Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat
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Glossary [ A to Z ]

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

AACR2
See Anglo-American Catologuing Rules (AACR2)

access / accès
Gaining entry to an electronic network that the federal government has provided to authorized individuals. Access to such networks may be from inside or outside government premises. Access may support telework and remote access situations or where authorized individuals are using electronic networks provided by the federal government on their own time for personal use.
Source: Policy on the Use of Electronic Networks
See also Subject(s): Security

access / accessibilité
The availability of, or the permission to consult, records.
Source: National Archives and Records Administration (US)
See also Subject(s): Access to Information

Access Coordinator / Coordonnateur de l'accès à l'information
The officer for each government institution who coordinates all activities relating to the operation of the [Access to Information] Act, and the regulations, directives and guidelines pursuant to it, within the institution.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information

access copying / reproduction d’accès
Refers to the manufacture of copies reproducing a varying number and quality of the attributes of the archival record and their interrelationships; and for client copies, usually without the requirement for a high level of permanence. Access copying creates reference tools, copying masters and client copies; supplies copies for exhibition and so enhances public awareness of NA holdings; ensures automated access to automated records (e.g., electronic records); and creates digital copies for distant access.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

access request / demande officielle d'accès à l'information
A request that is made in writing to the government institution that has control of the record and that makes specific reference to the [Access to Information] Act.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information

Access to Information Request Form / formule de demande d'accès à l'information
A form prescribed by the designated minister for the purpose of requesting access to records under the control of a government institution.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information

accountability / reddition de comptes
Accountability is the obligation to demonstrate and take responsibility for performance in light of commitments and expected outcomes.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

accreditation / accréditation
The official authorisation by management for the operation of an IT system, and acceptance by that management of the associated residual risk. Accreditation is based on the certification process as well as other management considerations.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

acquisition copying / reproduction d’acquisition
Refers to the manufacture of copies to produce an object to acquire (e.g., off-air satellite recording, microfilm or other copying of records held in other institutions or locations, processing of electronic records into physical and logical formats acceptable to the National Archives), or to satisfy donor, vendor or source requirements as a result of acquisition or selection decisions.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

act / loi
Legal text voted by Parliament and enacted by the Queen's representative in Canada, the Governor General.
Source: Glossary - Canada Gazette
See also Subject(s): Governance

administrative metadata / métadonnées administratives
Metadata used in managing and administering information resources, e.g., location or donor information. Includes rights and access information, data on the creation and preservation of the digital object.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

agreement for transfer / accord de transfert
In accordance with Section 6 (1) of the National Archives of Canada Act, the National Archivist enters into agreements with government institutions covering the transfer of records deemed to have archival value from those institutions to the National Archives. Where archival records have been identified, an agreement for transfer will form part of a records disposition authority; the details of the records transfer are contained in the terms and conditions attached to the agreement.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

Anglo-American Catologuing Rules (AACR2) / Règles de catalogage anglo-américaines (RCAA2)
The dominant bibliographic standard regulating cataloging in the English-speaking world.  AACR2 represents a set of rules for the standard description of and access to all materials which a library holds or to which it has access.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Libraries

applicant / auteur d'une demande
A person who is requesting access to records under the [Access to Information] Act or who is exercising his or her rights under the Act to review by the Court.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information

application profile / profil d’application
A set of metadata elements, policies, and guidelines defined for a particular application. The elements may be from one or more element sets, thus allowing a given application to meet its functional requirements by using metadata from several element sets including locally defined sets. For example, a given application might choose a subset of the Dublin Core that meets its needs, or may include elements from the Dublin Core, another element set, and several locally defined elements, all combined in a single schema. An Application profile is not complete without documentation that defines the policies and best practices appropriate to the application.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Application profiles may be defined as schemas comprised of "data elements taken from one or more namespaces, combined together by implementors, and optimised for a particular local application."
Source: "Application profiles: mixing and matching metadata schemas" by Rachel Heery and Manjula Patel
See also Subject(s): Metadata

appraisals / évaluations
The process of determining the value and thus the final disposition of records, making them either temporary or permanent.
Source: National Archives and Records Administration (US)
See also Subject(s): Records Management

archival master / exemplaire principal
Refers to a copy held by or produced by the National Archives that has been designated as the record that most closely approximates the archival record or the original record insofar as it is known. It is usually made from an archival record. (Archival masters made from original or other records that are not held by the National Archives may be designated as archival records in the National Archives.) Archival masters may or may not have the same preservation priority as archival records (e.g., for microfilm or audio-visual records, they may sometimes be or become the archival record). However, they always have a higher priority than other copies.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

archival record / document d’archives
Refers to a record selected and acquired by the National Archives for permanent retention and use by Canadians. An archival record is defined as such through an archival valuation decision, not by virtue of some inherent, objective quality. It may therefore be a designated original record or a copy record, and may include metadata. Its archival status may also be subject to change.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

archiving / archivage
Material is hosted on an institutional server and there is an intention to keep the intellectual content of the material available on a permanent basis. Archiving is used in the broad sense to cover the concepts of collecting, preservation, and provision of long-term access.
Source: National Library of Canada – Networked Electronic Publications Policy and Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Publishing

asset / atout
An asset is an entity, quality, or condition of value that provides an advantage and serves as a resource to achieve desired results and outcomes. Assets may have a widely recognized financial value (e.g. book value), an estimated financial value (e.g. cost savings, increased revenue), and/or a qualitative value (e.g. promotes trust and confidence).
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

assets / biens
Tangible or intangible things of the Government of Canada. Assets include but are not limited to information in all forms and media, networks, systems, materiel, real property, financial resources, employee trust, public confidence and international reputation.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

assistive technology / technologie d’aide
Software or hardware that has been specifically designed to assist people with disabilities in carrying out daily activities. Assistive technology includes wheelchairs, reading machines, devices for grasping, etc. In the area of Web Accessibility, common software-based assistive technologies include screen readers, screen magnifiers, speech synthesizers, and voice input software that operate in conjunction with graphical desktop browsers (among other user agents). Hardware assistive technologies include alternative keyboards and pointing devices
Source: W3C – Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Accessibility

attachments / pièces jointes
Documents appended to and transmitted with an e-mail message such as word processing documents, spreadsheets, sound files, image files, hot links, etc. They form an integral part of an e-mail message, and both the message and the attachments form an e-mail record.
Source: Natural Resources Canada – Guidelines on Managing Electronic Mail Messages
See also Subject(s): Electronic Mail

author
See Creator

authority control / contrôle d’autorité
A set of rules or procedures that maintain consistency for accessing names or terms within a database. Means of establishing a consistent form of the name or concept through authority records.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

authority file / fichier d’autorité
A collection of authority records.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

authority record / document d’autorité
A record that shows the preferred form of a personal or corporate name, geographic region or subjects. It indicates variant forms of the established heading.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

availability / disponibilité
The condition of being usable on demand to support operations, programs and services.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

