learning technology such as modeling and simulation to improve the efficiency of resource use.

During fiscal 2006–2007, Defence developed the Air Force Strategy (to be published in the fall of 2007), which explains how the work of a wide variety of organizations in and external to the air force will be co-ordinated in the following areas: human resources; research and development; infrastructure and organization; concepts, doctrine and collective training; information management; and equipment, supplies and services. Using the subject breakdown of the Air Force Strategy, Defence has begun identifying where and when additional resources will be required. This information has been incorporated into the Campaign Plan.

A component of the Air Force Strategy, the Campaign Plan lists the activities that will translate the strategic intent into the synchronized delivery of aerospace power. Development of the Campaign Plan has helped the air force improve the management of its priorities in generating and sustaining aerospace capabilities. Under the Campaign Plan, significant effort has gone into preparations for the introduction over the next few years of several new aircraft types, including the CC-177 Globemaster strategic transport, the tactical airlift and medium-heavy-lift helicopters.

The initial cadre of pilots, loadmasters, maintenance and mobile air movements personnel for the CC-177 Globemaster completed training with the United States Air Force (USAF) in March 2007. To further develop and enhance CF CC-177 capabilities, these pilots, loadmasters and maintenance personnel will remain with the USAF for on-job-training. Training for the rest of the CC‑177 Globemaster personnel is continuing and is scheduled to coincide with the delivery of the remaining three aircraft.

Planning to acquire new fixed-wing search and rescue aircraft will slow down to allow the air force to complete the incorporation of the CC-177 Globemaster, the tactical airlift and medium-heavy-lift helicopters. Since domestic search and rescue is a top air force priority, the CC-130 Hercules and CC-115 Buffalo will remain in the inventory and be assigned to new capabilities once the new fixed-wing SAR aircraft arrives.

The Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre (CFAWC), which stood up in October 2005, has become the air force engine of concept development, experimentation, and dissemination of doctrine and lessons learned. A major milestone was achieved when CFAWC delivered the CF Aerospace Doctrine, which was published in February 2007.

Generate and Sustain Joint National, Unified and Special Operations Forces

Canada Command

The primary objective of Canada Command and its Regional Joint Task Forces (RJTFs) is ensuring preparedness to handle domestic and continental defence and security requirements.

Canada Command Headquarters stood up on February 1, 2006 with 91 military personnel and 20 civilians. Canada Command will evolve as its relationship with strategic-level structures matures, and will therefore take some time to achieve final form. As a result of the high operational tempo and high demand for experienced personnel, Canada Command operated during the reporting period with 90 percent of its personnel establishment. The RJTFs received additional resources, but they are likely to need more personnel if they are to carry out their force employment responsibilities.

Within its area of responsibility, Canada Command achieved its defence objectives through surveillance and control of Canadian territory. Working with other government departments, Canada Command satisfied a wide range of requests for military assistance and support; for example, support to the RCMP included 660 Ch246 Griffon flying hours used in drug interdiction operations that resulted in seizures of assets worth about $177 million.

Canada Command Headquarters also reinforced its relationship with its American counterpart headquarters, United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM). Liaison officers were exchanged to facilitate operations, exercises and planning. Working closely with USNORTHCOM and NORAD, Canada Command contributed to the ongoing development of the NORAD maritime warning mission.

Canadian Expeditionary Forces Command

Canadian Expeditionary Forces Command Headquarters (CEFCOM HQ) was expected to increase significantly in both size and capability during fiscal 2006–2007, but it remains at initial capability level because the resources required for growth went into other CF transformation projects. Key areas of improvement included the Command Centre and personnel management. The capacity of the headquarters to deal with some functions continues to be limited, and will evolve in accordance with requirements.

Nevertheless, CEFCOM commanded and conducted all international CF operations during fiscal 2006-2007. The CF engaged in 21 diverse missions outside North America ranging from humanitarian assistance such as supporting DFAIT with the evacuation of more than 15,000 Canadian citizens from Lebanon to combat missions in Afghanistan, in concert with international partners.  Additional information can be found later in this chapter under “International Operations”.

Canadian Special Operations Forces Command

Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM) is a standing integrated force that generates a broad spectrum of agile special operations forces capable of strategic and precision effects at high readiness. Its self-contained, comprehensive nature ensures that it responds immediately to threats at home and abroad.

CANSOFCOM produces area-focussed, task-tailored special operations task forces to deliver its mission requirements. CANSOFCOM’s operational units use state-of-the-art equipment and are fully trained in special operations techniques and counter-terrorism measures. Training and development of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) response capabilities continued primarily through the Joint Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defence Company (JNBCD Coy), as part of the National CBRN Response Team. Before acceptance into CANSOFCOM units, CF members undergo a strict physical and psychological screening.

During the reporting period, CANSOFCOM increased its capabilities by establishing elements of the Canadian Special Operations Regiment, including a large portion of the HQ and support elements and the first Direct Action Company, and assuming operational control of 427 Special Operations Aviation Squadron. As part of CANSOFCOM global response, the squadron is a critical member of the integrated counter-terrorism operations team, and a key element of deployed special operations forces capability.

Canadian Operational Support Command

During the reporting period, Canadian Operational Support Command (CANOSCOM) launched several initiatives to enhance operational support capabilities; for example, the stand-up of the Operational Support Engineer Group (OS Engr Gp) and the transfer of 1 Engineer Support Unit to this new formation from the Canadian Forces Joint Support Group. The OS Engr Gp will co-ordinate the generation of general engineering support teams from across the army, navy and air force, a process that used to be done in an ad hoc manner for each requirement. CANOSCOM also established the Operational Support Military Police Group to co-ordinate the generation of military police units for deployed operations. This initiative included the stand-up of the initial cadre of the Canadian Forces Protective Services Unit charged with providing close protection teams for military personnel travelling in high-threat areas.

Integrated Managed Readiness System

In the face of high operational tempo and in order to support the Transformation objectives of delivering a more strategically relevant, operationally responsive and tactically decisive CF, considerable effort was made in fiscal 2006–2007 to bring into existence an Integrated Managed Readiness System (IMRS).  The CF will leverage existing Environmental, Senior Management and Operational Commands readiness reporting processes, and introduce ways and means of articulating and answering strategic level readiness information requirements. A CF IMRS will directly support both the force employer who determines mission requirements and force generators who provide well prepared, equipped and motivated forces, all of which must be managed through a system that enables the CDS to consider operational demand as measured against Government objectives, and Departmental and CF priorities, capacities and sustainability.

The navy executed the Naval Readiness and Sustainment (R&S) process and developed supporting plans to ensure an effective, affordable and sustainable operational capability. The R & S policy focused on the generation and maintenance of combat-capable multi-purpose maritime forces to meet Canada’s defence capability requirements.

The navy successfully generated ships to the required readiness levels to meet all operational commitments and ready duty ship assignments and Composite Contingency Task Group requirements throughout the year.  With the exception of Standing NATO Maritime Group 1 (SNMG 1) deployed IROQUOIS Class ships, all High Readiness ships achieved less than the desired number of sea days due to resource constraints. Standard Readiness ships were able to meet the desired number of sea days.

The LFC Managed Readiness Plan has proven to be a flexible tool providing direction and predictability to all levels of command. It allowed LFC to plan, prepare and sustain its substantial commitment to Afghanistan, as well as identify LFC assets that would be available for domestic and contingency operations. A study on integrating the Army Reserve into the LFC Managed Readiness Plan is presently under way.

Air Command worked with the Strategic Joint Staff on an Integrated Managed Readiness System for the entire CF, and the air force readiness system has already been changed to align it with the CF and NATO systems. The Air Force Managed Readiness System is a cycle of force generation, employment (including periods of high readiness) and reconstitution that each squadron and wing passes through to reduce stress on personnel and equipment and to allocate time and resources for training, build-up and recovery.

During the reporting period, the air force generated expeditionary capabilities for the fighter force apportioned to the NATO Reaction Force, the tactical aviation force, the maritime helicopter force and the long-range patrol force. The high-readiness forces assigned to tactical air mobility, tactical uninhabited air vehicles and tactical support were generated, and are now deployed with Joint Task Force Afghanistan. Resource constraints and the high operational tempo make sustainment of a wide variety of expeditionary capabilities difficult.

Air Command also managed the readiness of search and rescue assets to ensure that the level of service met the requirements of the national SAR program.

Support Capability

Develop and Sustain an Effective, Professional Defence Team

Support to deployed operations is the top priority of Canadian Operational Support Command (CANOSCOM). When CANOSCOM became operational on February 1, 2006, an immediate review was conducted of areas where support to deployed operations must be improved. Two initiatives were identified: improve visibility of materiel in transit between Canada and Afghanistan by means of radio frequency identification (RFID), and implement teleradiology in deployed hospitals to allow medical support from Canada. The RFID project achieved initial capability within six months of initiation, and lessons learned have been incorporated into the second phase, which is to expand the use of RFID to other areas of the supply chain. The teleradiology project is also successful, and physicians in Canada can now view X-ray plates in Afghanistan and help deployed physicians diagnose and treat soldiers in theatre.

New capabilities introduced to the Joint Task Force Afghanistan (JTF Afg) during the reporting period included the Leopard I C2 main battle tank, which provides more protection for troops engaged in combat missions or operating where they are likely to encounter Taliban forces.An armoured engineer squadron and artillery assets were added to JTF Afg to increase mobility and firepower. New vehicles with anti-mine protection were delivered to theatre during the reporting period as a result of lessons learned and growing understanding of the threat environment.

Military Personnel

Recruitment and Retention

Force expansion has presented the training system with capacity and scheduling challenges that have produced a larger than usual number of Personnel Awaiting Training (PATs) — on average, 750 at any given time during the reporting period. In the past, the time spent waiting for training was very unproductive, and discouraged many recruits from pursuing a military career. During the reporting period, the Post Recruit Training and Education Centre (PRETC) at the Canadian Forces Support and Training Group (CFSTG) established and staffed nine full-time equivalent positions to manage the PAT program — an increase that was compromised by difficulties encountered in recruiting Reservists and by the loss of Regular Force personnel who were posted out without replacement. The shortage of staff placed tremendous stress on the remaining employees and significantly hindered program delivery. Nevertheless, PRETC worked hard to find innovative and rewarding ways to employ recruits waiting for occupational training. CFSTG used the CF Tasking Plans Operations system to find employment opportunities of a year or more where PATs could be rotated, thus not only creating meaningful employment for PATs but also making an eager workforce available to support operational units, Basic Military Qualification courses, occupational training, pre-deployment training, and various operational support tasks. PATs were also heavily involved with Operation CONNECTION in support of Joint Task Force Central and Land Forces Central Area. Second language training was introduced to narrow the language gap for unilingual francophone recruits. A focus on maintaining fitness and general military skills had a positive impact on success rates in occupational training. The new CF Fitness Policy was applied firmly throughout the training system, to both staff and students, with excellent results.

These efforts to make the time waiting for training more interesting and productive have resulted in generally high morale among the troops, but the constant extremely heavy workload is bringing training staff to the point of exhaustion.

The Canadian Defence Academy (CDA) adopted the campus concept as another step in its campaign to reduce duplication of effort and improve service. CFB Borden adopted central control of training plan managers, quality assurance of qualification standards, and all distance-learning technology. Implementation of centralized scheduling continued, although technical support issues have delayed installation of the scheduling software in the Training Establishment and Resource Management Scheduling System.

Defence requires a fair and effective performance evaluation procedure to motivate, provide performance feedback, recognize exceptional performance and provide developmental opportunities, at both the individual and team level. The task of revising the CF Personnel Appraisal System was assigned to the Succession Planning and Careers Project late in the fiscal year. Due to lack of resources, no progress has been made yet.

DND reorganized military occupations as “group occupations” and common or generic jobs into career fields to broaden individual opportunities for career development and meet operational requirements. During fiscal 2006–2007, more than 32 Occupational Analyses were conducted across functional employment areas (e.g., navy, army, air force, operational support), producing recommendations for changes to occupational structures that are suitable for near-term implementation by the sponsors. MOSART implemented nine other occupational structures based on analyses conducted during fiscal 2005–2006.

In October 2006, the CF introduced a personnel-tracking policy requiring the assembly and monitoring of a single, complete, central record of each CF member’s “time away”, defined as a 24-hour period when, for service reasons, members cannot return to their normal residence — i.e., where they normally sleep. The tracking system now includes the two forms of “time away” that were not previously captured in personnel records: Temporary Duty and Unit-Generated Activities.

Health and Wellness

Mental Health Care: The Canadian Forces Health Group continued to implement its new mental health care model. Of the planned increase of 218 mental health professionals, Defence added 85 military and civilian personnel during the reporting period, and 40 to 50 human resource requests were in process at fiscal year-end.

Preliminary results from the Enhanced Post-deployment Screening of CF members returning from service on Operation ARCHER with Joint Task Force Afghanistan showed that many were already receiving care when they were interviewed (on average, 161 days after return). Those not receiving care were referred for further evaluation and treatment as appropriate. This strong trend towards early care seeking is nothing short of remarkable, and will likely shorten the period of suffering and result in a more complete recovery.

The Joint Mental Health Care Project has developed a list of mental health service providers and is working collaboratively to address operational stress injuries.

Operational Support: Throughout the reporting period, Canada remained lead nation in the Role 3 multinational health care facility in Kandahar, Afghanistan. The staff of the Role 3 Mobile Medical Unit cared for about 3,000 patients from coalition forces. Three medical personnel were seriously injured and one died in the line of duty.

Eighty-five CF members were evacuated from theatre by air for medical reasons.

CF Health Services personnel helped build capacity in the Afghan health care system by training Afghan National Army (ANA) medics in first aid and acting as clinical mentors to ANA physicians.

Combat first aid based on St. John Ambulance techniques is the backbone of in-theatre casualty care and evacuation to hospital. Base, wing and garrison surgeons across Canada are responsible for ensuring that every CF member deploying to a threat environment is taught combat first aid, and this was done throughout the reporting period. Tactical Combat Casualty Care, an enhanced course for soldiers, was also delivered to one or two individuals in each section that patrols “outside the wire”. Finally, a new version of the crucial Medical Technicians’ Course was developed and delivered to medical technicians deploying in the Role 1 capacity.

After a comprehensive review of its field force structure, the CF Health Group completed the Field Force Review “Straw Man” document, and is now developing a list of requirements for the Health Services Reserve.

Montfort Hospital: The move of the Canadian Forces Health Services Centre in Ottawa to a new facility at the Montfort Hospital was scheduled for the spring of 2007, but construction delays have pushed the expected completion date to April 2008, and moving day has been rescheduled to June 2008.

Canadian Forces Health Information System: The CF Health Information System (CFHIS) now delivers patient scheduling, registration and immunization tracking services at 34 of 36 Canadian Forces Health Services sites, and CFHIS service will begin at CFS Alert, Nunavut, and CFB Halifax, N.S. during fiscal 2007–2008. Progress was made in the delivery of clinical applications throughout the integrated network: 21 of the 24 CF dental clinics are now on line; eight of 15 diagnostic imaging departments have been implemented; five of 14 laboratories have been activated; and “results review” is available at eight of the 26 sites.

Health Promotion: The CF health promotion program Strengthening the Forces achieved its 2006–2007 service delivery targets, which were higher than those of previous years. Nine programs are now available with trained facilitators, and only Injury Prevention has yet to reach steady state. A total of 710 skills-building workshop series were delivered to 8,100 CF and 2,000 civilian participants, up from 343 workshop series, and 4,300 CF and 1,000 civilian participants, the year before. The number of health promotion program staff increased by 10 percent to meet increased CF needs.