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B

baseline security requirements / exigences sécuritaires de base
Mandatory provisions of the Government Security Policy and its associated operational standards and technical documentation.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

best practice / pratique exemplaire
The documented strategies and tactics employed by organizations to define the most efficient, effective methods to evolve and utilize their revenue and business opportunities in the delivery of their services.
Source: BC Government Information Resource Management Glossary
See also Subject(s): Governance

boundary of hypertext electronic publication / frontière de la publication électronique hypertextuelle
The National Library of Canada interprets the boundary of an electronic publication as normally being the linked objects on one Internet domain. The boundary of an electronic publication is an issue with hypertext electronic publications because it can be difficult to define where a work starts and ends and where copyright starts and ends. Publications may exist on two or more (and sometimes on many) remote servers and Internet domains, with hypertext links being used to "assemble" the parts into a coherent whole.
Source: National Library of Canada – Networked Electronic Publications Policy and Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Publishing

Braille / Braille
Braille is a system of reading and writing in which up to six dots are embossed in domino patterns on pages of thick paper or plastic. Each domino or Braille cell represents a character or character grouping. Braille is read through touch.
See also Subject(s): Accessibility

broader term (BT) / terme générique
Indicating a concept with wider meaning relative to others.
Source: National Archives of Australia
See also Subject(s): Classification

business continuity planning / planification de la continuité opérationnelle
An all-encompassing term which includes the development and timely execution of plans, measures, procedures and arrangements to ensure minimal or no interruption to the availability of critical services and assets.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

business transaction / opération commerciale
Any event, condition, action or commitment, the result of which is the acquisition, disposition or use of assets or resources; the increase or reduction in a liability; the receipt or payment of funds; or the provision of services of which a client is charged. Business transactions occur commonly in, but are not limited to, such diverse areas as finance, administration, personnel, contracts, and program management. Business transactions may also include formal approvals or authorizations such as correspondence.
Source: Policy on Electronic Authorization and Authentication
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

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C

Canadiana networked electronic publication / publication électronique canadienne diffusée en réseau
A Canadiana networked electronic publication is any information resource which fits into the above definition and which originates in Canada, or that originates elsewhere provided the creator is Canadian or the material has a Canadian subject.
Source: National Library of Canada – Networked Electronic Publications Policy and Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Publishing

captioned film and videos / vidéos et films sous-titrés
The spoken word is repeated in written text on the bottom of the screen as in subtitles. “Open” captions can be seen by everyone while “closed” captions are visible only through a special decoder.
See also Subject(s): Accessibility

case-sensitive / sensible à la casse
Lower and upper case letters are not treated as being the same; e.g. 'a' is not the same as 'A'.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Resource Discovery

certification / certification
A comprehensive evaluation of the technical and non-technical security features of an IT system and other related safeguards to establish the extent to which a particular design and implementation meets a specific set of security requirements, made in support of the accreditation process.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

chat / clavardage
Real-time communication between two users via computer.
Source: National Library of Canada - Virtual Reference Canada
See also Subject(s): Portals

Chief Information Officer (CIO) / Dirigeant principal de l’information (DPI)
A Senior Manager who ensures the organization uses information management and information technology (IM/IT) efficiently, within government guidelines. Defines the IM/IT infrastructure for the organization.
Source: BC Government Information Resource Management Glossary
See also Subject(s): Governance

class of records / catégorie de documents
A category of information held by an institution, regardless of physical medium. It reflects particular subjects related to a specific function or functions of an organizational unit of a government institution. Classes are described under the section "Information Holdings" in the public database, Info Source to facilitate knowledge of government information holdings and the exercise of the right of access under the [Access to Information] Act.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information; Records Management

classification / classification
Almost all classification systems organize ideas into a hierarchical structure so that relationships between terms are provided. Many classifications also include a numerical index to the classification. The most widely used is the Dewey Decimal Classification system. Another well-established classification system is the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). It is a hierarchy of industry classifications.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

classified information / renseignements classifiés
Information related to the national interest that may qualify for an exemption or exclusion under the Access to Information Act or Privacy Act, and the compromise of which would reasonably be expected to cause injury to the national interest.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Information Management; Security

client copy / copie de client
Refers to a copy made for users at their request. It is usually made from a reference copy or, for microfilm and photographic client copies, from the copying master.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

cluster
See subject cluster

common administrative record / document administratif commun
Common administrative records are records that are created, collected or received by a federal government institution to support and document broad internal administrative functions and activities common to or shared by all federal government institutions, for example: finance and the management of human resources.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

communications security (COMSEC) / sécurité des télécommunications (COMSEC)
Cryptographic, transmission and emission security measures applied to information stored, processed or transmitted electronically; a subset of information technology security.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

complainant / plaignant
A person who makes a complaint to the Information Commissioner on any of the grounds set forth in subsection 30(1) of the [Access to Information] Act.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information

compromise / compromission
Unauthorized disclosure, destruction, removal, modification, interruption or use of assets.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

confidentiality / confidentialité
Refers to information being made available or disclosed only to individuals, entities or processes authorized to see or use that information.
Source: Policy on Electronic Authorization and Authentication
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

The attribute that information must not be disclosed to unauthorized individuals, because of the resulting injury to national or other interests, with reference to specific provisions of the Access to Information Act and the Privacy Act.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

conservation (or preservation) copying / reproduction de conservation (ou de préservation)
Refers to the manufacture of a surrogate that reproduces the maximum number and quality of the attributes of the archival record and their interrelationships, in a medium with a high level of permanence or a level of permanence comparable to that of the archival record. Conservation copying makes records of archival records on loan; ensures long-term accessibility of archival records in some form when original records are inherently deteriorative or dangerous (e.g., newsprint, nitrate negatives and films), too fragile for easy access, or dependent on rare or obsolete technology (e.g., audio-visual records). Such records need highly faithful, modern copies to protect and maintain existence and accessibility.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

conservation treatment / traitement de conservation
Refers to changes brought about in an archival record to improve or maintain any of its attributes and their interrelationships, including physical stability, appearance or accessibility. For human-readable records, conservation treatment entails physical or chemical intervention and may be performed as a preventive measure or once damage has occurred. For technology-dependent records, conservation treatment may entail physical or chemical intervention; however, it may also entail, or be combined with, the manufacture of an archival master or, for electronic records, migration or other form of copying. It usually takes place once damage has occurred or in anticipation of damage or obsolescence (hence inaccessibility) because of the passage of time. In the case of technology-dependent records, the new record resulting from these actions may irreversibly replace the first archival record for two reasons: the archival master or migrated version may be sufficiently (although not exactly) the same to allow the replacement, while technological obsolescence may be so rapid as to require it. This radical effect on the first archival record identifies the creation of archival masters and the migration of electronic records (or re-copying to a new logical and/or physical format for the electronic record) as highly interventionist conservation treatments as much as they are copying techniques.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

Contributor / Collaborateur
The Dublin Core element used to designate the entity responsible for making contributions to the content of the resource. Examples of a Contributor include a person, an organization or a service. Typically, the name of a Contributor should be used to indicate the entity.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

controlled element / élément normalisé
An element in which the content is in a specific form, or comes from a specified list of acceptable values, such as a thesaurus.
Source: Common Look and Feel Metadata Standard Definitions and HTML Examples
See also Subject(s): Metadata

controlled vocabulary / vocabulaire contrôlé
A controlled vocabulary is an established list of standardized terminology for use in indexing and retrieval of information. An example of a controlled vocabulary is subject headings used to describe library resources. A controlled vocabulary ensures that a subject will be described using the same preferred term each time it is indexed and this will make it easier to find all information about a specific topic during the search process (e.g. Canadian Subject Headings, or the Répertoire de vedettes-matière (RVM))
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

cookie / témoins
A "cookie" is a small piece of information sent by the Web server of the visited Web site to the visitor's computer Web browser. Cookies are a way to have the visited Web site "remember" specific bits of information about the visitor.  This information could encompass the visitor's password, pages visited, including other Web sites, and such statistical information as the length of each visit per site or per page. The information stored within a cookie can be read only by the Web site that originally sent the cookie. Web servers cannot read cookies sent by other Web servers.
Source: Recommendations for Common Look and Feel Standards and Guidelines for Intranets and Extranets (CLFIE)
See also Subject(s): Portals

copy / copie
Refers to a replication of an archival record in whole or in part to preserve it and/or provide access to it.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

copying / reproduction
Refers to all methods of manufacturing a reproduction of a record to create a second record in the same or a new medium or media with its own attributes, including history of creation, metadata and requirements for control, preservation and access.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

copying master / copie principale
Refers to a copy used to produce reference copies and sometimes client copies. It is usually made from the archival master or the archival record.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

copyright / droit d’auteur
Provide protection for literary, artistic, dramatic or musical works, computer programs, and sound recordings.
Source: Canadian Intellectual Property Office
See also Subject(s): Intellectual Property

Coverage / Couverture
The Dublin Core element used to designate the extent or scope of the content of the resource. Coverage will typically include spatial location (a place name or geographic co-ordinates), temporal period (a period label, date, or date range) or jurisdiction (such as a named administrative entity). Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary, and that, where appropriate, named places or time periods be used in preference to numeric identifiers such as sets of co-ordinates or date ranges.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Creator / Créateur
An entity primarily responsible for making the content of the resource. Examples of a Creator include a person, an organization or a service. Typically, the name of a Creator should be used to indicate the entity.
Source: Common Look and Feel Metadata Standard Definitions and HTML Examples
See also Subject(s): Metadata

critical assets / biens essentiels
Assets supporting a critical service.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

critical service / service essentiel
Service whose compromise in terms of availability or integrity would result in a high degree of injury to the health, safety, security or economic well-being of Canadians, or to the efficient functioning of the Government of Canada.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

Crosswalk / Correspondance
A table that maps the relationships and equivalencies between two or more metadata formats. Crosswalks or metadata mapping support the ability of search engines to search effectively across heterogeneous databases, i.e. crosswalks help promote interoperability.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

custody / garde
Custody is being entrusted with the immediate charge and control over a resource and guarding or protecting the resource on behalf of its owner or a higher authority. Government institutions are custodians of information owned by the crown and are accountable for managing information on behalf of the government. Government institutions are also custodians of non-government information in their possession and must manage this information in a manner that addresses and protects the rights of the owners.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Conservation; Governance; Security

cybrarian / cyberthécaire
One of many new terms being used to define a "virtual librarian." Others include electronic services librarian, digital librarian, Internet information specialist.
Source: National Library of Canada - Virtual Reference Canada
See also Subject(s): Libraries

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D

data / données
Data is the raw material stored in a structured manner that, given context, turns into information.
Source: BC Government Information Resource Management Glossary
See also Subject(s): Information Management

data integrity / intégrité des données
The quality or condition of being accurate and complete and not altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner.
Source: Policy on Electronic Authorization and Authentication
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

data management / gestion des données
The activities of strategic data planning, data element standardization, information management control, data synchronization, data sharing, and database development. Active data management increases system effectiveness and improves the accuracy and timeliness of data to derive maximum business benefit.
Source: BC Government Information Resource Management Glossary
See also Subject(s): Information Management

data mining / exploration de données
The process of analyzing large volumes of data using pattern recognition or knowledge discovery techniques to identify meaningful trends and relationships represented in data in large databases.
Source: BC Government Information Resource Management Glossary
See also Subject(s): Information Management

database (electronic database) / base de données (électronique)
A store of data on electronic files which can be made accessible to a computer. It is designed for operation in connection with an information retrieval system. ... a database is sometimes used in its simplest sense, that of "an electronic information store".
See also Subject(s): Resource Discovery

database administration / administration de bases de données
The function of managing the physical aspects of the data resource, including physical database design to implement the conceptual data model; and database integrity, performance, and security.
Source: BC Government Information Resource Management Glossary
See also Subject(s): Resource Discovery

Date / Date
A date associated with an event in the life cycle of the resource. Typically, Date will be associated with the creation or availability of the resource. Recommended best practice for encoding the date value is defined in a profile of ISO 8601 [W3CDTF] and follows the YYYY-MM-DD format.
Source: Common Look and Feel Metadata Standard Definitions and HTML Examples
See also Subject(s): Metadata

DC
See Dublin Core

DCMES
See Dublin Core

DCMI
See Dublin Core Metadata Initiative

Deputy Head / administrateur général
The Deputy Head is the head of a federal government institution accountable to the Minister and through the Minister to Parliament for all institution activities and for achievement of institution results.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