Work continued on the surveillance system, a database tracking system designed to enhance injury prevention efforts. Developmental work was done on an ergonomics education program and initiatives to promote awareness of injury prevention during physical fitness training.

Training and Force Generation

A revised CF Individual Training and Education (IT&E) Framework was developed and submitted for approval in late fiscal 2006–2007 for implementation during fiscal 2007–2008. This framework assigns the functional authority for IT&E to the Chief of Military Personnel, who is accountable to the CDS for ensuring that IT&E reflects and supports CF goals and priorities. The IT&E Framework will ensure that the personnel generators, force generators, force employers, Education Training Providers and Education Training Entities, all receive clear direction on how IT&E functions in the CF. 

Once implemented, the revised IT&E Framework will improve responses to training needs by connecting operational requirements to IT&E through specific processes, structures and management committees. The framework provides the structure necessary to generate personnel with the right individual qualifications for the right job, at the right time and at the right cost.

Despite the greater demand on the field force caused by increasing operational and personnel tempo, the CF training system continued to provide innovative initiatives and maintained consistent delivery of individual training.

The Canadian Manoeuvre Training Centre (CMTC) in Wainwright, Alberta, has become the premiere CF site for validating the collective training of high-readiness task forces preparing to deploy on operations. In combination with rigorous work-up training, the CMTC made possible the generation of joint, integrated, multi-national and political forces capable of operating successfully in today’s operational environment.

The deployment of personnel from the Army Lessons Learned Centre with Joint Task Force Afghanistan expedited the army’s ability to insert new tactics, techniques and procedures into both collective and individual training, and to improve the effectiveness of countermeasures against the insurgents’ constantly changing tactics and weapons.


Organizational Learning and Lessons Learned: The CF has made significant progress in transferring knowledge gained in operations to the learning situation. During the reporting period, the Canadian Defence Academy created the Directorate of Operational Training and Educational Needs (DOTEN) to make the training and education system more responsive to lessons learned in operations. DOTEN is linked with the lessons-learned network and is reducing the time it takes to transfer knowledge and experience gained from operations to appropriate training and education courses. Operationally relevant training gives students the benefit of the most recent knowledge learned in operations and prepares them better to serve on operations.

Individual Learning: During fiscal 2006–2007 the average annual percentage of officers entering the CF through plans that require a university degree before commissioning increased from 89 percent to 90 percent. The annual average percentage of officers entering the CF through the Continuing Education Officer Training Plan (CEOTP), which requires officers to earn a degree during their first engagement, also increased one point from 4 percent to 5 percent. A corresponding decrease was seen in the percentage of new officers commissioned from the ranks, for which no degree is required. Collectively, these figures indicate progress toward an officer corps in which only those commissioned from the ranks are not necessarily university graduates.

The proportion of senior officers with degrees continued to grow as senior officers without degrees retired. A negligible increase was achieved during the reporting period, however, because the annual attrition rate of senior officers dropped below 3 percent during fiscal 2006–2007.

Articles of Clerkship Program: During fiscal 2006–2007, the Office of the Judge Advocate General employed two articling students, one from a Civil Law program and the other from a Common Law program. Both students received experience in military justice and criminal and administrative law and were exposed to the practice of law in the federal government, and in turn provided the Office of the JAG with valuable assistance. This program gives the Office of the JAG an opportunity to contribute to the legal profession while fostering a broader understanding of the CF and military legal issues. One student accepted an indeterminate position with the federal government upon completion of her articling.

Standing Committee on Public Accounts

On the publication of the eleventh report of the Standing Committee on Public Accounts (SCOPA) on Chapter 2, “National Defence – Military Recruiting and Retention)”, of the May 2006 report of the Auditor General of Canada, Defence was asked to include in its Departmental Performance Report the response to the specific recommendations set out below. As requested in Recommendation 1 of the report, Defence also tabled with the Committee detailed action plans for the implementation of the recommendations made in the SCOPA report.

Recommendation 3:That the Department of National Defence establish a formal commitment to: process applications for membership in the Canadian Armed Forces within 30 days; ensure that all applicants are made aware of that commitment; and report its progress in meeting those goals in its annual Departmental Performance Report.

The Canadian Forces Recruiting Group (CFRG) implemented changes to applicant processing that support the goal of making job offers within five days to 30 percent of applicants called in for processing and 30 days for an additional 40 percent of applicants. All changes were designed to streamline the process; for example, the physical fitness test was eliminated from the selection process and replaced with a program promoting maintenance of a healthy lifestyle during basic training, and Recruiting Centres were authorized to make real-time job offers and conduct initial security checks early in the selection process.

Attainment of the 30-day processing goal depends on applicants’ medical fitness and recruiters’ success in co-ordinating processing appointments with job openings. To improve efficiency and management of applicants’ expectations, recruiters must be required to provide initial feedback to applicants early in the application process. Applicants can expect at least one of the following interventions while they wait:

  • A call to come in for processing because their preferred occupation has job openings;
  • Counselling on other opportunities because none of their desired occupations have job openings; and
  • Counselling on the waiting period to expect when the available job openings are not appealing.

Although improvements to human resources database reporting methods are still pending, preliminary data indicate that, since October 2006, 21 percent of applicants have received a job offer within five days and another 32 percent of applicants received a job offer within 30 days.

Recommendation 4: That the Department of National Defence develop a policy to guide its efforts to attract recruits from specifically identified groups. This policy must include a clear accountability framework for achieving results and be completed and begin implementation by April 1, 2007.em>

The CF Employment Equity Plan of December 2006 includes initiatives to increase the representation of designated groups in the Canadian Forces. The CF Employment Equity Plan includes timelines for the initiatives and policy reviews, and will be monitored annually.

Recommendation 5: That the Department of National Defence record and evaluate the results of its advertising activities, report the results in its annual Departmental Performance Reports beginning with the Report for the period ending 31 March 2007, and make the appropriate changes to its advertising campaign and related expenditures.

The Public Affairs Group is responsible for the coordination and management of all Canadian Forces recruitment advertisements.  As such, Public Affairs works closely with both the Canadian Forces Recruiting Group, who set the recruitment requirements, and the Privy Council Office, who manages all government advertising.

A budget of $23.5 million was allocated to advertising and marketing for fiscal 2006–2007;  $15.5 million from the government’s centralized advertising fund and $8 million from existing departmental resources.  These funds were used for both production and media placement.  As stipulated in the Government of Canada Communications Policy, under Section 23, all major advertising campaigns must be evaluated to assess their effectiveness in achieving the stated objectives. 

In fiscal 2006–2007, two evaluation studies were completed (Fall 2006 and Winter 2007) to assess the performance of the fall and winter recruitment advertising campaigns.  Success for television advertising is measured through “recall.”  Unaided recall, where the audience can recall some creative element of the ads is considered a prerequisite for the advertisement to have an impact on people’s attitudes and behaviours.  The Fall Campaign had an unaided recall rate of 26 percent with the general population, and 29 percent with the target audience of 17- to 34-year-olds. This level is well above the industry standard, which is typically around 20 percent. The level of unaided recall increased to 31 percent for the Winter Campaign amongst the general population, and reached 38 percent with the 17- to 34-year-old target population.  Evaluation of the Winter Campaign used both an Internet panel of 17- to 24-year-olds and a telephone survey with a representative sample of Canadians aged 17 and older.  Results show that advertising placed on the Internet conveys a stronger recruitment message.  The evaluation results of each campaign are used to adjust the focus, media mix or strategy of all CF recruit-advertising campaigns.

Traffic through the various recruitment points of contact is also used to gauge the effectiveness of recruitment advertising.  This measure includes recruitment website visits, visits to recruitment centers, phone calls to the 1-800 line and e-mail.  Fiscal  2006–2007 saw a 200 percent increase in traffic over fiscal 2005–2006, this resulted in an increase of almost 10,000 applications.

With the support of an important advertising campaign and new ads, the CF met their recruitment targets for fiscal 2006–2007 and increased the Regular force by 1,000 personnel and the Reserve force by approximately 1,000 personnel.

Recommendation 6:That the Department of National Defence confirm that all of its recruiting offices have the capacity to deal with potential recruits in the official language of their choice and, where it finds gaps, take immediate corrective action.

All CF recruiting centres and detachments have the capacity to process applicants in both official languages. To improve the delivery of recruiting services in both official languages even more, CFRG operates a national call centre.

Recommendation 7: That, in the surveys it conducts among those leaving the Canadian Forces, the Department of National Defence include questions designed to determine whether language issues or problems linked to the availability of first language educational facilities are factors in decisions taken to leave the Forces before full service is completed. Immediate corrective action should be taken depending on survey results.

Although CF exit surveys do not contain specific questions about language issues, questions are structured so respondents can raise language issues if they want to. Analysis of exit surveys is scheduled to begin in autumn 2007. The 2007 data collection effort will produce a sample large enough for valid analyses that can be used to develop appropriate mitigating measures if required.

Recommendation 8:That the Department of National Defence determine the rate of attrition for female members of the Canadian Forces and, in its exit surveys, seek to establish which factors prompt female members to leave the Forces before full service is completed. The results, along with corrective measures taken to ncourage women to complete their full service, should be reported in the Department’s annual Performance Reports, beginning with the Report for the period ending 31 March 2008.

The current exit survey permits responses to be sorted by gender. Analysis of the responses, scheduled to begin in the autumn of 2007, will permit development of appropriate mitigating measures. The annual rate of attrition among women was 5.92 percent in fiscal 2004–2005, 5.83 percent in fiscal 2005–2006; and 6.82 percent in fiscal 2006–2007. The attrition rate tends to be lower among women than among men, and its increase over time follows the pattern of the overall increase of attrition across the CF.

Recommendation 9: That the Department of National Defence begin to report the results of the exit surveys it conducts among members of the Canadian Forces in its Departmental Performance Reports beginning with the Report for the period ending 31 March 2007. References to the methodology and scope of the surveys should be included.

Analysis of the exit surveys will begin in the autumn of 2007, so survey results will appear in the next Departmental Performance Report.

Recommendation 10:That the Department of National Defence establish a target for the maximum acceptable rate of attrition of its trained effective strength and monitor the performance of the package of measures it has instituted to meet that target. The Department should begin to report its progress in its annual Departmental Performance Report beginning with the report ending 31 March 2007.

Attrition is an important element of force renewal. Some attrition is essential to ensure a continuous flow of recruits and promotion opportunities through the ranks for both commissioned and non commissioned members. Experience indicates that, barring interventions such as the Force Reduction Plan of the 1990s, over the long term an average annual attrition rate of 6 to 8 percent is required to maintain renewal throughout the CF.

What constitutes “problematic” attrition will vary across time and circumstances. For example, any amount of unexpected attrition in an under-strength or very small occupation will be problematic. The training required to bring a recruit from entry to employable on operations can vary in length from 18 months to seven years, so unexpected attrition in occupations with long training programs will have greater impact than the same amount of attrition would have in an occupation with a shorter training and work-up period.

Since circumstances define “maximum acceptable” attrition, it is not productive to set or identify a maximum acceptable attrition rate. Instead, the CF are monitoring certain indicators to ensure that negative trends are seen early, and appropriate intervention begins in a timely manner.

Recommendation 11: That the Department of National Defence take all appropriate measures needed to compensate for the effects of the force-reduction bubble, including recruitment of individuals already possessing the skills needed to fill key positions and accelerating the promotion of qualified individuals already serving in the Canadian Forces to fill vacant positions.

The CF have launched several initiatives to achieve these aims.

  • Trained members of the Primary Reserve are encouraged to transfer to the Regular Force.
  • Primary Reservists returning from Afghanistan are eligible for direct, expedited component transfer offers that reservists need only accept or decline, thus eliminating much of the administrative action and processing.
  • Recently released CF members and members on the Supplementary Reserve List are being asked to return to the Regular Force.
  • DND is co-operating with Citizenship and Immigration Canada to develop a process for fast-tracking members of allied armed forces who are fully qualified in high-demand occupations to landed immigrant status and enrolling them in the CF.
  • Actionis being taken to identify high performers early so that specific mentoring,training and succession planning can begin to prepare them for early promotionto higher rank.

Reserve Force

The Reserve Force is composed of CF members who are enrolled for service other than continuous, full-time military service. The Reserve Force has four sub-components:

  • the Primary Reserve;
  • the Supplementary Reserve;
  • the Cadet Instructors Cadre; and
  • the Canadian Rangers.

Primary Reserve

The role of the Primary Reserve is to augment, sustain and support deployed forces and sometimes to perform tasks that are not performed by Regular Force members. The Primary Reserve structure includes the Naval Reserve, the Army Reserve, the Air Reserve, the Communications Reserve, the Health Services Reserve and the Legal Reserve.

Naval Reserve: The Naval Reserveprovided highly trained sailors for the ship’s companies of the navy’s KINGSTON class Maritime Coastal Defence Vessels. Coastal operations included roles distinct to the Naval Reserve such as port security, Naval Coordination and Advice to Shipping, and shared roles such as mine countermeasures and Intelligence.  The total strength of the Naval Reserve stood at 3,950 in fiscal 2006-2007.  It is expected that the Naval Reserve will reach its approved strength ceiling of 5,100 by 2015.

Army Reserve: Phase II of the Land Force Reserve Restructure is now being implemented, which implies a significantly expanded role for the Army Reserve. During fiscal 2006–2007, the average paid strength of the Army Reserve stood at 16,973, an increase of 890 over fiscal 2005–2006. It is expected that the Army Reserve will reach and maintain its targeted strength of 17,300 during fiscal 2007-2008. Of the average paid strength, approximately 3,900 Army Reserve personnel were employed full-time across Canada and abroad.

The Army Reserve enhanced its link with communities by having its units reach out to new communities. Two new capabilities, civil-military co-operation (CIMIC) and psychological operations (PSYOPS), have grown in strength and are providing significant augmentation to international operations. The Army Reserve is the sole source of these two capabilities.

Air Reserve: Progress continues in the transition of the air force to a Total Force construct; for example, all Reserve Flights — the organizations that handle Reserve administration on wings across Canada — have been integrated into the local wing administration organization, and all Air Reserve chief warrant officers (CWO) were included in the CWO rationalization just completed.

In December 2006, Air Command began revising the Air Force Strategy and developing an Air Force Campaign Plan. The Campaign Plan forms the basis for a personnel doctrine that will integrate Air Reserve capabilities, roles and functions fully with the rest of the Air Force, thus formalizing the Total Force concept within the air force doctrinal structure for the first time. The average paid strength of the Air Reserve varied between 2,250 and 2,350, being funding limited.  The actual strength at any given time varies with the surge requirement to support CF operations outside Canada, Domestic Force Employment (DFE), and backfill for vacant Regular force positions.

Communications Reserve: The Communications Reserve continued to provide trained signallers to support Regular and Reserve Force activities both in Canada and on operations overseas. These soldiers played a vital role in information operations and in maintaining communications links as an integral part of all CF missions. During the reporting period, approximately 80Communications Reservists deployed on operations in Afghanistan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Bosnia and the Golan Heights. The paid strength of the Communication Reserve is 1,945 personnel.

Health Services Reserve: The CF Health Services Group has central command and control of all Health Services Reserve units comprising some 1,200 personnel organized into two functional groups: the Field Ambulance units of the Primary Reserve, and the CF Health Services Primary Reserve List (PRL).