Description / Description
The Dublin Core element used to designate a textual description of the content of the resource.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

descriptive metadata / métadonnées descriptives
Metadata that supports the discovery of a digital object.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

DHTML
See Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language

digital library / bibliothèque numérique
Digital libraries can include reference material or resources accessible through the World Wide Web. Digitized portions of a library's collection or original material produced for the web can also be included in a digital library.
Source: National Library of Canada - Virtual Reference Canada
See also Subject(s): Libraries

Digital Object Identifier (DOI) / Identificateur d’objets numériques
Being jointly developed by the Association of American Publishers and the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) to identify digital objects--which could be books, chapters, articles, images, recordings, videos or other creative works--primarily for the purposes of effective rights management and digital commerce. Not unlike ISBNs in formulation: a component to the left of the slash denotes the registrant's prefix, and the component to the right of the slash is the object's unique identifier, as assigned by the registrant (e.g. 10.65478/45920). Some publishers have begun implementing a DOI prototype.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Libraries

digital signature / signature numérique
The result of a transformation of a message by means of a cryptographic system using keys such that a person who has the initial message can determine: (a) whether the transformation was created using the key that corresponds to the signer's key; and (b) whether the message has been altered since the transformation was made.
Source: Policy for Public Key Infrastructure Management in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

Document Type Definition / Définition de type de documents
In SGML or XML, a formal description of the components of a specific document or class of documents. DTDs provide a formal grammar used for machine processing (parsing) of documents expressed in SGML or XML. A DTD description includes: 

  • The containers or elements that make up the document; e.g., paragraphs, headings, list items, figures, tables, etc.
  • The logical structure of the document; e.g., chapters containing sections, etc.
  • Additional information associated with elements (known as attributes); e.g., identifiers, date stamps, etc.

Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Languages

Document-Like Object (DLO) / Objet du genre document
Originally defined as an entity that resembles a document from the standpoint that is substantially text-based and shares other properties of a document, e.g. electronic mail messages or spreadsheets. The definition was expanded at the 3rd DC workshop to refer to any discrete information resource that are characterized by being fixed (i.e., having identical context for each user). Examples include text, images, movies, and performances.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

dot.syntax / dot.syntaxe
A mechanism for refining the meaning of the element in HTML; for example, <META NAME="DC.Title.Alternative" CONTENT="Title">
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

DTD
See Document Type Definition

Dublin Core / Dublin Core
Dublin Core Metadata Element Set consists of 15 descriptive data elements relating to content, intellectual property and instantiation. The elements are title, creator, publisher, subject, description, source, language, relation, coverage, date, type, format, identifier, contributor and rights. They are to be supplied by the producer of the resource. The Warwick Framework set out a conceptual approach to implementing the Dublin Core, one of which is embedding the data in an HTML document using the META tag. DC is being widely discussed and there is a growing corpus of implementation projects in over 10 countries. There is a Dublin Core-USMARC mapping.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) / Initiative de métadonnées Dublin Core (IMDC)
The body responsible for the ongoing maintenance of Dublin Core. DCMI is currently hosted by the OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., a not-for-profit international library consortium. The work of DCMI is done by contributors from many institutions in many countries. DCMI is a consensus-driven organization organized into working groups to address particular problems and tasks. DCMI working groups are open to all interested parties. Instructions for joining can be found at the DCMI web site under Working Groups.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Dublin Core Structured Values (DCSV) / Valeurs structurées du Dublin Core
DCSV recognizes two types of substrings: labels and values. A label is the name of the type of a value, and a value is the data itself. A value that is comprised of components, i.e. a value which has its own label and value, is called a structured value. Punctuation supports the parsing of the DCSV.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language / Langage de balisage hypertexte dynamique
Denotes recent developments by both Netscape and Microsoft that use a combination of Cascading Style Sheets (see below) and a scripting language such as Visual Basic script or Javascript to merge the HTML document with the style sheet. Supports greater creative control over the visual presentation of an HTML page and allows the page to respond dynamically, without a call to the server, to user-generated events.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Languages; Portals

dynamic networked electronic publication / publication électronique dynamique en réseau
A dynamic electronic publication is distinguished by a high update frequency in which any component of the publication can change at any time. It is often intended by its creator to be accessed only in its most current state and the current version is often considered the only valid version. Databases are often, but not always, examples of this type of publication.
Source: National Library of Canada – Networked Electronic Publications Policy and Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Publishing

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edition / édition
The concept of edition is not standard to networked documents where changes to text can be often both fluid and frequent. The provision of access can be to multiple versions or to a current version only, depending on the circumstances. Approaches possible are: (1) overwrite so that all that is being archived is the current "edition," (2) decide the publication is monographic in nature and collect it as a new edition whenever there are significant changes, (3) treat as a serial publication, (4) collect a representative sample of versions/editions.
Source: National Library of Canada – Networked Electronic Publications Policy and Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Publishing

electronic authentication / authentification électronique
The process by which an electronic authorization is verified to ensure, before further processing, that the authorizer can be positively identified, that the integrity of the authorized data was preserved and that the data are original.
Source: Policy on Electronic Authorization and Authentication
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

electronic authorization / autorisation électronique
The process by which a digital signature is linked to an electronic business transactions to signify that a person with delegated authority has effectively authorized the further processing of that data and cannot credibly deny that s/he has done so.
Source: Policy on Electronic Authorization and Authentication
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

electronic information resource / source électronique d’information
An information resource that is maintained in electronic, or computerized format, and may be accessed, searched and retrieved via electronic networks or other electronic data processing technologies (e.g., CD-ROM)
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Resource Discovery

electronic mail (e-mail) message / messages électroniques ou courrier électronique (courriel)
Communications created, sent or received on an electronic mail system and include any attachments transmitted with the message and the associated transmission and receipt data. E-mail messages include those sent or received internally or externally.
Source: Natural Resources Canada – Guidelines on Managing Electronic Mail Messages
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

electronic mail (e-mail) system / système de messagerie électronique (e-mail)
A computer application used to create and receive electronic messages, and to transmit electronic messages and any other electronic documents in the form of attachments between individual users and/or groups of users.
Source: Natural Resources Canada – Guidelines on Managing Electronic Mail Messages
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

electronic networks / réseaux électroniques
Groups of computers and computer systems that can communicate with each other. Without restricting the generality of the foregoing, these networks include the Internet, networks internal to an institution and public and private networks external to an institution.
Source: Policy on the Use of Electronic Networks
See also Subject(s): Portals

electronic publishing / édition électronique
A working definition can be "publishing in which the information is designed to be delivered, read and displayed using digital electronic technology". It does not mean computer-assisted print publishing. The user end of electronic dissemination is usually a microcomputer, either stand-alone or hooked up to a "host" for the information, and its attendant information retrieval (search, manipulation and delivery) software.
See also Subject(s): Publishing

element / élément
A discrete unit of data or metadata. An element may contain subelements that are called qulifiers in Dublin Core.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

element refinement (qualifier) / raffinement d’éléments (qualificatif)
Qualifiers make the meaning of an element narrower or more specific.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

embedded metadata / métadonnées intercalées
Metadata that is maintained and stored within the object it describes; the opposite of stand-alone metadata.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Encoded Archival Description (EAD) / Description encodée d’archives
An SGML DTD that represents a highly structured way to create digital finding aids for a grouping of archival or manuscript materials. http://www.loc.gov/ead/
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

encoding scheme / schéma d’encodage
A scheme that aids in the interpretation of an element value. These schemes include controlled vocabularies and formal notations or parsing rules. A value expressed using an encoding scheme will thus be a token selected from a controlled vocabulary (e.g., a term from a classification system or set of subject headings) or a string formatted in accordance with a formal notation.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

encryption / cryptage
The process by which plain text data are transformed to conceal their meaning or provide data integrity. Encryption is a reversible process effected by using a cryptographic algorithm and key.
Source: Policy on Electronic Authorization and Authentication
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

essential record / document essentiel
Records essential to continuing or re-establishing critical institutional functions.
Source: Policy on the Management of Government Information
See also Subject(s): Records Management

essential records program / programme de gestion des documents essentiels
part of an institution's disaster recovery plan or business resumption plan. It ensures the continued availability of mission-critical information in the event of a disruption to normal operations during which vital documents or data may be lost or unavailable.
Source: Information Management Forum – Protecting Essential Records: A Short Guide for Government Institutions
See also Subject(s): Records Management

exemption / exception
A provision of the [Access to Information] Act which entitles the head of the institution to refuse to disclose information in response to a request received under the Act.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information

extensible / extensible
Having the potential to be expanded in scope, area or size. In the case of Dublin Core, the ability to extend a core set of metadata with additional elements.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Extensible Mark-up Language (XML) / Langage de balisage extensible (XML)
A simple, reduced subset of SGML designed (in 1996) for ease of implementation and interoperability with both full SGML and HTML. Currently a draft meta-language application profile, it is simpler than SGML (reducing a 500-page reference to 26 pages). Unlike HTML, XML supports (optionally) user-defined tags and attributes, allows nesting within documents to any degree of complexity, and can contain an optional description of its grammar for use by applications that need to perform structural validation. Every valid XML document will be a conformant SGML document. Not backward compatible with HTML documents, although those conforming to HTML 3.2 can easily be converted. Not intended to supplant HTML but to complement it. The XML character set is Unicode. XML is being widely discussed currently and future releases of MS Internet Explorer and Netscape browsers may be XML-enabled.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Languages; Portals

extranet / extranet
Refers to an Intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. Whereas an intranet is accessible only to people who are members of the same organization, an extranet provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders. A third party can access an extranet only if they have authorization from the organisation, and your identity determines which parts of the extranet you can view.
See also Subject(s): Portals

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Federal Government Institution / institution fédérale
In the context of the Framework for the Management of Information in the GoC a Federal Government Institution is defined as a statutory department, agency, or corporation as defined in Schedules I, I.1, and II of the Financial Administration Act (FAA).
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

federal records centre / centre fédéral de documents
Pursuant to Section 4 (2) of the National Archives of Canada Act, the National Archives provides “records storage facilities to government institutions”. The federal records centres manage records in all media on behalf of over 80 federal government departments and agencies. Centres are located in Halifax, Quebec City, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Winnipeg, Edmonton and Vancouver. They take in records of continuing value to government institutions when it is no longer cost effective for them to be maintained in departmental premises. Centres economically store and protect the records, retrieve them when required for reference or research, segregate archival and historical records so designated by the National Archivist for permanent preservation, and destroy other records in a timely and secure manner when they are no longer required. Centres also hold backup copies of electronic records which are deemed essential, in the event of disaster or emergency, to the operations of government and the protection of rights. Finally, the Centre in Ottawa manages the records of former military personnel, and the Centre in Winnipeg manages the records of former federal public servants. .
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

for cause / pour un motif valable
A determination that there is sufficient reason to review, revoke, suspend or downgrade a reliability status or a security clearance. In the context of a security assessment, a determination whether more in-depth verifications are required.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

function / fonction
For the purposes of archival appraisal, records disposition and records and file classification system design, a function means: - any high level purpose, responsibility, task or activity which is assigned to the accountability agenda of an institution by legislation, policy or mandate; - typically common administrative or operational functions of policy development and program and/or delivery of goods or services; - a set or series of activities (broadly speaking a business process) which, when carried out according to a prescribed sequence, will result in an institution or individual producing the expected results in terms of the goods or services it is mandated or delegated to provide.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

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gateway / passerelle
A gateway is a computer system for exchanging information across incompatible networks that use different protocols. An example would be the Canadian Library Gateway, which allows more than one database to be searched simultaneously. The term gateway has become synonymous with portal, or Web portal, which proposes to be a major starting site on the Web. Portals can be general (such as Yahoo) or specific (such as the Canadian Federal Government Web site). The Canada site includes three gateways: Canadians, Non-Canadians, and Canadian Business.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

governance / gouvernance
Governance is exercising authority to provide direction and to undertake, coordinate, and regulate activities in support of achieving this direction and desired outcomes.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

Governance and Accountability Model / Modèle de gouvernance et de reddition de comptes
A Governance and Accountability Model provides the relationship and process context for working together to ensure outcomes are achieved.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

government information / information gouvernementale
Information created, received, used, and maintained regardless of physical form, and information prepared for or produced by the Government of Canada and deemed to be under its control in the conduct of government activities or in pursuance of legal obligations.
Source: Access to Information Act
See also Subject(s): Information Management