The Strategic Recruiting Plan focussed on attracting and enrolling qualified clinical officers to increase the clinical capability of the Reserve Field Ambulance and to increase the number of health service providers on the Health Services PRL. During fiscal 2006–2007, the number of clinical officers (physicians, nurses, dentists, pharmacists and social workers) increased by 6 percent in Field Ambulance units and by 53 percent on the PRL. The number of non-commissioned members (physician assistants, medical technicians, et al.) increased by 105 percent in Field Ambulance units and by 52 percent on the PRL.

Individual training has been modularized for the Basic Officer Training Course, all Medical Branch Basic Occupational Courses, and the senior Health Services Operations Course. The Medical Technician Qualification Level 3 course has also been modularized, and the Medical Technician courses used in the Regular Force are in the process of being adapted to Reserve needs, with modularization to follow.

Legal Reserve: Enrolment of legal officers in the Primary Reserve remained constant throughout the reporting period at 52 on an establishment of 62, allowing more flexibility in the direction of legal resources to cases and complex legal issues. A decline in Class A (part-time) employment allowed the Judge Advocate General (JAG) to increase Class B (full-time, temporary) employment to replace deployed Regular Force legal officers and to advance JAG Transformation.

Supplementary Reserve

The Supplementary Reserve is the sub-component of the Reserve Force that comprises commissioned and non-commissioned members who are not required to perform military duties or training, except when placed on active service. Members of the Supplementary Reserve come from the Regular Force or the other Reserve Force sub-components. Although they are not compelled to serve except when mobilized by the formal declaration of an emergency, members of the Supplementary Reserve may volunteer to serve.

The total strength of the Supplementary Reserve in fiscal 2006–2007 was 27,734. 

During fiscal 2006–2007:

  • 3,339 CF members were transferred to the Supplementary Reserve from another component or sub-component of the CF;
  • 10 were enrolled into the Supplementary Reserve;
  • 745 CF members were transferred from the Supplementary Reserve to another component or sub-component of the CF; and
  • 6,706 Supplementary Reservists were released from the CF.

Cadet Instructors Cadre

The Cadet Instructors Cadre (CIC) is a sub-component of the Reserve Force consisting of officers who have undertaken, by the terms of their enrolment, to perform such military duty and training as may be required of them, but whose primary duty is the supervision, administration and training of youth aged 12 to 18 who belong to Army, Air and Sea Cadet organizations. Their mandate is to ensure the safety and welfare of cadets while developing in them the characteristics of leadership, citizenship, physical fitness, and stimulating their interest in the sea, land and air activities of the CF.

To help the CIC to carry out its mandate, the Cadet Instructors Cadre Change Management Project made progress during the reporting period. The aim of the five-phase project is to produce a job-based occupation specification for the CIC that can then be properly supported by human resource policies and a job-based training program. The project is now in the implementation phase. A number of policy initiatives and the development of an improved training program for the CIC advanced during fiscal 2006–2007.

Canadian Rangers

The Canadian Rangers provide a military presence in sparsely settled, northern, coastal and isolated areas of Canada that cannot be conveniently or economically covered by other elements of the CF.

During the reporting period, the transfer to the Chief of the Land Staff of the Canadian Ranger National Authority and command of all Canadian Rangers was initiated to consolidate all aspects of Canadian Ranger force generation in the army.

The Canadian Rangers met their commitment of 12 days of training for all members of Ranger patrols, and to contribute to the CF presence in remote and sparsely settled regions of Canada. They participated in sovereignty patrols in the Arctic and assisted in many successful SAR operations in remote areas of the country. No new Canadian Ranger patrols were formed during fiscal 2006–2007.

Reserve Strength:The table below reflects the planned and actual strength of the Reserve Force for the last three fiscal years.

Reserve Force Strength






Primary Reserve 1





Supplementary Reserve




27,734 2

Cadet Instructors Cadre




7,479 3

Canadian Rangers 




4,266 3


  1. Primary Reserve planned and actual 2006–2007 strength is based on average monthly paid strength and includes 1,430 reservists on Class C status in support of conduct operations.
  2. Supplementary Reserve actual 2006–2007 strength is based on the ADM (IM) DHRIM strength report as of March 31, 2007.
  3.   Cadet Instructor and Rangers actual strength is based on the RPSR March 31, 2007 monthly report. 

Source:  ADM (Fin CS) Revised Pay System for the Reserves (RPSR) monthly report. 

Current Reserve Initiatives

Canadian Forces Liaison Council: Canada has come to rely heavily on the Reserve Force for help in meeting its defence commitments. The proportion of Reservists in deployed task forces increased to more than 20 percent during the reporting period, and Reserve units in towns and cities across Canada give the CF a community presence that Canadians readily recognize. The Canadian Forces Liaison Council (CFLC) is a nation-wide network of senior leaders in business and education, supported by reserve part-time and full-time military personnel, who voluntarily promote the Reserve Force with the sole aim of getting Reservists “Time off to Serve”.

Through its various programs, the CFLC targets civilian businesses and educational institutions to develop Military Leave policies that would allow the Reservist the available time to deploy on operations, conduct military training, or participate in an exercise, while knowing that they can return to their civilian job without penalty once they have completed their Reserve service.

In fiscal 2006–2007, there were 576 participants in the ExecuTrek program, where civilian executives had the opportunity to be a “soldier/sailor/aircrew for a day”.  As a result, 316 businesses signed Statements of Support for the Reserve Force to bring the total to over 5,000 since the program’s official launch in 1993. The CFLC held its biennial National Employer Supports Awards February 8, 2007 at the McDougall Centre in Calgary. This was the 7th awards ceremony that the CFLC held since 1994 - honouring employers and educators who have shown outstanding support to their Reserve employees and students.

During the reporting year, the CFLC received 41 individual requests for the Reserve Assistance Program, where a reservist requested direct support from the CFLC for help in obtaining leave for military purposes.  Eighteen of those cases resulted in a favourable outcome for the reservist.

Additionally, the CFLC continued its educational outreach program encouraging educational institutions to allow student-reservists to take time away from their studies for military training and exercises.  In fiscal 2006–2007, another 79 post-secondary institutions declared support, bringing the total to 179 out of 302 institutions.

The Federal Reserve Force Awareness Campaign continued to encourage federal departments/agencies/boards and commissions to support the Reserve Force.  In fiscal 2006–2007, the total number of supportive departments increased by 6 to 70 out of 150.

For additional information on the Canadian Forces Liaison Council and Reserve Force Employer Support Programs, visit:.

Pension Modernization Project: On February 15, 2007, the Governor in Council approved regulations to create pension arrangements for the Reserve Force, and the reform came into effect on March 1, 2007. Through this modernization effort, Reservists employed part-time on Class A service now have access to pension benefits through a part-time plan, and those employed on full-time service for extended periods are now able to contribute to the Regular Force pension plan.

Human Resources – Civilian

The training, professional development and welfare of the Defence civilian workforce is accomplished through four key activities:

  • recruiting and retaining the right number and mix of qualified people;
  • creating a workplace environment that promotes wellness and health;
  • promoting leadership and inclusiveness by fostering competent, accountable leaders and a diverse culture; and
  • building a knowledge-based organization through continuous learning.

Recruitment efforts continue under the departmental Recruitment Strategy. Efforts are under way to align growth of the civilian workforce with departmental strategic priorities as part of the integration of human resources and business planning.

The table below shows that, as of March 2007, the annual rate of attrition among civilian employees of indeterminate status had risen slightly, to 5.40 percent. Approximately 49 percent of this attrition was attributable to retirement; 27 percent resulted from transfers to other departments; 16 percent was due to resignations; and 8 percent was for other reasons. This gradual increase in the attrition rate was expected because of the aging profile of the civilian workforce and the increased competitiveness of the labour market. The Human Resources – Civilian Group is developing a retention strategy to offset this challenge.

Total Attrition and Retirement

Source: Assistant Deputy Minister (Human Resources – Civilian) Group

The Leadership Index is used to measure civilian employees’ perception of DND’s ability to create a work environment where employees feel included and empowered, and the effectiveness of leadership in their work units. The Leadership Index comprises items from the Public Service Employee Survey (PSES) that address employee recognition, employee empowerment, alignment of employee performance with the organization’s mandate, and leadership integrity. DND’s performance was rated slightly better than that of the Public Service as a whole: in DND, 66 percent responded positively to the Leadership questions compared to 64 percent across the Public Service.

Implementation of the Public Service Employment Act

The new Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) came into force on December 31, 2005, and Defence continued with its implementation throughout the reporting period. The PSEA changes are well understood by the department’s human resources staff, and managers have assimilated them well and assumed their responsibilities. Human resources plans are being developed and integrated into business planning, but more work is required to ensure that plans are translated into staffing and recruitment strategies. Most training related to the PSEA has been completed, and PSEA flexibilities, such as collective staffing, are being exploited.

Effects of CF Transformation and Restructuring

During fiscal 2006–2007, the Human Resources –Civilian Group provided organizational advice and support to CF Transformation activities; specifically, integrated human resources support services to help set up the new command headquarters. Increased functional direction and oversight has improved the quality of classification decisions across the department. Specific initiatives such as national relativity studies and the creation of collective work descriptionsin the computer sciences, medical services, human resources, and general labour fields increased classification consistency, ensuring that employees performing these jobs are fairly compensated.

Recruitment and Staffing

Recruitment and staffing continued to be a key priority for DND given the skill demands and demographics of the department. An aging population and the resulting retirements have resulted in increased recruitment efforts to replace retirees, while new skills are required for initiatives such as the People Component Management Accountability Framework (PCMAF), CF Transformation and the PSEA.

A recruitment team was formed during fiscal 2005–2006 to address project management personnel requirements and new growth needs, and to further the departmental recruitment strategy beyond its original 2002–2005 time frame. The strategy identified specific communication outreach opportunities and approaches for addressing shortages in groups that support DND operations. During fiscal 2006–2007, about 33 percent of civilian growth was in the groups identified in the recruitment strategy — Computer Systems administration (CS), Engineering and Land Survey (EN), General Labour and trades (GL), Purchasing and Supply (PG), Ships’ Officers (SO), and Ship Repair (SR) — indicating that recruitment outreach efforts were successful. The Recruitment Strategy Investment Fund was extended until fiscal 2008–2009.


A national study of departmental apprenticeship programs, including a review of work descriptions used for apprenticeship positions, was completed during fiscal 2005–2006. A National Civilian Apprenticeship Framework is currently being developed with completion scheduled for fiscal 2008–2009. Performance measurements will be implemented once the framework has been implemented.

A review of current apprenticeship programs conducted throughout Defence highlighted best practices, challenges, client requirements and success rates. These findings will be used to develop a framework that will guide attraction, recruitment, training and development, and appointment of apprentices to trades positions.  Given the importance of skilled labour in the supporting DND programs, the success of this activity will have an immediate and direct impact on CF operations.

Retention Strategies

Focus groups on retention of civilian employees were held across Canada throughout the autumn of 2006 and the winter of 2007 to generate information for the development of a Defence civilian employee retention strategy. Each focus group involved about 175 employees.

Leadership and Development Program: After suspending its participation in the Public Service Career Assignment Program, DND developed an internal Leadership Development Program (LDP) as another way to meet its succession planning needs. DND employees already enrolled in the Career Assignment Program will continue to receive full support until they graduate, and DND hopes to retain at least 50 percent of them.

The LDP is a pilot two-year accelerated leadership program that broadens the work experience of candidates through developmental training and assignments within and outside DND. Its objective is to prepare employees at the levels feeding the Executive (EX) group to compete for positions at the EX-01 level. The pilot program was launched in September 2005. Ten participants were originally accepted into the program, of which four are from employment equity groups. One individual left the program early to accept an EX-01 position and another recent graduate was appointed to an EX-01 position. One participant is about to graduate and be appointed to an EX-01 position. The remaining seven participants are on assignment or on language training.

Well-being: In June 2006, the achievements of 57 Defence employees from across Canada were celebrated at the National Awards and Recognition Ceremony.

In February 2007, to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) at Defence, a national symposium on EAP was held in Hull, Québec and attracted more than 300 participants from across Canada including EAP representatives from Parks Canada.

The annual cycle of Civilian Performance Review Reports runs from April 1 to March 3l. During fiscal 2006–2007, a comprehensive review and monitoring process increased the proportion of civilian employees receiving a performance appraisal to 85 percent.

A summary report of the Defence results from the 2005 Public Service Employee Survey(PSES) was prepared and distributed to all staff, and during the fall of 2006 sub-reports on the headquarters groups and the Environmental Commands were prepared and distributed. The Business Culture Health Index was used to measure the ability of Defence to create a business culture that supports the health and well-being of employees. The index comprises items from the PSES that address: recognition by immediate supervisor; input to decisions and actions impacting work; ability to balance family, personal and work needs; and ability to complete assigned work during regular work hours. Defence employees’ perceptions were higher than those of the Public Service as a whole by two percentage points, up by one percentage point from the 2002 result of 64 percent.

Learning: The Departmental Scholarship Program promotes continuous education and career development. Educational programs are aligned with participants’ career plans to facilitate access to job opportunities upon their return. A Sponsor Research Report for fiscal year 2006–2007 from Director Personnel Applied Research was completed and will be available for consultation in the fall of 2007.

Of the 113 scholarship recipients enrolled from the beginning of the program:

  • 17 percent were promoted or received a change in classification when they returned to work;
  • 46 percent stated that the program allowed them to prepare for future organizational requirements;
  • 41 percent gained access to more job opportunities;
  • 31 percent gained more responsibilities when they returned to work; and
  • 2.6 percent sought release from their agreements.

On average, DND spent approximately 2.37 percent of its “salary and wage envelope” — better known as SWE — on civilian learning during fiscal 2006–2007. The investment in learning, both funded and informal learning opportunities, enabled approximately 50 percent of the civilian workforce to participate in learning activities.


Progress continued towards the implementation of the Human Resources Management System (HRMS) PeopleSoft version 8.9 due for release in October 2007. Implementation will include functions in support of human resources operations and service delivery, as well as two aspects of self-service – Employee Profile and Leave Self-Service. The first of these self-service functionalities will allow civilian employees, with desktop access to the DWAN, to manage specific aspects of their personal data, such as home address and marital status. 

The Leave Self-Service functionality will also enable them to manage their leave on-line. Supervisors, including military managers of civilians, will be able to approve the leave of their staff using the same functionality on the DWAN. Self-service will be rolled out starting October 31, 2007, and will continue region by region to conclude by the end of December 2007. Implementation of this functionality will provide more timely information to DND employees, will reduce the amount of time required to generate reports, should help to reduce errors in the system, and ultimately should permit the re-distribution of resources presently used for leave input to other value added activities.

Joint Military and Civilian Initiatives

The major components of the Defence Learning Network (DLN) currently include an off-the-shelf corporate Learning Management Platform, 15 Learning and Career Centres (LCCs) located at CF bases and wings, and a National Centre of Excellence. More than 10,000 CF members and Defence civilians, and a growing number of employees of other government departments, are using the DLN to further their professional knowledge and development on line or through the LCCs.

The CF encouraged Defence civilians at and above the EX-2 level to participate in high-level seminars and programs conducted at the Canadian Forces College in Toronto, thus supporting the thrust toward a unified Defence Team.