Government Information Locator Service (GILS) / Service de localisation de l’information gouvernementale
Developed in the U.S. and now being adopted in other countries, GILS is a decentralized collection of systems containing databases of GILS records describing location and access information for publicly-available government information resources. Z39.30 is the access mechanism that has been specified for searching these systems, but they can also be searched through the Web. There is a GILS-USMARC mapping, and an SGML profile has been developed for GILS records.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Information Management

government institution / institution gouvernementale
Any department or ministry of state of the Government of Canada listed in Schedule 1 or any body or office listed in Schedule 1[of the Access to Information Act].
Source: Access to Information Act
See also Subject(s): Governance; Information Management

granularity / granularité
The level of detail at which an information object or resource is viewed or described.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

guidelines / lignes directrices
Information, usually in the form of best practices, intended to help institutions carry out government policy efficiently and effectively. Guidelines are not mandatory with respect to the policy they support.
Source: Government Communications Policy
See also Subject(s): Governance

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hierarchy / hiérarchie
A hierarchy is a system that shows relationships between terms from general, broader concepts to more specific categories. For an example, see the Statistics Canada “Browse by Subject Page”.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

HTML
See Hypertext Markup Language

human-readable record / document lisible sans aide
Refers to a record that is intelligible without the assistance or mediation of a machine, for example, a manuscript of typescript, a drawing, a print, etc.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

Hypertext Markup Language / langage de balisage hypertexte
A reduced tag set version of an SGML DTD that provides a set of platform-independent styles (defined by tags) used to define the components of a Web document. HTML 2.0 is an IETF standard; 3.0 was an IETF draft (which have 6 month lifespans); HTML 3.2 was announced May 1996 to supplant 2.0 as lowest common denominator. Version 3.2 incorporates all of 2.0 and popular features of 3.0 such as tables but not frames. Version 4.0 was released as a draft in July 1997. While HTML tags are primarily structure-related, there are increasingly accepted tags for specifying presentation and layout.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Languages; Portals

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Identifier / Identificateur
The Dublin Core element that is an unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context. Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

indexing / indexer
The process of evaluating information entities and creating indexing terms, normally subject or topical terms, that aid in finding and accessing the entity. Index terms may be in natural language or controlled vocabulary or a classification notation.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification; Rates of pay

industrial design / dessin industriel
The visual features of shape, configuration, pattern or ornament applied to a manufactured article. Registration provides protection against imitation and unauthorized use of the design.
Source: Canadian Intellectual Property Office
See also Subject(s): Intellectual Property

Info Source / Info Source
The publication produced by the designated minister in accordance with subsection 5(1) of the [Access to Information] Act. It contains details of the organization, programs, functions and information holdings of government institutions.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information

information / information
Information is a representation of facts, ideas, or opinions about objects, events, and/or processes that exist on any medium or format.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Information Management

Data that has been arranged in a systematic way to yield order and meaning.
Source: Knowledge Management, Health Canada
See also Subject(s): Information Management

information audit / vérification d’information
A systematic examination of information use, resources and flows, with a verification by reference to both people and existing documents, in order to establish the extent to which they are contributing to an organisation's objectives
Source: Aslib
See also Subject(s): Information Management

Information Commissioner / Commissaire à l'information
An official appointed under the [Access to Information] Act who has the powers of an ombudsman.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Access to Information; Governance

information management / discipline de la gestion de l'information
A discipline that directs and supports effective and efficient management of information in an organization, from planning and systems development to disposal and/or long-term preservation.
Source: Access to Information Act
See also Subject(s): Information Management

information management advisor / conseiller en gestion de l'information
Information Management Advisors have a broad knowledge of information management disciplines and provide guidance and support to program and staff functions on all aspects of managing the information resource.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance; Information Management

information management specialist / spécialiste de la gestion de l'information
Information Management Specialists are experts in one or more of the information management disciplines that support the effective and efficient management of information.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance; Information Management

information resource / source d’information
Any entity, electronic or otherwise, capable of conveying or supporting intelligence or knowledge; e.g. a book, a letter, a picture, a sculpture, a database, a person.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Information Management; Metadata

information strategy / stratégie d’information
The detailed expression of information policy in terms of objectives, targets, and actions to achieve them, for a defined period ahead
Source: Aslib
See also Subject(s): Information Management

information technology security / sécurité des technologies de l'information
Safeguards to preserve the confidentiality, integrity, availability, intended use and value of electronically stored, processed or transmitted information.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

information technology specialist / spécialiste de la technologie de l'information
Information Technology Specialists are information systems and technology infrastructure managers, experts, and technicians.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance; Information Management

Institution-Specific Disposition Authority (ISDA) / autorisation spécifique de disposer de documents
A records disposition authority related to records managed by a single government institution, and which allow the institution empowered to use the authority to dispose of records under certain terms and conditions. ISDAs take precedence over all other records disposition authorities issued by the National Archivist.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

integrated circuit topography / topographie de circuits intégrés
a) The three-dimensional configuration of the electronic circuits embodied in integrated circuit products or layout designs. b) Legal protection against imitation of this configuration.
Source: Canadian Intellectual Property Office
See also Subject(s): Intellectual Property

integrity / intégrité
The accuracy and completeness of assets, and the authenticity of transactions.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

integrity of a publication / intégrité d'une publication
Those features of a publication that distinguish it as a whole and singular work. These features include: content, fixity, reference, provenance and context.
Source: National Library of Canada – Networked Electronic Publications Policy and Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Publishing

intellectual property (IP) / propriété intellectuelle
A form of creative endeavour that can be protected through a trade-mark, patent, copyright, industrial design or integrated circuit topography.
Source: Canadian Intellectual Property Office
See also Subject(s): Intellectual Property

Internet / Internet
A global network connecting millions of computers using a standardized network protocol.
See also Subject(s): Portals

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) / Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The IETF is responsible for solving short-term engineering needs of the Internet It has over 40 Working Groups.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

Interoperability Qualifiers / Raffinement d'interopérabilité
Additional metadata used either to refine the semantics of a Dublin Core metadata element's value, or to provide more information about the encoding scheme used for the value.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

intranet / intranet
An organizational network, usually belonging to a corporation, connecting computers using a standardized network protocol. The network is accessible only by the organization’s members, employees, or others with authorization. An intranet’s web sites look and act just like web sites on the internet, but specific access controls prevent unauthorized access.
Source: Framework for Government On-Line: Tier Two Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Portals

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key / clé
A sequence of symbols that controls digital signature and encryption processes.
Source: Policy for Public Key Infrastructure Management in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

key management / gestion des clés
A process designed to ensure that the keys and keying material used in the authorization and authentication process are managed in accordance with a security policy. The process includes the generation, distribution, application, certification, storage, archiving and destruction of keys.
Source: Policy on Electronic Authorization and Authentication
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

keywords / mots clé
Keywords are words or phrases that are used as access points for searching content. Keywords are selected from the text of an information resource itself, and are not part of a controlled vocabulary. They may be assigned by human indexers or extracted by computer programs that check how often a word occurs in an information resource. Keywords work well when the same terminology is used consistently in all the information resources, however this rarely happens. As an example, in a search for information about Volkswagens, if you search using the word "Volkswagen," you will not retrieve any information resource only assigned the keyword "VW". This is where the use of controlled vocabulary in search and retrieval can help improve search results.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification; Resource Discovery

knowledge / savoir
Information in the mind, in a context which allows it to be transformed into action.
Source: Knowledge Management, Health Canada
See also Subject(s): Information Management

knowledge base / base de connaissance
A database of question-answer sets that have been reviewed and stored for future use and retrieval.
Source: National Library of Canada - Virtual Reference Canada
See also Subject(s): Information Management

knowledge management (KM) / gestion du savoir
An imprecise term, very similar to information management the main difference is the sharing (mapping) of information and experience of many individuals towards the betterment of an organisation, rather than information remaining with different individuals working separately towards the same goal.
Source: Aslib
See also Subject(s): Information Management

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Language / Langue
A language of the intellectual content of the resource. The values of the Language element are defined by ISO 639-2 "Alpha-3 Code for the Representation of the Names of Languages"
Source: Common Look and Feel Metadata Standard Definitions and HTML Examples
See also Subject(s): Metadata

large print / impression en gros caractères
A publication using 14 point type or larger.
See also Subject(s): Accessibility

life cycle / cycle de vie
Life cycle of information encompasses the stages of the planning, collection, creation, receipt and capture of information; its organization, retrieval, use, accessibility, dissemination and transmission; its storage, maintenance, and protection; and, its disposition or preservation.
Source: Management of Government Information (MGI) Policy
See also Subject(s): Information Management; Records Management

local area network (LAN) / réseau local d'entreprise (LAN)
Two or more computing units connected for local resource sharing. A network in which communications are limited to a moderate-sized geographic area, such as a single office building, warehouse, or campus, and that do not extend across public rights-of-way.
Source: BC Government Information Management Group
See also Subject(s): Portals

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M

Machine Readable Cataloguing (MARC) / Catalogage lisible par machine (MARC)
A family of formats based on ISO 2709 for the exchange of bibliographic and other elated information in machine readable form. For example: USMARC, UKMARC and UNIMARC. http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification; Libraries

management of information / gestion de l'information
An element of every job function in the Government of Canada that has to do with treating the information used or produced in the course of performing the job duties as a strategic business resource and in line with legal and policy requirements.
Source: Management of Government Information (MGI) Policy
See also Subject(s): Information Management

managers / gestionnaire
Managers include program delivery managers and support function managers, at all levels in the institution, accountable for the direct delivery and support of programs and services within their domain of business responsibility.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

manual / manuel
Any set of directives, instructions, guidelines or procedures used by employees in administering or carrying out any operational programs or activities of a government institution.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Governance

META tag / étiquette META
The HTML element used to demarcate metadata on a Web page. <META></META>.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

metadata / métadonnées
Term means "data about data", or specifically in the Web context, machine-understandable information to identify, locate, and/or describe Web resources. Equivalent traditional library standards include ISBN and ISSN (identification), shelf mark/call number (location), ISBD and AACR2 (bibliographic description), LC and DDC (subject classification), LCSH (subject headings), and MARC (machine-readable communication format).
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Originally referred to technical data about electronic records essential for rendering them understandable. The term has been enlarged in general archival usage to apply to data or information which may be considered part of or related to archival records in either traditional or electronic media. This data may be administrative or descriptive or may relate to a record’s preservation or use.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

metadata record / enregistrement de métadonnées
A syntactically correct representation of the descriptive information (metadata) for an information resource. In the case of Dublin Core, a representation of the Dublin Core elements that has been defined for the resource. The majority of metadata records and record fragments in this document are presented in HTML syntax.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Minister of a Government Institution / Ministre d'une institution fédérale
The Minister of a government institution is the member of the Queen's Privy Council with designated authority and responsibility for all matters within the jurisdiction of the institution, not by law assigned to any other department, board, or agency. The Minister is accountable to the Prime Minister and to Parliament.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

ministerial record / document ministériel
A record of a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada who holds the office of a minister and that pertains to that office, other than a record that is of a personal or political nature or that is under the control of a government institution
Source: National Archives of Canada Act
See also Subject(s): Records Management

Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities (MIDA) / autorisations pluriinstitutionnelles de disposer de documents (APDD)
A type of records disposition authority Issued by the National Archivist to provide direction to government institutions subject to the National Archives of Canada Act regarding the disposal of records common to all or a multiple number of government institutions. They are designed to eliminate the need for government institutions to prepare individual submissions for and negotiate agreements with the National Archivist for records which have similar administrative or operational status.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

Multi-Purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) / Extension de courrier Internet à usage multiples (MINE)
Adds multi-part (e.g. WWW hypertext documents, word processing file attachments, etc.), multi-media (non-text such as audio, graphics) messaging support to SMTP. Also supports message encryption.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Electronic Mail

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name authority / autorité de nom
A name authority is a record that shows a personal, corporate or geographic heading in its established form. Each record cites the authoritative sources that were consulted in determining the established choice and form of the name. Cross-references from alternate versions of a name are often included in a record as names change over the years in order to provide continuity.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

narrower term / terme spécifique
Term has a specific meaning relative to others.
Source: National Archives of Australia
See also Subject(s): Classification

national interest / intérêt national
Concerns the defence and maintenance of the social, political and economic stability of Canada.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

need-to-know / besoin de connaître
The need for someone to access and know information in order to perform his or her duties.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

networked electronic publication / publication électronique en réseau
A networked electronic publication is a digitally encoded information resource made available to the public through a communication network.
Source: National Library of Canada – Networked Electronic Publications Policy and Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Publishing

non-preferred term / terme non préférentiel
A non-preferred term is a synonym to a preferred term that has the equivalent meaning to the preferred term but that is not used for indexing. The thesaurus directs you to the preferred term. Non-preferred terms are also called lead-in terms, because they lead into a preferred term.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