The CF entered into agreements with ten community colleges in Ontario and the Royal Military College of Canada to offer the Diploma of Military Arts and Sciences (DMASc) to non-commissioned members of the CF, public servants, and interested individuals with no federal government connection. This new program takes into account military training, experience and previous education, can be completed entirely through distance learning, and can be used to gain entrance to bachelor’s degree programs at some universities.

Capital Acquisitions

Medium Support Vehicle System

The MSVS project will modernize the aging Medium Logistics Vehicle Wheeled (MLVW) fleet, thus providing a platform for embedded unit logistics — mobile support facilities, such as field kitchens, workshops and medical facilities — and effective delivery of reinforcements and supplies. Preliminary project approval was received from Treasury Board on June 22, 2006, and the request for proposals for the Militarized Commercial-off-the-Shelf trucks will be released in fall 2007, with the remaining request for proposals to be released in Spring 2008. Initial operational capability is expected in February 2011, and full operational capability by December 2011.

Airlift Capability Project – Tactical

The Airlift Capability Project – Tactical will provide the tactical transport aircraft required to support CF operations. The aircraft will be able to fly in extremes of weather and temperature from unpaved, austere, unlit airfields with no support facilities, over medium-threat hostile terrain anywhere around the globe. Using runways as small as 914 metres by 27 metres, it will be able to deliver an 8,165-kg payload to a destination 4,630 kilometres away, in 10 flying hours and without refuelling, at a minimum cruising speed that meets or exceeds that of any tactical transport aircraft already in the CF inventory. The ACP–T is in its definition phase, having received preliminary project approval on June 22, 2006. Contract Award is anticipated in spring 2008 with delivery of the first aircraft thirty-six (36) months thereafter.

Airlift Capability Project – Strategic

The Airlift Capability Project – Strategic will acquire a commercially available aircraft that will maximize the CF strategic air transport capability and interoperability with Canada’s allies, and meet the needs of CF operations. It will be able to fly into hostile environments to deliver cargo and passengers directly to an operational theatre. Using unpaved runways as small as 1,219 metres by 27 metres, it will be able to deliver a 39,000-kg payload to a destination 6,482 kilometres away, in 14 flying hours and without refuelling. The ACP–S is in its implementation phase, having received effective project approval on June 22, 2006. On February 1, 2007, the Government of Canada entered into a contract with Boeing Integrated Defense Systems for four C-17 Globemaster III aircraft. The first aircraft arrived at 8 Wing Trenton in August 2007, and the last is expected in the spring of 2008. Because this project has advanced so fast, permanent support facilities at 8 Wing Trenton will not be ready when the first aircraft arrives. Infrastructure efforts are continuing and interim facilities are being investigated.

Medium - to Heavy-Lift Helicopter

The Medium - to Heavy-Lift Helicopter project will acquire an aircraft that can move CF troops and equipment in hostile environments in Canada and abroad. It will be able to carry up to 30 soldiers with their full combat equipment or a payload such as a light field howitzer with its associated equipment for at least 100 km at altitudes up to 1,220 metres above sea level, and at temperatures up to 35° Celsius. The project received preliminary project approval from Treasury Board on June 22, 2006 and, after promulgation of an Advanced Contract Award Notification, the CH-47 D/F Chinook helicopter built by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems was found to be the only aircraft able to meet the project’s high-level mandatory criteria. The project is currently in its definition phase, and a Request for Proposals is scheduled to be issued to Boeing early in the fall of 2007. Contract award is expected in the winter of 2008.

Fixed-Wing Search and Rescue (SAR) Project

Defence’s priorities continue to evolve, and, as the CF evaluate their options, the timelines associated with the Fixed-Wing SAR project have been pushed to the right.  However, recognizing the importance of effective SAR services to all Canadians, Defence will continue to prepare the documentation required for the definition phase of the project.  The Government is examining several options designed to ensure that fixed-wing SAR service is maintained without interruption until the new aircraft enter service.

Joint Support Ship

The Joint Support Ship (JSS) project will replace the capabilities for at sea replenishment and sustainment of the Naval Task Group, assure a strategic sealift capability, and improve the navy’s capability to support and sustain land operations ashore.

JSS is currently in project definition.  Two contracts for funded definition work were awarded in December 2006, which will deliver costed design proposals. Following evaluation of those proposals, a single design and contractor will be chosen. During the reporting period, the project remained on schedule to seek effective project approval and TB expenditure authority in Fall 2008 for the award of the implementation contract to build three ships and a contract for the initial in-service support of the Class.Starting in 2012 the first Joint Support Ship (JSS) will be delivered as a replacement to the Protecteur class replenishment vessels.

Land Force Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance Omnibus Project

The LF ISTAR omnibus project received Preliminary Project Approval in 2002. It will update Command, Control, Communication, Computer, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) capabilities by allowing the rapid acquisition and sharing of information. This project will also help the Land Force achieve its “Leading with Sensors” employment concept. The first component to be delivered will be a data-link communications capability that will provide a digital avenue for moving sensor data and situational awareness information around the area of operations. This system will link the army’s current and future sensors, integrating information from joint and coalition assets into a network environment where information and knowledge are shared at every level of command.

Optimize Resource Utilization

Strategic Cost Model

The Department continued to develop a Strategic Costing model that captures all aspects of Defence’s existing force structure as well as the planned capability development. The model was used to determine costing information for the Canada First defence strategy and develop alternate scenarios. Much work still remains to refine the methodology and enhance the model’s calculations. The creation of this database will enable defence planners to more clearly understand the complete financial resource commitments as well as to articulate a strategy for achieving them. In addition, force structure costing will enable informed decision making for transformation. The long-term objective is to ensure that the costing model process is institutionalized and seamlessly integrated into Capability-based planning.

Strategic Asset Management Model

DND developed the Strategic Asset Management Model (SAMM) to calculate the current value of its assets and to estimate sustainment and replacement costs. It allows Defence to model costs such as the personnel, operating and maintenance factors and thus estimate the funding requirements associated with each asset. It also allows DND to show the high cost of sustaining equipment that is still in service well beyond the expected end of its life cycle. The SAMM is one of the decision-support tools used to determine optimal net replacement strategies. Work continued through 2006–2007 to update and refine the methodology and its implications for management use.

Strengthen Financial Management

During the reporting period, DND continued to develop the Executive Finstat planned for production on a quarterly basis to provide DND executives with an overview of the departmental budget. The draft report includes three sections: the current financial position and situation; the accrual situation; and, the financial performance measures. The objective of this report is to provide Executives with complete and accurate financial management information, in accordance with accepted accounting principles, to improve decision-making.

Financial Decision Support System

The Financial Decision Support (FDS) system will create an environment that can facilitate the management and reporting of departmental financial information. Expenditures must be reported to central agencies using the Program Activity Architecture (PAA).  The current configuration of the Financial Managerial Accounting System (FMAS) does not allow expenditures to be reported in the PAA format, nor does it allow for the necessary integration of planning data to support strategic decision-making in a multi-year environment.  Significant efforts have been made during the reporting year to move this project forward.  The Finance and Corporate Services Group prepared a Statement of Requirement and progress was made to achieve the required data architecture and reporting framework.

International Financial Linkages

Canada hosted the first Defence Senior Financial Officer Colloquium in October 2006. Contacts with Senior Financial Officer in the UK, the US, Australia and New Zealand were pursued to discuss lessons learned in the accrual accounting environment, comptrollership, shared services and risk management. The lessons learned are being developed and shared between the countries. For example, Canada provided a senior analyst to the New Zealand government to give strategic financial and costing advice. The Singapore Defence Department and other groups will send representatives to Canada to benefit from progress made with Canada’s financial management processes. Meanwhile Canada is pursuing lessons learned from both the US and the UK.

Performance Measures

During fiscal 2006–2007, DND continued to ensure that the allocation of resources was based on current priorities and requirements. The departmental business planning process ensured that resource deficiencies and their potential impacts on strategic priorities were clearly identified and examined before resource-allocation decisions were made. While current operations remained the number-one priority, the assignment of resources made available through program adjustments was done in accordance with current goals and priorities, and using the governance process of the department’s Program Management Board.

Monitor Resource Utilization

Balanced Investment

Throughout the reporting period, work continued on the development of the Canada First defence strategy document (formerly the Defence Capabilities Plan) and the associated investment plans that support its strategic goals. Completion of this document has taken longer than anticipated due to a number of factors, including the need to adapt what began as a strictly capability-focused text into a more comprehensive document incorporating the new government’s defence policy and priorities.  Until the defence strategy document is approved, the ongoing challenge is to link current and future resource assignment and reporting definitively to a longer–term strategy.

Capital Assets

During fiscal 2006–2007, the Department continued to ensure that information on inventory catalogued in the Canadian Forces Supply System but held by contractors was accurate and complete. The Materiel Group took stock of all catalogue items held in DND warehouses at contractor sites to establish a baseline for the Audited Financial Statements Project.

Materiel Management

The Public Accounts Audit for 2004–2005 by the Office of the Auditor General revealed that DND had capital assets located at bases, wings and garrisons that were not recorded in the Materiel Acquisition and Support Information System (MASIS). With the implementation of accrual accounting, all stand-alone capital assets with a value of $30,000 or more, and all vehicles regardless of cost, must be recorded in MASIS to ensure that the value is included in the Departmental Financial Statements. As a result, for fiscal 2006–2007 DND reported repairables worth about $6 billion on the financial statements, with accumulated amortization of almost $3.7 billion. This amount includes $179 million in repairables in supply customer accounts with accumulated amortization of $113.5 million.

Realty Assets and Infrastructure

The Realty Asset Strategy was not completed during fiscal 2006–2007 as planned. On March 23, 2007, the Defence Management Committee agreed to a new Realty Asset Management approach that will lead to effective strategic planning and decision-making. A Realty Asset Strategy introducing this new Realty Asset Management approach and including an implementation plan will be presented to the Defence Management Committee for its approval in fiscal 2007–2008.

  • Long-term Sustainability for Ranges and training Areas

Progress has been made toward the restoration of ranges and training areas at CFB Gagetown. Part 1 of the two-part project now in development includes environmental cleanup and mitigation, and in Part 2 new infrastructure (e.g., roads, bridges, culverts) will be built.

A concurrent survey of the management framework in place for all CF ranges and training areas reviewed the policies, procedures and governance processes of the various organizations responsible for ranges and training areas. As a result of the survey, Infrastructure and Environment Group received the signal to proceed with an integrated action plan for life-cycle management of ranges and training areas. This approach will use business planning to mitigate the risks associated with integrating the many initiatives already under way, focus management of those activities within the Infrastructure and Environment Group, and employ state-of–the-art management for reporting on ranges and training areas.

  • Unexploded Explosive Ordnance Management Framework

The Unexploded Explosive Ordnance (UXO) Legacy Sites Program made significant progress in developing a robust program to deal with threats that may be present on former DND properties.

Phase 1 of the historical research identified at least 731 potential UXO legacy sites on land in addition to the 1,000 sites in Canadian territorial waters. The program has developed a risk-rating methodology for prioritizing potential UXO legacy sites, and established an Explosive Risk Rating Committee made up of Defence experts to approve the risk-management approach proposed for each site.

  • Five-Year Infrastructure and Environment Information System

The integration of all the business applications in use in the Infrastructure and Environment (IE) Group showed some success with the start of the Corporate Information Warehouse project by the Defence IE Application Development and Support (DIEADS) group. Although this initiative depends on the success of the Defence Information Service Broker in its efforts to integrate the department’s Enterprise Resource Planning, the overall integration objective is still considered achievable.

Canadian Forces Housing Agency

On January 30, 2007, the Accommodation Board approved the Life Cycle Asset Management Plan for the housing portfolio, a detailed 25-year plan to address the three critical asset management challenges of portfolio size, suitability and condition. The plan will help improve decision-making, ensuring the affordability and feasibility of the Housing Recapitalization Program in the short, medium and long term.

Procurement: Contract and project management

Defence established new, and reinforced existing departmental standards for financial procedures and management, including procurement and contracting processes. The Defence Oversight Committee on Contracting (DOCC) oversaw DND’s contractual framework and associated financial controls and practices, and ensured that a sound risk-management framework is in place and functioning well.

For example, Defence worked very closely with Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) on its Procurement Reform/Way Forward initiative to improve its procurement processes and practices, and adopted best practices as standard practices. Here is a list of procurement initiatives DND implemented or continued during fiscal 2006–2007.

  • Taking the “optimized weapons system management” approach to procurement planning, in which requirements are bundled into long-term support contracts to reduce contracting activity and administrative costs and encourage industry to invest and collaborate, DND implemented six initiatives, including projects related to the CF-18 Hornet fighter aircraft, the CP-140 Aurora long-range patrol aircraft, the CC-130 Hercules transport aircraft, and the Light Armoured Vehicle, Wheeled (LAVW).
  • Defence adopted several PWGSC-led procurement reforms, including the following:
    • Standing offers: The mandatory use of standing offers for commodities significantly reduces procurement lead-time from weeks to a few days. DND applied this approach to more commodities, in close co-operation with PWGSC.
    • Commodity Councils and Commodity Teams: Defence played a leading role in these initiatives, through which 12 commodities will be procured by participating departments through government-wide standing offers and supply arrangements. The resulting economies of scale should reduce prices significantly, allowing DND to save money.
    • The Government of Canada Marketplace: the Department worked with PWGSC to develop this Internet-based procurement method with a view to integrating it with DND procurement records systems (MASIS and CFSS).
    • Participating in Treasury Board policy reviews: DND supported and complied with Treasury Board to review and implement new policies in simple and complex procurement, materiel and project management;
    Training and Professional Development:
    • DND participated in an advisory committee to help develop the Professional Certification and Development Program for procurement and materiel management personnel.
    • A training strategy and framework has been developed for the field of materiel acquisition and support (MA&S). The strategy identified MA&S training requirements; compared them to the training actually being delivered; considered new training requirements, such as those related to the new Treasury Board policy and to the Professional Certification and Development Program; and developed an MA&S training framework containing an integrated MA&S training program for DND. The Department implemented the MA&S training strategy and framework in phases. The first phase focused on procurement training needs.
    • DND developed a new training program for civilian employees in the Purchasing and Supply group with the following elements:
    • courses from the Professional Certification and Development Program, including material related to the new Treasury Board policy on procurement and green procurement;
    • DND-specific procurement training;
    • training on CFSS and MASIS; and
    • HR training for procurement personnel, in which the DND Procurement Group training program was used as the basis for phases of the MA&S training framework, including programs for project managers, materiel managers, engineers and life-cycle materiel managers.

Additional information on procurement and contracting can be found in Table 15 in Section III.

Management of Information and Information Technology

The Information Management (IM) Group continues to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the DND/CF information environment. The 2006–2007 Report on Plans and Priorities identified three main transformation activities in the IM Strategic Plan as part of the enterprise approach to the delivery of IM/IT services, and progress has been made in each of these areas.

The approach taken to the transformation of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Environment is somewhat different from what was set out in the original plan. Despite initial impressions to the contrary, closer study indicated that, because the IT industry currently lacks competence in the military field, a single integrated system is not practical for Defence. This realization, coupled with the fact that Defence neither owns nor controls the IM environment in which it participates, has led to the adoption of a strategy that embraces the principles of enterprise and rationalization. At its core, the Integrated Defence Resource Planning environment has a proven Integrated Services Broker that will enable information-sharing among the five main resource-planning capabilities (people, material and engineering, supply and logistics, finance, and facilities management). Initial successes with finance will help enhance the modern management of corporate services, particularly in the area of accountability.

Command and Control (C2) collaboration initiatives continue to be as challenging as those in the enterprise environment. The information exchange requirement is not limited to data and information held by CF sources; some information must be shared through the NORAD and NATO alliances, with coalition partners, and other Canadian government institutions responsible for public safety and security. The C2 capability, which includes timely and secure exchange of resource information, must be supported by a robust, secure and sustainable information technology infrastructure. The Capability Development Board, led by the Chief of Force Development under the Vice Chief of Defence Staff, will oversee all C2 activities, be they new initiatives or in-service enhancements. The IM C2 strategy will be co-managed by the Capability Manager and the J6, the senior staff officer responsible for communications on the Strategic Joint Staff.

IM/IT Service Transformation continues to be a priority for the IM Group in the lead-up to the government-wide rationalization of IM/IT service delivery. The IM Group continues toward its goal of centralized control and oversight of IM/IT services. The large number of programs and the significant amount of money spent on IM/IT outside IM Group programs has made the transformation process slower than expected. Despite the delays, Defence remains committed to service transformation as an integral part of institutional alignment. Although the transformation of IM/IT services is expected to relieve some financial pressure, it will prove its worth by improving operational and administrative effectiveness.

The Chief of Defence Intelligence, being the CF managing authority for Intelligence systems and networks continued to work closely with other Intelligence organizations, domestically and internationally, to ensure that information and intelligence products were available to all our partners and allies.  This was done through the establishment of several memoranda of understanding and service level arrangements.  Intelligence Network expansion progressed within the allowable limit of resources and will continue to grow over the next several years.

Conduct Operations

The CF continued to successfully fulfill their national and international objectives through operations conducted for the protection of Canadian sovereignty, North American security and participation in UN, NATO and other international missions.

Within Canada, the CF conducted air and sea sovereignty patrols, numerous search and rescue operations and provided support to other government departments when requested. The CF continued to contribute effectively to the defence of North America through NORAD and other bilateral agreements.  Internationally, the CF continued to support the campaign against terrorism with the presence of a large contingent of CF members and Reservists in Afghanistan. The CF also supported 14 peacekeeping missions through the provision of staff/liaison officers and military observers.

Defence successfully conducted assigned missions thus contributing to domestic and international peace, security and stability.

Resources Consumed

The costs associated with Conduct Operations are primarily direct costs associated with the conduct of operations. Since the costs to generate these forces are consumed under the Generate and Sustain Integrated Forces Program Activity, not all costs authorized for operations will show under Conduct Operations.  For example, the resources spent to purchase weapon systems and provide associated weapons training for personnel are captured under Generate and Sustain while incremental costs of operating the forces in operations will be incurred under the Conduct Operations Program Activity.

Financial Resources

($ Thousands)




Departmental Spending




Capital Spending (included in departmental spending)




Source: Assistant Deputy Minister (Finance and Corporate Services) Group

Human Resources




Military(Regular Force)2










  • The difference between ‘Planned 2006–2007’ and other columns for ‘Generate and Sustain Integrated Forces’ and ‘Conduct Operations’ is due to a reallocation of a portion of CSE.
  • For information on the Reserve Strength see Section II, page 41.

Sources: Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff Group, Chief Military Personnel Group and Assistant Deputy Minister – Human Resources (Civilian) Group

Constant Situational Awareness

Constant situational awareness at all levels is essential to allow for the effective coordination of CF and government responses to threats at home and abroad.  Over the reporting period, the CF has endeavoured to enhance situational awareness through initiatives aimed at unifying the national command structure and introducing a system that includes a common information and intelligence network.  This is being achieved through close coordination with the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) and the introduction of the Joint Information and Intelligence Fusion Capability (JIIFC) project.

Joint Information and Intelligence Fusion Capability

During fiscal 2006–2007, the Joint Information and Intelligence Fusion Capability (JIIFC) project made significant progress toward defining the CF command and control requirements for the fusion of operational information. In March 2007, the JIIFC Project held a Senior Review Board that decided to continue with the definition phase of the project and uncouple the delivery of the fusion capability from the delivery of the new operational headquarters. The project also significantly revised its statement of operational requirements, concept of operations, charter, project profile and risk assessment, and synopsis sheet to reflect the needs of the Operational Commands more accurately, and define a capability that supports CF information needs better at home and abroad. The project completed Phase 1, the delivery of an initial operating capability in the form of the JIIFC Detachment, during the reporting period, and final operating capability for the complete fusion capability is scheduled for January 2011. Although the project has fallen behind its original schedule, it has set new targets and is on track to complete the definition phase of the CF fusion capability by October 2009.

Communications Security Establishment(CSE)

During fiscal 2006–2007, CSE provided key departments with foreign signals intelligence to support government policy-making in the areas of defence, security and international affairs. CSE worked to protect the government’s most sensitive communications and strengthen the security of its cyber systems, and assisted the RCMP and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service in support of their lawful duties.

CSE enabled Defence to protect Canadians through the conduct of operations by enhancing constant situational awareness in the defence, security and international affairs environments. In particular, CSE worked with DND and the CF to advance the Integrated Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Operational Model (ISOM), which is working well, especially in the context of Canada’s mission in Afghanistan. The Chief of Defence Intelligence (CDI) continued to explore and implement enhanced methods to fuse intelligence from a range of sources, including those provided by the Canadian Forces Information Operations Group and CSE. All Source Intelligence Centres delivered services to theatre commanders and leveraged strategic assets at the national level.

Supporting the CF is CSE’s highest priority, and collaboration between the two organizations has resulted in enhanced tactical, operational and strategic support.

CSE also continued to strengthen the security of government communications and information infrastructure throughout the reporting period. In its third year of a 12-year program, the Canadian Cryptographic Modernization Program continued to modernize Canadian federal cryptographic equipment and infrastructure to safeguard classified information, maintain secure communications, and ensure the safety of military personnel and Canadians abroad. The following key milestones were achieved during the reporting year:

  • online re-key capability for new secure phones; and
  • preliminary project approval from Treasury Board for a sub-project to the Canadian Cryptographic Modernization Program to advance the development of the new electronic key management infrastructure required to support the deployment of the next generation of crypto products.

In addition to crypto modernization, to make security services more readily available to government departments, CSE led an interdepartmental evaluation of information technology security service providers to create the Cyber Protection Supply Arrangement (CPSA), which gives government department’s access to more than 450 qualified information technology security resources. CSE’s Industry Program, which includes the CPSA, directly supported government departments with unclassified and protected systems to meet their information technology security requirements.

Domestic and Continental Operations

During its first year of existence, Canada Command, through its regional Joint Task Forces (RJTFs) in close liaison with USNORTHCOM, NORAD, and other government organizations (especially the RCMP), conducted operations within its area of operational responsibility to detect, deter, prevent, pre-empt and defeat threats and aggression aimed at Canada and North America. Canada Command provided unity of command, and command and control, over all military efforts related to the defence of Canada such as Aid of the Civil Power, assistance to federal and provincial law enforcement agencies, and counter-terrorism support. The requirements for ready-duty ships, high-readiness aircraft, immediate-response units and Maritime Surveillance Operations Centres were maintained as directed.

Due to the Lebanon crisis, a planned deployment to the Great Lakes was not conducted. However, Maritime Coastal Defence Vessels conducted training and port visits as far up the St Lawrence as Québec City.

Search and Rescue

The Canadian federal aeronautical and maritime SAR system responded to 8,744 cases, of which 1,268 involved the tasking of CF resources in 2006[5]. Each year, on average, the SAR system saves the lives of about 1,200 people and helps to provide about 20,000 others with some form of assistance.

Security Patrols

Increasing their operations in Canada’s coastal waters, the CF conducted 47 days of counter-drug operations with the RCMP and 112 days of fisheries and SAR patrols in support of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. During fiscal 2006–2007, Public Security and Anti-Terrorism (PSAT) funding covered 171 sea days of maritime security patrols. In the long term, this higher level of activity will build a strong military presence, enhance familiarity with all coastal areas and activities, and prepare the CF to respond to developing security scenarios and assist with the development and maintenance of the recognized maritime picture.

Operation CHABANEL

Operation CHABANEL was a drug-interdiction operation in which the CF supported the RCMP. A vessel chartered by the RCMP sailed to a spot about 200 miles off the coast of Angola, where it took on a load of drugs from a supply vessel. The RCMP crew of the chartered ship spent more than 43 days at sea and seized 22.5 tons of hashish — more than six times the amount of hashish forfeited in or en route to Canada in the entire year previous — thus keeping it off Canadian streets. The operation also led to the arrest of three key members of a Montreal-based criminal organization. Throughout the voyage, the patrol frigate HMCS Fredericton shadowed the RCMP vessel, ensuring the safety of the police crew and serving as a command post.

Operation PALACI

Under Operation PALACI, the CF helped Parks Canada control avalanches in the Rogers Pass, which is where the Trans-Canada Highway transits Glacier National Park in British Columbia. Each year, about 15 artillery soldiers — two gun crews — spend the winter in Glacier National Park. They use artillery fire to trigger controlled avalanches and thus ensure the safety of the highway and its users.

Fisheries Patrols

Fisheries patrols, in support of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, were conducted in Atlantic waters by HMCS Fredericton in April, HMCS Summerside in May, HMCS Montréal in August and HMCS Fredericton again in October. The October patrol also covered areas outside the Exclusive Economic Zone. On the Pacific coast, HMCS Vancouver conducted fisheries patrols in September and October 2006.

During fiscal 2006–2007, CP-140 Aurora long-range surveillance aircraft flew 720 hours of fisheries patrols in support of DFO. From April to December 2006, deployments in support of DFO enforcement activities were conducted weekly to Gander, Newfoundland, and occasionally to Goose Bay, Labrador, and Iqaluit, Nunavut.

Operation DRIFTNET

CP-140 Aurora long-range surveillance aircraft deployed to Eareckson Air Station, on Shemya Island off Alaska to conduct 180 hours of patrols under the 1992 UN moratorium on drift-net fishing on the high seas. Two Auroras flew 120 hours in early June 2006, tracking and reporting several high-interest vessels. A second deployment, conducted out of sequence by one Aurora in September 2006, found 26 drift-net vessels, collected detailed evidence on five of them, and reported the rest to DFO and the US Coast Guard.

Sovereignty Patrols

The changing climate patterns in the Arctic and the increasing level of economic activity in the region are posing new security challenges, including: increased maritime and air traffic, environmental concerns, increased demand for search and rescue and the possible emergence of organized crime. To respond to these challenges, National Defence continued to study options to improve surveillance, response and presence capabilities in the Arctic. Canada Command, through JTFN, asserted Canadian sovereignty in the North by bolstering its surveillance and response capabilities in the region.

JTFN pursued a comprehensive surveillance program throughout its area of responsibility. The Canadian Ranger Patrol Group, accompanied at times by representatives of other government organizations such as the RCMP, conducted routine surveillance patrols. Air assets, including CP-140 Aurora long-range surveillance aircraft, CF-18 Hornet fighters accompanied by CC-130 Hercules air-air refuellers, CH-146 Griffon tactical helicopters and CC-138 Twin Otter utility transports, ensured that critical areas were covered. Naval vessels worked with Canadian Coast Guard ships, participating in sovereignty patrols and supporting major exercises. Operations, patrols and exercises focused on the Arctic Archipelago and vulnerable areas such as waterways and disputed border areas.

Through JTFN, Canada Command planned and conducted joint and integrated operations to foster inter-agency interoperability and improve conditions and delivery of support with other CF organizations. The three operations were:

  • Operation NUNALIVUT in the high Arctic: From March 24 to April 14, 2007, more than 50 Canadian Forces members travelled close to 8,000 km across some of the world’s most challenging terrain to assert Canada’s sovereignty over the Arctic Archipelago. This enhanced sovereignty patrol established a military presence and provided an opportunity to evaluate civil and military infrastructure such as airfields and weather stations, some dating as far back as the Second World War. Participants in the exercise gained irreplaceable experience working in extreme weather conditions and terrain.
  • Operation LANCASTER SENTINAL in the eastern Arctic: In August 2006, a joint operation was conducted in Lancaster Sound at the east end of Baffin Island, between Iqaluit and Pond Inlet. This important operation involved the patrol frigate HMCS Montréal, the maritime coastal defence vessels HMCS Moncton and HMCS Goose Bay, a CP-140 Aurora long-range surveillance aircraft, soldiers and air force personnel, Parks Canada employees, and members of the Canadian Coast Guard and the RCMP. Three infantry sections set up observation posts, each supported by Canadian Rangers. The CF elements of the operation conducted surveillance in the vicinity of southeast Devon Island, the Borden Peninsula and Pond Inlet, while the ships patrolled Lancaster Sound with visitors and media embarked in HMCS Montréal, and conducted fisheries patrols and community visits in Clyde River and Quikitarjuak, accumulating a total of 68 sea days.
  • Operation BEAUFORT SENTINAL in the western Arctic: Conducted in August 2006, this exercise was combined with sovereignty patrols to maintain situational awareness in the Arctic and foster community relations. It involved more than 60 CF members, including members of the Canadian Ranger Patrol Group, the RCMP and Canadian Coast Guard. Liaison visits were made to Komakuk Beach, Herschel Island, Shingle Point, Pullen Island and Hooper Island. Resources involved included the RCMP vessel Mackenzie, two rigid hulled inflatable boats from the Canadian Coast Guard and, from the air force, one CC-138 Twin Otter utility transport aircraft and one CP-140 Aurora long-range surveillance aircraft.
  • Between August 24 and August 29, JTFN personnel visited the stations at Mould Bay, Isachsen and Resolute Bay, NWT, to update critical infrastructure information — specifically the state of the airstrips. In June and July 2006, patrols of the North Warning System were conducted to assess the security and physical condition of sites at Igloolik and Tuktoyaktuk, NWT and Gjoa Haven, Kugaaruk, Oikitarjuag and Pangnirtung, Nunavut.

Humanitarian Assistance

Throughout 2006, Canada Command and its Regional Joint Task Forces monitored flood conditions and forest fires and developed contingency plans for communities at risk where civilian agencies may not have been able to provide the required support. Liaison officers from Canada Command joined several other government departments, thus ensuring timely sharing of critical information and, when necessary, early involvement of Canada Command. In September 2006, the Emergency Measures Office of the Province of Ontario received military support when forest fires threatened several northern communities.

During fiscal 2006–2007, CF humanitarian assistance operations consisted of intense planning during flood-relief operations in the Kootenay and Boundary regions of British Columbia, and in the Ontario towns of Moose Factory, Kashechewan and Attapawiskat. On May 27, 2006, when about half the village of Aklavik, Northwest Territories, was inundated by the spring rush of the Mackenzie River, CF aircraft were used to bring people out of the flooded areas, and evacuees were sheltered in the military accommodations in nearby Inuvik. In May 2006, the CF supported the Emergency Measures Organization of the Province of British Columbia when high snowmelt runoff and heavy rain brought the Fraser River to dangerous levels. Elements of 39 Canadian Brigade Group deployed to Chilliwack, B.C. to respond to the emergency.

Forest fire-fighting operations in Québec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia also required intense planning to ensure the CF would be ready when civilian authorities asked for help. In May and June 2006, large fires near the Mistissini Reserve, some 550 km north of Montréal, caused Canada Command staff to prepare contingency plans for an evacuation using CH-146 Griffon helicopters. More than 3,500 people eventually had to leave their homes, but CF assistance was not required.

State Visits and Ceremonial Events

During the reporting period, the CF supported state visits to Canada from the President of Latvia, the President of Afghanistan and the King and Queen of Sweden, and a tour of Africa by Governor General Michaëlle Jean. In addition, navy, army and air force contingents took part in a wide range of ceremonial events, including the national Aboriginal Veterans’ Day, Remembrance Day observations in Ottawa.


Aerospace surveillance and control of North America under the NORAD Agreement includes participation in Operation NOBLE EAGLE, the provision of surveillance patrols against or interception of a potential airborne terrorist threat. In the event of a Noble Eagle intrusion, Canada Command would provide the CF contribution to any consequence management activity. To ensure readiness, Canada Command participated in nine Noble Eagle exercises.


Operation CONNECTION is the consolidation of CF activity to enhance public awareness of the military and to support recruiting efforts. Major events conducted under Operation CONNECTION during fiscal 2006–2007 included the Nova Scotia International Tattoo, the national Canada Day celebration in Ottawa, the Calgary Stampede, the Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto, the Pacific National Exhibition in Vancouver and, the Grey Cup game in Winnipeg.

International Operations

The CF continued to participate in a variety of international operations during fiscal 2006–2007, the first full fiscal year in which all international CF operations have been commanded and conducted by CEFCOM, which stood up on February 1, 2006. The diversity of missions in which the CF is involved meant that deployed task forces faced challenges ranging from humanitarian assistance to combat, in concert with international partners. The reporting period was also the first full year in which CANOSCOM was responsible for combat support and combat service support to overseas missions.

During the reporting period, the CF engaged in 21 distinct missions outside North America, and had, on average, about 2,800 personnel deployed overseas at any given time, most of them assigned to Joint Task Force Afghanistan. With most troops on the normal six-month rotation, this level of activity means that, over the complete personnel cycle of training, engagement and post-deployment activities, a very substantial number of CF members were committed to an overseas mission at some point during fiscal 2006–2007.

All the current CF international deployments are described and located on a map at

International Campaign Against Terrorism

During the first months of the reporting period, Joint Task Force Afghanistan was operating with the US led coalition conducting Operation ENDURING FREEDOM in Kandahar Province. On July 31, 2006, Joint Task Force Afghanistan was assigned to the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) as it assumed command of the southern region of the country. ISAF has a mission to improve the security situation in Afghanistan and assist in rebuilding the country. As NATO control expanded throughout Afghanistan, a sub-command called Regional Command South, of which Kandahar Province is a part, was taken over by ISAF and led by a Canadian general until a scheduled transfer of command responsibilities to the Dutch in November 2006.

All CF members serving in Afghanistan are under the authority of the Commander of Joint Task Force Afghanistan (JTF Afg). JTF Afg comprises a Canadian battle group, a Provincial Reconstruction Team to help local authorities with reconstruction and the maintenance of security, and an Operational Mentor and Liaison Team to help the Afghan National Army develop its capabilities. The CF also staffs 45 positions at ISAF Headquarters in Kabul.

Distinct from Canada’s contribution to ISAF is the deployment of CF members with the Strategic Advisory Team in Kabul through a bilateral arrangement with the Afghan government to assist in the development of national strategies and institutions. Also, 25 CF personnel are assigned to the Combined Security Transition Command, part of Operation ENDURING FREEDOM, which trains and mentors Afghan security forces, both Army and Police.

As part of the “whole of government” approach to operations in Afghanistan, deployed CF members worked closely with representatives of other Canadian government institutions, notably the Department of Foreign Affairs, Correctional Services Canada, and the Canadian International Development Agency, to further overall Government of Canada objectives.

On January 6, 2007, RANA FM Radio went on the air in Kandahar City and surrounding areas under the control of the Commander of JTF Afg. All its programming, broadcasted from Kingston, Ontario, is designed to appeal to Afghan listeners through music, information, news and “edutainment” in the local language, and it gives the Commander a ready means to communicate messages promoting Afghanistan and informing people about JTF Afg operations and activities affecting the region.

The Afghanistan mission has involved Canada’s soldiers in their first sustained engagement in combat since the Korean War. During fiscal 2006–2007, 34 CF members lost their lives in this operational theatre, the largest annual number of Canadian military operational fatalities in more than 40 years. This period also saw an unprecedented number of recognition submissions, including the first nominations for the Canadian Valour decorations, which are awarded for extraordinary performance in the presence of the enemy.

Canada commanded NATO Standing Naval Maritime Group One (SNMG 1) from January 2006 until January 2007.  Canada's commitment consisted of core SNMG 1 staff, HMCS ATHABASKAN (January thru July), and HMCS IROQUOIS (July thru January).  SNMG 1 is one of four immediate maritime reaction forces that provide NATO the ability to respond quickly and with flexibility to promote NATO’s interests anywhere in the world.

The aim of the first 6-month commitment was to prepare the SNMG1 group for certification to Full Operation Capability. The second period, from October to December 2006, was heavily devoted to Interdiction Operations. SNMG 1 also participated in anti-terrorism operations for two months in the Mediterranean.

From November 2006 to January 2007, HMCS OTTAWA deployed to the Gulf region as part of a coalition of naval forces, under US leadership, conducting surveillance patrols and maritime interdiction operations in the Arabian Gulf region. The Navy’s participation in Operation ALTAIR contributed to international peace and security, enhancing the security of Canadians at home and abroad, while demonstrating Canada’s continued commitment to its coalition allies and enhancing global stability.  

In addition to direct support of Canada’s commitments in Afghanistan, some CC-130 Hercules flying hours were designated to NATO as a contribution to ISAF. Also during this period, these aircraft conducted tactical re-supply airdrops in a combat environment for the first time in many years.

Other International Missions

In July 2006, when open conflict suddenly erupted between Israeli forces and Hezbollah units in Lebanon, the CF was tasked to support the Department of Foreign Affairs by assisting with the evacuation of approximately 15,000 Canadian citizens from Lebanon. The CF contribution of more than 150 personnel included command and control elements from the CF Joint Headquarters in Kingston, elements of seaport and airport movement and embarkation security, a medical section, naval liaison personnel, and experts to help DFAIT with planning, logistics, security and communications.

CF members also played key roles in numerous United Nations and other internationally sponsored missions in various African locations, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Haiti. In July 2006, a CF member was killed while on duty as a United Nations Military Observer on the border between Israel and Lebanon.

On March 28, 2006, the CF closed its last tactical mission in the Balkan region, more than 15 years after the first Canadians deployed from Germany at the beginning of UN operations in that part of the world.

The financial costs of CF international operations are set out in Section III, Table 12.

Disaster Assistance Response Team

Experience garnered from past DART missions in Sri Lanka and Pakistan have led to an enhancement project focusing on human resources, infrastructure and equipment. Additional personnel requirements were identified and augmentation commenced, with completion expected by summer 2007. Infrastructure improvements were realized with expansion of the DART warehouse office and conference facilities, the addition of a dispatch office, and construction of a new facility for repair and maintenance of optical equipment and electronic control systems. The first phase of equipment acquisition, intended to standardize DART equipment with the rest of the CF, improve the DART’s sustainability in the field, and cut weight and improve efficiency, began during fiscal 2006–2007. The first deliveries of multi-purpose engineer vehicles, lightweight portable ablution systems, and initial water purification systems were received; the remainder of these acquisitions, as well as lightweight tents and deployable refrigeration units, is expected in the next fiscal year.

Contribute to Canadian Government and Society, and the International Community, in Accordance with Canadian Interests and Values

Throughout the reporting period, DND and the CF provided advice to the Government of Canada on a wide range of security and defence issues, which allowed senior leadership to make sound, well-informed policy decisions. Defence exploited opportunities to form and improve strategic partnerships with other government departments and with the defence institutions of Canada’s allies. Strengthening Canada’s defence relationship with the United States was an area of particular attention. The renewal in perpetuity of the NORAD Agreement, which included the addition of a maritime warning function, was an important achievement on this front. The Security and Defence Forum, mandated to develop a domestic competence and national interest in defence issues of relevance to Canadian security, continued to provide DND and the CF with the opportunity to support Canada’s security and defence academic community financially and in other ways. Defence also contributed to Canadian society through its research and development program, and as one of the country’s largest employers. In addition, Defence contributed to Canadian society through regional industrial benefits arising from various procurement projects and other investment. Dealing with the US International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITARs) continued to be a key challenge in this context. Defence also made a significant contribution to global security during fiscal 2006–2007. Afghanistan continued to be the primary focus of CF deployed operations.

Resources Consumed

Financial Resources 

($ Thousands)




Departmental Spending




Capital Spending (included in-departmental spending)




Source: Assistant Deputy Minister (Finance and Corporate Services) Group

Human Resources




Military(Regular Force)









Note: For information on the Reserve Strength see Section II, page 41.

Sources: Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff Group, Chief Military Personnel Group and Assistant Deputy Minister – Human Resources (Civilian) Group

Provide Advice to the Government of Canada

Defence and Security Policy Advice

DND and the CF provided the Government of Canada with sound, timely advice on a wide range of security and defence issues, thus preparing senior leaders to make sound, well-informed policy decisions that reflected Canadian interests and values. Among other concerns, Defence continued to advise the government on the formulation and execution of defence policy, including the drafting of the Canada First defence strategy document; international defence relations, with valuable input from personnel participating in the Exchange and Liaison Program and the Defence Attaché Program; the nature of the current and future security environment; and the planning and conduct of CF operations at home and abroad.

Defence also expanded its ability to gather intelligence for the Government of Canada by adding intelligence liaison officers from the United Kingdom and Australia to the staff of National Defence Headquarters. Defence also strengthened its intelligence links to Australia by the establishment of a Canadian Forces Intelligence Liaison Office in Canberra to be staffed in the summer of 2007. During the reporting period, Defence also began developing a new human intelligence (HUMINT) capability that is expected to be in place by the summer of 2007.

Defence provided the government with advice on security and defence science and technology through the Assistant Deputy Ministers’ Committee on Science and Technology and the Assistant Deputy Ministers’ Science and Technology Integration Board. Defence also delivered the Defence S&T Strategy, the first ever full departmental strategy for science and technology that highlights the importance of DND’s investment in S&T and will guide it over the course of the next five years. The Defence S&T Strategy effectively supports CF operations and transformation by contributing directly to the advancement of Canadian military capabilities.

Finally, DND provided the government with communications advice on the defence dimensions of the 2006 Speech from the Throne and Budget 2006; new developments in issue-specific areas, such as defence and security relations between Canada and the United States; international conferences involving Defence; and the acquisition of new equipment and technologies. Defence continued to support efforts to facilitate public understanding of the Defence role, to build a positive image of the CF, and to demonstrate the relevance of Defence organizations, especially the CF, to Canadians.

Through its new Chief of Force Development organization, DND began to implement a top-down force-development process through the institutionalization of capability based planning and new governance mechanisms such as the Capability Development Board. The intent is to give senior DND/CF leadership the best possible strategic advice on (among other things) the future force structure and the acquisition of future military capabilities consistent with government policy and priorities. This advice included technical and analytical input from the Defence science and technology organizations and advice on new intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities from the Chief of Defence Intelligence. Intelligence was also provided to help mitigate the threat posed by improvised explosive devices, directly contributing to the protection of deployed CF personnel.

Strategic Partnerships

Through its Policy Group, DND worked closely throughout the reporting period with DFAIT, CIDA, Public Safety Canada and the Privy Council Office (PCO) to ensure that the CF continue to play an appropriate role in a “whole-of-government” approach to national and international security. Both Canada Command and Canadian Expeditionary Force Command made significant progress in establishing effective relationships with their interlocutors in Canada, the US, and international organizations at the operational level. The new Chief of Defence Intelligence organization developed strong ties with the broader intelligence community through its participation in Interdepartmental Expert Groups derived from intelligence issues of relevance to CEFCOM and Canada Command that included representatives from the PCO, CSE, CSIS, CSC and DFAIT. In Afghanistan, Defence worked closely with DFAIT, CIDA and the RCMP. Through the interdepartmental Strategic Advisory Team in Kabul, Defence helped develop and support the Afghan National Development Strategy and provided the Centre for Afghan Peace and Security with analysis support. Ongoing preparations for the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and contingency planning for a range of international and domestic operations were also conducted in co-operation with various Canadian government departments and agencies.

Canada Command built and maintained critical relationships and information exchanges with key partners in other Canadian government departments, at NORAD and with USNORTHCOM.

In its first year, Canada Command developed its Regional Joint Task Forces into a joint, unified and integrated command responsible for all routine and contingency operations in Canada and North America. The entire continent is viewed as a single operational area with the national headquarters exercising command and control through six asymmetric subordinate commands that reflect the regional nature of the country. Working through his RJTF commanders, the Commander of Canada Command was responsible throughout the reporting period for the conduct of all domestic operations, and is the national operational authority for the defence of Canada and North America. The new command structure provided liaison officers at various locations and with other key government organizations to foster valuable exchanges of information on operational issues and maximize unity of effort.

Continue to Strengthen Defence and Security Arrangements with the US

Defence continued to promote security in North America and the broader hemisphere by:

  • Maintaining our standing relationships with the US land, maritime and air forces;
  • Working with US officials through the Permanent Joint Board on Defence and the Military Cooperation Committee;
  • Developing effective working relationships between NORAD, USNORTHCOM, and Canada Command; and
  • Addressing security issues with Mexico.

With its US partners, Defence also began the process of implementing the new maritime warning function of NORAD, established on May 12, 2006, when Canada and the US renewed the NORAD Agreement in perpetuity. This new mission will enhance both countries’ ability to track and respond to sea-borne threats before they reach the shores of North America.

Security and Defence Forum

Through an annual grant of $2.5 million, the Security and Defence Forum is mandated to build and support a Canadian knowledge base, foster informed discussion and commentary on public policy, and enhance communications and interaction between the academic community and Defence. During fiscal 2006–2007, the Security and Defence Forum funded a Chair in Defence Management Studies and Centres of Expertise at 12 Canadian universities that were responsible for 14,457 student enrolments, 316 courses and 1,213 media interviews. The Security and Defence Forum also gave Canadian scholars $402,500 in fellowships, scholarships and internships and funded 56 special research projects, conferences and workshops in eight Canadian provinces.

Defence and Security Military Advice

Defence Research and Development Canada

The Counter Terrorism Technology Centre (CTTC) at the Defence Research & Development Canada (DRDC) centre in Suffield, Alberta, is a key component to Canada's ability to respond to domestic and international chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive (CBRNE) incidents. The mandate of the CTTC is to train civilian and military personnel to respond to and manage CBRNE events, test and evaluate the equipment they require, and to provide forensic sample analysis support and demilitarization expertise to resolve situations involving old weapons and ordnance.

During fiscal 2006–2007, the CTTC trained 1,372 participants from 23 countries, delivering 138 training days. Training sessions included Canadian Forces personnel, domestic first responders, employees of other government departments, members of foreign military and responder groups, personnel responsible for the conduct of NATO Exercise PRECISE RESPONSE, and inspectors from the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Fiscal 2006–2007 also saw the opening of the lecture training facility and the indoor training arena at the CTTC’s Cameron Centre Complex.

DRDC conducted many other important activities that produced defence and military advice for the Government of Canada. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Department of Public Safety, DND established the DRDC Centre for Security Science to provide science and technology advice on public safety and security issues. The Centre for Security Science comprises the Chemical, Biological, Radiological-Nuclear and Explosives (CBRNE) Research and Technology Initiative (CRTI), which co-ordinates CBRNE counter-terrorism S&T for 19 federal partners, and the Public Security Technical Program (PSTP), which co-ordinates the federal S&T approach to all-hazards preparedness and response. Originally funded under the Public Security and Anti-Terrorism initiative in 2001, the CRTI received five years of renewal funding in 2006. The DRDC Centre for Security Science also worked with the US Department of Homeland Security to revitalize collaborative activities under the 2004 Canada-US Public Security Technical Program.

The Defence S&T Strategy, released in the fall of 2006, guides the Defence S&T Enterprise and S&T functional authorities. The DRDC Centre for Security Science provides direct support to the Department of Public Safety. In collaboration with Public Safety, the DRDC Centre for Security Science is continuing to develop a Public Security Science and Technology strategic framework to guide S&T investments in supporting capability needs, not only those of the Canadian Forces but also those of more than 21 federal government departments and agencies with public security responsibilities. The Canada–US Public Security Technical Program continued to be the primary vehicle for international collaboration.

In response to the Government of Canada’s stated emphasis on Arctic sovereignty, DRDC established a Northern S&T Working Group in April 2006 to develop a high-level roadmap of possible S&T activities to address overall Northern security capability requirements with respect to sovereignty, protection of human lives and cultural traditions, enforcement, and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (C4ISR). The Northern S&T Working Group developed the recently approved proposal for the Northern Watch Technology Demonstration Project to address intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capability gaps in Canada’s North identified by previous operational research studies and confirmed through high-level consultations across Defence.

DRDC actively pursued an omnibus technology demonstration project to examine and develop promising and innovative technologies that can be used against the evolving threat of homemade bombs (more formally called “improvised explosive devices” or IEDs) planted on roads. This is especially important, as the IEDs are the cause of most of the recent CF casualties in Afghanistan. Examples of these new technologies include the improvement of neutralization, protection, detection and inspection technologies employed by explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) and IED disposal teams to enable them to deal more effectively with explosive devices of all kinds. DRDC provided recommendations on the optimal mix of tools and equipment for IED disposal and EOD personal protective equipment, thus laying the foundation for the introduction of new operational tools to defeat large vehicle-borne bombs and remote-controlled IEDs. As well, DRDC continued to provide advice on improvements to vehicles and personnel protection equipment and techniques to mitigate the effects of IEDs.

Arms Control and Proliferation Security

Throughout the reporting period, Defence worked to ensure the successful achievement of key arms-control and other proliferation security objectives in close co-operation with DFAIT and NATO. Efforts continued in advancing and consolidating multi-faceted approaches to the prevention, containment and reduction of the proliferation of conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction. Canada continued to support the Proliferation Security Initiative, the Chemical Weapons Convention, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the G8 Global Partnership Program.

Defence continued its lead role in Canada’s contribution to UN regulatory activities targeting small arms and light weapons, including work to achieve the ratification of Protocol V (Explosive Remnants of War) to the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons.

Defence also provided essential advice and guidance to the Canadian delegation to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), leading up to and including Canada’s assumption of the chairmanship of the Forum for Security Co-operation. Defence provided additional staff support to the Canadian delegation to the OSCE to support Canada’s role in the Forum for Security Co-operation.

Throughout fiscal 2006–2007, work on optimizing the planning, co-ordination and execution of international arms-control verification and observation operations accelerated. This increased effort allowed Defence to achieve maximum value for the money it spent on meeting Canada’s international implementation commitments under the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, the Vienna Document 1999 of the Negotiations on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, the Dayton Peace Accord, the Treaty on Open Skies, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Small Arms and Light Weapons initiatives.

Specifically, CF assets were apportioned to ensure the most effective, efficient execution of treaty-mandated on-site and area inspections; reconnaissance, evaluation and escort missions; training and assistance to foreign verification organizations; and a range of observation and monitoring functions and military-diplomatic contacts.

In addition, planning and preparations progressed in anticipation of forthcoming implementation commitments associated with new non-proliferation, arms-control and disarmament treaties, regimes and agreements. These efforts have been undertaken in keeping with Canada’s strategic objectives to reduce and control various categories of weapons, limit and lower the threshold of conflict, and increase trust and security among states.

For more information about arms-control and proliferation security, visit:

Contribute to Canadian Government and Society in Accordance with Canadian Interests and Values

Defence continued to make a valuable contribution to Canada’s search and rescue capability, provided mechanisms for addressing grievances with the CF, and contributed extensively to the Canadian economy. Defence also continued to employ thousands of Canadians in a dynamic, inclusive and respectful work environment. Through various Cadet programs, DND and the CF also made a positive contribution to youth development and education in Canada.

Support Government of Canada Programs

National Search and Rescue Secretariat and National Search and Rescue Program

The National Search and Rescue Secretariat (NSS) was established in 1986 and is accountable through the Interdepartmental Committee on Search and Rescue (ICSAR) to the Minister of National Defence (acting in the capacity of Lead Minister for Search and Rescue) for the development, co-ordination, analysis and review of federal SAR policies, programs and plans, and for specific activities. ICSAR includes representatives from six federal departments and agencies providing SAR services: Defence (specifically the CF); the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (specifically the Canadian Coast Guard); Environment Canada (specifically the Meteorological Service of Canada); Parks Canada; the RCMP; and Transport Canada.

NSS Program Activities

SAR New Initiatives Fund

The Search and Rescue New Initiatives Fund (SAR NIF) has an annual allocation of $8.1 million to enhance SAR prevention and response activities in Canada. During fiscal 2006–2007, 15 new projects were approved and work continued on 26 established projects. During this reporting period, the NSS implemented significant changes to the delivery of the SAR NIF, adding clarity and transparency to the application and selection processes for new initiatives. The changes included: updating the program guide and application procedure; establishing a technical review panel for research and development proposals; and strengthening the Merit Board scoring system.

Audits are performed annually on selected SAR NIF projects to ensure accountability and effective use of public funds, and the probity, objectivity and independence of governing authorities. To increase the efficiency and efficacy of the program, auditors’ recommendations are implemented within the year following receipt of the report.

National SAR Program Management Framework

During fiscal 2006–2007, the Secretariat improved the National SAR Program management framework by implementing a Performance Measurement Strategy. Performance indicators were selected and approved by ICSAR based on feasibility, relevance and availability of data and information. The NSS consulted federal partners to review performance measurement requirements and to encourage and facilitate implementation of SAR-related performance measures.

Co-ordination of the National SAR Program with Emergency Management and Public Safety Activities

Federal, Provincial and Territorial Co-ordination: During fiscal 2006–2007, the NSS organized a joint meeting of ICSAR and the Ground Search and Rescue Council of Canada to strengthen the links between the federal departments that deliver SAR services and provincial and territorial emergency management organizations. The NSS also provided secretarial support to a special working session of the Ground SAR Council for the development of a framework for a five-year plan.

International Initiatives and Co-ordination: A partnership was developed with the US to contribute SAR repeater stations for the new distress alert system based on middle-earth-orbit satellites. In October 2006, as Canada’s representative at the COSPAS-SARSAT Council, the NSS added the role of chair to its program-management and liaison responsibilities.

Information Management and Data Exploitation: With linkages established with the Canadian Coast Guard and the Joint Rescue Co-ordination Centres, the NSS now has access to information from the Statistical Information on Search and Rescue database and the SAR Mission Management System that will improve the ability of the NSS to review and assess the performance of the National SAR Program.

Interoperability and co-ordination of activities between the National SAR Program and the emergency management and public safety community has been improved by providing, facilitating and attending the Search Master Course at the CCG College in Sydney, Nova Scotia; the National Search and Rescue Exercise (SAREX) held in North Bay, Ontario; the Major Air Disaster Table-Top Exercise conducted by Canada Command; and the Major Marine Disaster Exercise organized by JRCC Victoria in co-operation with the British Columbia Ferry Corporation.

Northern SAR Strategy: In its efforts to advance the Northern SAR Strategy, the NSS participated in the Nunavut Search and Rescue Conference with the Government of Nunavut. Linkages were established with the Nunavut Federal Council, the RCMP and the Nunavut Emergency Management Office to lay the foundation of the Nunavut SAR Strategy Working Group. Similar activities are being planned for the Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory. Once formed, these northern working groups will be linked with other SAR program planners in the federal government and elsewhere. Contacts have also been made with the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and the International Polar Year Secretariat.

Pleasure Craft Incident Reporting: In February 2007, as a result of proposed amendments to the Transportation Safety Board regulations, the NSS formed and chairs a working group comprising representatives from federal, provincial and territorial emergency management and other public safety organizations across Canada to review and address requirements related to reporting SAR incidents involving pleasure craft.

National SAR Prevention Working Group: The NSS chairs the National SAR Prevention Working Group, which is made up of representatives from prevention expert organizations across Canada, both in government at the federal, provincial and territorial levels and in the private sector.

Annual Search and Rescue Conference: In 2006, the NSS co-hosted Canada’s national search and rescue conference, SARSCENE, with the Sûreté du Québec and the Association Québécoise des Bénévoles en Recherche et Sauvetage. Held in Gatineau, Quebec, the conference featured more than 70 presentations, exhibitors and demonstrations, and drew participants from across Canada and internationally.

Canadian Forces Grievance System

During fiscal 2006–2007, significant work was done at the Canadian Forces Grievance Authority (CFGA) to enhance the CF Grievance System and its visibility to all levels of the CF. The following outcomes show the key results for the period.

Grievance Registry and Tracking System

Effective August 2006, all CF units were required to register their grievances with the CFGA for input into the National Grievance Registry. The aim was to build upon the full life-cycle grievance system by enabling CF-wide tracking of grievances from initial submission to final decision. The provision and population of data in the registry has improved overall awareness of the grievance situation in the CF. Efforts continue in developing an interface for use by everyone involved in the redress of grievance process to track the status of all grievances.

Governance Tools

Continuing in efforts to make the grievance process more visible, progress has been made on updating the available governing tools. Handbooks for commanding officers, grievors and assisting members have been written, and will be published when the translation is complete.

Grievance Stakeholders’ Committee

A Grievance Stakeholders’ Committee was established to improve the effectiveness of the CF Grievance System. As a result of this forum, advancements have been made with the CFGA and the Canadian Forces Grievance Board (CFGB) working jointly, through a lengthy analysis, to identify certain inefficiencies in the grievance system. Key enhancements to the system were tried within the current regulatory framework. Depending on the analysis of the outcome of the trial, a complete, progressive and phased implementation should be set in motion, including the requirement to amend the regulatory framework.

Official Languages

In November 2006 the Chief of the Defence Staff and the Deputy Minister of National Defence approved the promulgation of a new Official Languages Program Transformation Model covering the period from April 1, 2007 to March 31, 2012. The three principal aims of the Transformation Model are as follows:

  • Ensure that linguistically qualified civilian employees and CF members are in the right place at the right time to support CF operations effectively and to comply with the Official Languages Act OLA);
  • Establish an enhanced OLA Awareness and Education program that ensures that civilian employees and CF members understand their linguistic rights and obligations fully; and
  • Implement a performance measurement system that will more accurately monitor the ability of Defence personnel to provide consistent leadership, instruction and services in both official languages when and where required by the Act.

Canadian Forces Members

More than 70 percent of the Lieutenant-Colonels and Commanders selected for promotion during fiscal 2006–2007 had a minimum linguistic profile of CBC at the time of promotion. This is in line with the commitment reiterated in the Model, that 70 percent of officers selected for promotion to the rank of Colonel or Captain (Navy) must attain a CBC (superior) language profile within one year of promotion.

All officers selected as commandants of national-level CF schools must hold a minimum linguistic profile of CBC. This policy, which applies primarily to Lieutenant-Colonels and Commanders, was complied with during fiscal 2006–2007.

Civilian Employees

The Human Resources – Civilian Group continues to support the Official Languages Act and Defence second language capacity through the development and implementation of Official Languages strategies and policies and the delivery of second language training.

As of March 31, 2007: 16 employees are in class and 90 are on the waiting list, and 98 percent of the civilian Executive group (EX) meet the CBC profile. Although 88.0 percent of the groups feeding the EX group meet the language requirements of their positions, only about 30 percent of EX feeder groups meet the CBC profile. This situation may affect civilian succession planning.

Employment Equity

The Corporate EE Action Plan, including a detailed analysis of diversity and employment equity training and education needs, was completed during the reporting period; 82.5 percent of Defence civilian employees completed the self-identification form. Alignment of employment equity with the DND Recruitment Strategy is continuing, and the development of the DND EE Staffing Program is completed. During fiscal 2006–2007, 70 percent of Executive Performance Management Agreements referred to employment equity commitments.

Employment Equity Workforce Representation compared with Labour Marked Availability (LMA)

Total DND workforce: 23,540*












Visible Minorities














Persons with a Disability







*As of December 31, 2006

Note: The groups with the lowest representation of visible minorities are in the Technical and

Operational categories (e.g. EG, EL, GT, GLMDO, GLFOS)

Employment Equity representation in the EX Group

Total EX: 103*












Visible Minorities














Persons with a Disability







*As of December 31, 2006, does not include Acting/Executives

EE Staffing Program

Section 5.1 of the former Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) gave departments the authority to make employment equity appointments in support of departmental goals. This delegation of authority does not exist in the new PSEA, but the new Act does give departments the flexibility to consider EE as a merit criterion. This provision has enabled Defence to continue its progress toward its representation goals in recruitment and staffing. To further ensure that EE is thoughtfully considered at key decision points in the selection and appointment processes, EE program elements have been developed and integrated into the departmental Guidelines on Staffing Options. Representation rates will continue to be monitored, and additional mechanisms will be put in place to monitor the use of staffing actions next year.

As a result of the comprehensive analysis conducted of diversity and employment equity training needs, a Diversity/EE Training Strategy and Action Plan was developed, approved and implemented. The Action Plan contains initiatives such as the review, design and development of products such as diversity training for employees and a training program for EE practitioners.

Contribute to Canadian Economy and Innovations

Co-operation in International Research and Development

DRDC conducts much of its research in collaboration with other nations through many international agreements such as The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP), involving Canada, the United Kingdom, the US, New Zealand and Australia; the NATO Research and Technology Organisation (RTO); the Technology Research and Development Projects (TRDP) Agreement and the Master Data Exchange Agreement (MDEA) with the US. These agreements facilitate the exchange of knowledge and expertise between and among the participating nations and heighten Canada’s international profile.

DRDC scientists participated in the TTCP Electronic Warfare Systems Group that evaluated the performance of missile warning sensors and systems in live missile firings at the 2006 Man-Portable Air Defence System (MANPADS) Week. The sensor evaluation conducted by this team is expected to lead to advanced missile warning sensors with better performance at lower installed cost, improving the self-protection capabilities of systems already in the Canadian inventory and allowing deployment on more aircraft.

DRDC also participated in the NATO RTO Applied Vehicle Technology panel that developed highly novel methods for inspecting corroded structures and quantified the probability of detecting service-induced cracks in typical engine parts. These methods offer the enormous benefit of reliably assessing the airworthiness of damaged parts. This experience also led to the development of Canada’s finest suite of fracture mechanics test facilities, with specialized laboratories serving both the airframe and engine industries that support both military and civilian aircraft programs.

Many factors contribute to an increase in the number and intensity of military operations conducted in urban areas. Using war-gaming and the expertise of soldiers from all NATO countries, the Command and Control Challenges in Urban Operations research group (part of the Information Systems Technology panel) demonstrated how information technologies could assist urban military operations on foreign soil at and below battalion level. The research group identified information requirements that were deemed critical to the conduct of urban operations to illustrate how they could be met with the help of information technologies available today.

The Memorandum of Understanding on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Security was amended in 2006–2007 to include Australia and provide for the development of a long-term strategy and roadmap that will enable Australian, Canadian, British and US forces to function in any environment unencumbered by CBR effects or threats.

Representatives from DRDC participated in a meeting organized under a trilateral Memorandum of Understanding between Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands. The goals of the meeting were to exchange information on the activities of each country’s defence research organization with respect to nano-micro technology, and to formulate a list of project concepts with potential for collaborative S&T that meet the anticipated future defence S&T objectives of all three nations and leverage their respective strengths and expertise in nanotechnology.

Contribute to Canadian Identity

Canada’s history, heritage and identity

During fiscal 2006–2007, Canada’s history and identity was represented clearly through the following events and undertakings by the Directorate of History and Heritage at National Defence Headquarters:

  • Interment of the Remains of Canadians from the First and Second World Wars: The recently discovered bodies of three Canadian soldiers were interred in the Netherlands and one in France. The remains of a fourth Canadian soldier were successfully identified at Avions, France and interred in conjunction with the events surrounding the 90th anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge in April 2007. Forensic work indicates that remains found in Hong Kong and Myanmar are not likely to be Canadian.
  • Commemorative Events in Support of Veterans’ Affairs Canada: The observations of the 90th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme (Beaumont-Hamel) in France and the preparation for Canadian participation in the 90th anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge in April 2007 occurred in fiscal 2006–2007. The Vimy Ridge commemoration involved 400 CF personnel at four major events: the Freedom of the City Parade in Arras, a sunset ceremony at Vimy, the burial of the remains of a Canadian soldier found and identified at nearby Avions, and the dedication of the restored Canadian National Vimy Monument by the Queen in front of 35,000 people.
  • The Canadian Military History Gateway: The Directorate of History and Heritage promoted the Canadian Military History Gateway, a web portal giving access to the on-line collections of several federal repositories of military historical material, at major teachers’ conferences in Vancouver, Calgary and Ottawa, and at schools in the National Capital Region.
  • Strategic Plan for CF Museums: A draft strategic plan was presented to the CF Museum Committee in March 2007; it has already been greatly amended and is scheduled for presentation to the CF History & Heritage Board for its approval in September 2007.
  • Publication of Official Histories: A Blue Water Navy: The Official Operational History of the Royal Canadian Navy in the Second World War, 1939–1945, also known as The Official Operational History of the Royal Canadian Navy, Volume 2, Part 2, was published by Vanwell in English in 2006 and in French in March 2007. Work continues on eight other official histories.
  • Official Lineages: The official lineages of the Royal Canadian Artillery, the Canadian Military Engineers and the armoured regiments of the Canadian Forces were distributed in the fall of 2006. A first draft of the official lineages of Canada’s infantry regiments has been completed and electronic publication of the lineages of CF formations, branches, schools, establishments and other units are in progress.
  • History of Aboriginal Peoples and the armed forces of Canada: A first draft of a manuscript History of Aboriginal Peoples in the Canadian Military has been written.
  • Miscellaneous:
    • 100 new entries have been made to the National Inventory of Canadian Military Memorials.
    • A new Battle Honours policy has been submitted for approval.
    • Thousands of historical enquiries from the Canadian public and other government departments have been answered.

The Public Affairs Group is also involved with issues that affect Canadians’ understanding of their history, heritage and identity. During the reporting period, Defence launched a $16.1 million recruiting campaign with advertisements in national, regional and local media across Canada, helping the CF achieve 102 percent of its recruitment target with more than 6,500 enrolments. Known as the “Fight” campaign for its genuine operational imagery and the messages: Fight Fear, Fight Distress, Fight Chaos, Fight with the Canadian Forces, this campaign was co-ordinated for the Canadian Forces Recruiting Group by the Advertising Group in Public Affairs.

The Public Affairs Group also brought the Canadian Forces to major regional and national events across Canada, including the 2006 Grey Cup game in Winnipeg, the Calgary Stampede, the Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto, the Carnaval de Québec, and the Nova Scotia International Tattoo in Halifax.

Defence Public Affairs reached thousands of Canadians through 300 external communications and public relations events including stakeholder visits, roundtable sessions, speeches by CF members, visibility activities at major sports events, and outreach activities with ethnic communities. It continued to give Canadians the opportunity to send messages to and interact with deployed CF personnel through the “Write to the Troops” message board on the DND/CF Internet site, where more than 25,310 new messages appeared during fiscal 2006–2007.

Public Affairs also co-ordinated many outreach activities for senior leaders, including the Minister of National Defence, the Chief of the Defence Staff and Assistant Deputy Ministers, and continued to run the Canadian Forces Parliamentary Program that gave several Members of Parliament the opportunity to observe and interact directly with CF personnel. These visits boost the morale of CF members, promote understanding of the challenges faced on operations, and increase CF visibility. Several communications products issued during the reporting period explained and spread understanding of how Defence contributes to the security of Canadians and supports peace and stability abroad.

Public Affairs worked closely with other departments, notably DFAIT and CIDA, on major international initiatives and operations, especially Canada’s contribution to international efforts in Afghanistan and the Darfur region of Sudan. Together, Defence, DFAIT, CIDA and a few other federal government departments and agencies are responsible for the “whole of government” communications approach to Canadian operations in Afghanistan. Departmental representatives met regularly throughout the year as members of the Afghanistan Working Group on Communications.

As well, Public Affairs frequently worked with the communications branches of other government departments on issues related to justice, the environment, transportation, industry, veterans, the Arctic, and aboriginal peoples.

The Media Embed Program managed by the Public Affairs staff at CEFCOM Headquarters placed some 200 journalists with Joint Task Force Afghanistan. On average, the program had 11 reporters embedded at any given time throughout the reporting period, allowing journalists and their media organizations direct access to CF personnel and to observe operations. Their presence permitted timelier, more nuanced reports and announcements on combat operations, security, support to reconstruction efforts, and other significant incidents.

Imagery and video have enormous value for promoting Defence to Canadians, particularly for connecting with a public accustomed to real-time news reports and live feeds from the story location. The Canadian Forces Combat Camera teams regularly collect and distribute broadcast-quality, real-time imagery that is used frequently by Canadian and international news agencies. In fact, the Combat Camera website received more than 50 million hits last year from people searching its database of 5,000 images.

Public Affairs also focused on activities to raise the profile of the CF and their contribution to continental and international peace and security. For example, the Public Affairs section of the Canadian Defence Liaison Staff in Washington, D.C., launched the website to present and promote the CF to an American audience. CDLS Washington outreach activities also included 12 Congressional meetings, Congressional events that reached more than 700 people, activities engaging think-tanks, participation in defence industry conferences and expos, and a Partners in Defence reception at the Canadian Embassy that attracted 600 guests.

These activities demonstrated Canada’s role as a key ally to the US and marked its participation in the international campaign against terrorism.

Contribute to Youth and Education

Youth Programs

Communities of all sizes across Canada, from the great cities of the south to isolated Aboriginal communities, benefit from the 1,154 cadet units and 111 Junior Canadian Ranger patrols that provide some 58,700 cadets and 3,300 Junior Canadian Rangers with opportunities for fun, adventure and learning.

Canadian Cadet Program

The objectives of the Canadian Cadet Program are to develop the attributes of good citizenship and leadership in young men and women, promote their physical fitness and stimulate their interest in CF operations at sea, on land and in the air. It is a federally sponsored national training program for youth between the ages of 12 and 18, conducted by Defence in partnership with the Navy League, the Army Cadet League and the Air Cadet League. The leagues recruit cadets and organize accommodation and sponsors for each cadet unit. The CF provides personnel from the Regular Force, and the Reserves, most of them members of the CIC. The CF also provides uniforms, some infrastructure, and other support services such as airlift.

Many young Canadians benefited from Cadet training within the community at the Corps or Squadron level. This training was conducted from September to June under the supervision of the Atlantic, Eastern, Central, Prairies, Pacific and Northern Regional Cadet Support Units. Many cadets were selected in summer 2006 to attend one of the 24 Cadet Summer Training Centres across the country either as trainees, or as Staff Cadets in leadership roles. Participation and training data are provided in the following table:




Training Days

Local Training

1,156 Units



Summer Training

24 Training Centres



Source: Vice Chief of the Defence Staff Group

National Activities

Distinct national activities were held for each cadet element as well as other national activities for the benefit of cadets from all three elements, notably:

  • 337 Sea Cadets participated in the International Exchange Program, competed in the National Regatta held in Kingston, sailed in the US Coast Guard tall ship Eagle off the eastern coast of the US, sailed in a tall ship off the BC coast, and took part in the Annual Seamanship Concentration at HMCS Quadra.
  • 199 Army Cadets participated in the International Army Cadet Exchange program and in domestic and international expeditions.
  • 164 Air Cadets participated in the International Air Cadet Exchange program, in the Oshkosh Trip to Wisconsin, and competition for the Air Cadet Glider Program Soaring Award.
  • 320 cadets participated in tri-element activities such as the Cadet National Marksmanship Championship and the National Biathlon Championship.

For additional information on the Canadian Cadet Program visit:

Junior Canadian Rangers

The Junior Canadian Rangers (JCR) Program is designed to provide a structured program for youth between the ages of 12 to 18 through activities that develop traditional, life and Ranger skills. The program counts 3,300 Junior Canadian Rangers spread out in 111 patrols. JCR Patrols are located in remote and isolated communities of Canada that have Canadian Rangers patrols. The JCR Program is conducted in collaboration with local committees of adult community members, often supported directly by the band, hamlet or municipal council. The community provides a location for training, screens potential volunteers and instructors, and schedules training activities, and the program receives uniforms, training, and financial and administrative support from the CF. Regular Force and Primary Reserve personnel help deliver the program and evaluate JCR training during regular visits and field exercises. The JCR Program also gives members of the Canadian Rangers opportunities to serve as leaders, facilitators, supervisors and program developers. During fiscal 2006–2007, DND continued to engage local, regional, provincial or territorial and federal agencies and organizations, and other government departments in the JCR Program. For additional information on the Junior Canadian Rangers visit:

Contribute to the International Community, in Accordance with Canadian Interests and Values

Defence continued to support Government of Canada efforts to contribute to a more secure international environment by supporting organizations such as the UN and NATO through operational, personnel and financial contributions. In addition to maintaining a battle group, a Provincial Reconstruction Team and a mentorship team in Afghanistan as part of ISAF, Defence also provided military and civilian personnel who made a major contribution to the development of government structures in Afghanistan through the Strategic Advisory Team, helped train members of the African Union’s peacekeeping mission in Sudan, and supported the development of civil-military relations in developing countries through the Military Training Assistance Program.

Defence also participated with equivalent organizations in other like-minded nations in the development of new capabilities to support deployed operations. In particular, the Canadian Operational Support Command supported the Prague Capability Initiatives for Sealift and Airlift.

Meeting Commitments to International Organizations and Exchange Programs

Enhancing Industrial and Defence Relationships

Scientific and Technological Co-operation

DRDC is involved in many international defence science and technology working groups and collaborative research forums. International collaboration facilitates the exchange of knowledge and heightens Canada’s profile on the world stage as a leader in scientific and technical innovation. The key international forums in which DRDC participates include the following:

  • The Technical Co-operation Program (TTCP): An international research forum made up of Canada, the US, Britain, Australia and New Zealand, TTCP involves more than 850 scientists leading projects involving, at any given time, some 3,000 to 5,000 international scientific personnel. DRDC contributes to more than 70 TTCP initiatives.
  • NATO Research and Technology Organization (RTO): The RTO facilitates collaborative research among and between NATO members.

Legal Co-operation

Defence participated in several international legal working groups through the Office of the Judge Advocate General (JAG).

  • The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI): Legal officers attended Operational Experts Group meetings in Singapore and Montreal. The JAG Director of Strategic Legal Analysis co-chaired the Legal break-out group at the Operational Experts Group meeting in Montreal and reported some of its findings in plenary. The work accomplished during those events contributed to the aims of PSI to deter and halt the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, their delivery systems, and related materials.
  • The NORAD Contingency Plan (CONPLAN): The Office of the JAG continued to provide legal support to the ongoing review of the Canada–US NORAD CONPLAN, the objective being to implement a revised operational agreement that reflects Canadian interests and values.
  • The International Computer Co-operation Working Group: Given the growing importance of networked activities and the complexity of recent domestic legislation in the information technology field, the development of legal support for computer network defence activities has substantially enhanced interoperability and co-operation with important allies.

Multilateral Organizations

Throughout fiscal 2006–2007, the Canadian Forces continued to contribute to international peace and security abroad. Specifically, our people have:

  • Worked to protect the security and safety of Canadians at home, which is ultimately linked to conflict abroad;
  • Continued to work with their US counterparts, both in North America and overseas; and
  • Contributed to global security through the UN, NATO and other alliance arrangements.

North American Treaty Organization

The work of DND and the CF enabled Canada to play an active role in NATO. Operationally, our personnel made critical contributions to NATO’s operations in Afghanistan. Canada also commanded NATO’s Standing Maritime Group 1 for one year, beginning in January 2006. In addition, Canada participated — through NATO and in support of the European Union — in the ongoing stabilization mission in Bosnia.

Through Defence, Canada also continued to staff 336 key military positions at NATO Headquarters in Belgium and contribute $161 million to common-funded programs: NATO Airborne Early Warning program, Strategic Investment Program and NATO Military Budget.

Canada also continued to offer the allies valuable training opportunities, including:

  • Courses for emergency first-responders in handling nuclear, chemical, biological and radiological weapons at DRDC Suffield;
  • Use of the Counter-Terrorism Technology Centre at DRDC Suffield as part of our contribution to the NATO Response Force; and
  • The NATO Flying Training Program in Canada (NFTC), a world-class international program that supports a key alliance goal of air force interoperability.

Additional information on NATO programs can be found in Section III – Table 10b and by visiting

United Nations

The Canadian Forces continued to contribute personnel on the ground and at headquarters to UN-endorsed missions, including operations in Haiti, Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Middle East. Notably, the Canadian Forces have provided sustained, critical support to the UN-endorsed African Union (AU) mission in the Darfur region of Sudan by providing specialist officers to various AU headquarters.

Other Arrangements

The CF continued to support several operations led by coalitions of like-minded countries to enhance international peace and security. These included the deployment of a ship to the Persian Gulf as part of the international campaign against terrorism, and the provision of personnel to the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai, the US Security Coordinator developing security institutions in Gaza, and the International Military Assistance Training Team in Sierra Leone.

Advisory and Training Support to Other Nations

Military Training and Assistance Program

The Military Training Assistance Program (MTAP) is an instrument of Canada’s foreign and defence diplomacy. It contributes directly to the Defence mission by promoting Canadian interests and values abroad, and by contributing to international peace and security. During the reporting period, MTAP provided education and training to the defence and security establishments of developing, non-NATO countries through the following undertakings:

  • Language training to facilitate communication and interoperability among international forces;
  • Professional development, which encompasses command, staff and technical training, to improve the professionalism of foreign armed forces; and
  • Peace-support training to improve military and civilian participants’ capacity to undertake multilateral and peace-support operations.

Last year, MTAP offered training to more than 1,000 military personnel from 63 countries.