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Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC) / Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC)
The major source of cataloging data for libraries around the world; located in Dublin, Ohio, US. http://www.oclc.org/
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Libraries

ontology / ontologie
Used in philosophy for centuries, ontology is the study of the nature and relation of being.  The term is now used in the fields of information science and artificial intelligence to mean the hierarchical structuring of knowledge using a set of concepts that are specified in order to create an agreed-upon vocabulary for exchanging information.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

operational record / document d’exploitation
Operational records are records created, collected or received by a federal government institution to support and document business functions, programmes, processes, transactions, services and all other activities uniquely or specifically assigned to that particular institution by legislation, regulation or policy.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

original networked electronic publication / publication électronique originale diffusée en réseau
An "original" publication is one released initially, or solely in networked electronic format. A networked publication parallel to another format version of the publication (e.g., print) is considered to have "original" status if the networked version has enhanced information content and/or functionality, e.g. graphs, sound, indexes, etc. If the networked version simply has the added feature of links established within the publication or to outside sources, this is not considered sufficient to give the publication "original" status. A networked electronic publication based on a compilation or selection of previously published materials is considered to be an "original" publication. A networked electronic publication is considered not to be "original" if the publication has previously been published in another format and the networked version contains no enhanced information content and/or functionality when compared to the originally published version of the publication.
Source: National Library of Canada – Networked Electronic Publications Policy and Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Publishing

original record / document original
Refers to a record designated original by the National Archives after consideration of its attributes and their Interrelationships. The designation may change owing to circumstances, such as new acquisition or new information.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation; Records Management

outcome / issue
An outcome is an event, occurrence or condition that occurs as a direct result of programs and activities.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

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parsing / parsage
Parsing may be divided into parts: lexical analysis and semantic parsing. Lexical analysis divides strings into components based on punctuation or tagging. Semantic parsing then attempts to determine the meaning of the string.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification; Metadata

permanent custody / garde permanente
Is intended to ensure the physical integrity of the holdings and includes responsibility for, among other activities, relevant standards, policies, procedures and regulations; holdings assessments and surveys; ensuring proper accommodation, storage containers and handling techniques; the management of holdings in storage or other locations; environmental and pest control; secure use and access to, retrieval and loan of archival records and certain copies.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

persistent cookies / témoins persistants
A persistent cookie is stored on the hard drive of the user's computer and is read by the Web site that placed the cookie there, each time the user visits that Web site. A persistent cookie will have a specific expiry date that is set by the Web site that created that cookie. The cookie will cease to function after that date.
Source: Recommendations for Common Look and Feel Standards and Guidelines for Intranets and Extranets (CLFIE)
See also Subject(s): Portals

Persistent Uniform Resource Locator (PURL) / Localisateur persistant de ressources uniformes
An approach to the URL permanence problem proposed by OCLC. A PURL is a public alias for a document. A PURL remains stable, while the document's background URL will change as it is managed (e.g. moved) over time. A PURL is created by a Web administrator who is registered as a PURL "owner" and who maintains a mapping of the PURL to a current and functioning URL. A PURL is a form of URN. http://www.purl.org/
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Metadata; Portals

personal information / renseignement personnel
Means information about an identifiable individual, but does not include the name, title or business address or telephone number of an employee of an organization.
Source: Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
See also Subject(s): Information Management

physical security / sécurité matérielle
The use of physical safeguards to prevent and delay unauthorized access to assets, detect attempted and actual unauthorized access and activate appropriate response.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) / Plateforme de sélection du contenu Internet (PICS)
Internet content filtering infrastructure. http://www.w3.org/PICS/
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

policy / politique
Provides authoritative direction to government institutions on a given subject and determines the discretion for making decisions regarding that subject.
Source: Government Communications Policy
See also Subject(s): Governance

portal / portail
Portal is a term, generally synonymous with gateway, for a Web site that proposes to be a starting site. Portals can be general or specific. Many portals are can be customized to show the local weather or news. The Canada site is an example of a specific portal linking to information about Canadian federal departments, programs, and publications, as well as links to provincial information.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

preferred term / terme préférentiel
A preferred term is one that a large number of people know and use. In a thesaurus, a preferred term is the term selected from among synonyms to be the one used for indexing and retrieval purposes. Another name for preferred terms is authorized terms.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

preservation / préservation
All actions that can be taken with the aim of ensuring the current and long-term survival and accessibility of the physical form, informational content and relevant metadata of archival records, including actions taken to influence records creators prior to acquisition or selection.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Information Management; Records Management

preventive preservation / préservation préventive
Refers to a specific set of non-intrusive preservation actions undertaken without actual physical intervention or chemical treatment of archival records. Preventive preservation attempts to prevent or halt deterioration or retard its progress, or manufactures a potential surrogate through certain copying techniques that maintain the copied archival record unchanged. Preventive preservation is not repair, deacidification or migration, which are active interventions that affect the record. Preventive preservation is not confined to the activities of preservation staff but is an integral part of all archival activities from acquisition, selection and arrangement through to the provision of access, and all National Archives staff assume responsibility for preventive preservation appropriate to their roles, based on standards and guidelines. Preventive preservation includes establishing and implementing a holdings maintenance plan, proper containerization and handling techniques, storage and processing environments, packing and transport procedures, and certain copying techniques.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

procedures / procédures
Support a policy by describing routine operations that institutions must carry out.
Source: Government Communications Policy
See also Subject(s): Governance

protected information / renseignements protégés
Information related to other than the national interest that may qualify for an exemption or exclusion under the Access to Information Act or Privacy Act, and the compromise of which would reasonably be expected to cause injury to a non-national interest.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Information Management; Security

protocol / protocoles
Standard sets of rules that govern network communications functions be describing both the format that a message must take and the way in which messages are exchanged between computers.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Portals

public key certificate / certificat de clé publique
The public key of a user, together with related information, digitally signed with the private key of the Certification Authority that issued it.
Source: Policy for Public Key Infrastructure Management in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

public key infrastructure / infrastructure à clé publique
The entire set of policies, processes, server platforms, software, and work stations used for (the purpose of) administering certificates and keys.
Source: Policy for Public Key Infrastructure Management in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Public Key Infrastructure

published information / matériel publié
Library matter of every kind, nature, and description resulting from the act of publishing and released for public distribution or sale. Publications include material such as books, maps, periodicals, documents, working or discussion papers, audio or video recordings, online/networked publications (both static and dynamic), and compact discs. Publications can be in any format on or in which information is written, recorded, stored or reproduced.
Source: Management of Government Information (MGI) Policy
See also Subject(s): Information Management; Publishing

Publisher / Éditeur
The Dublin Core element used to designate the entity responsible for making the resource available. Examples of a Publisher include a person, an organization, or a service. Typically, the name of a Publisher should be used to indicate the entity.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

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qualifier / qualificatif
Something that describes or characterizes an object. In the case of Dublin Core, a qualifier refines an element's meaning. A qualifier must follow the Dumb-Down Principle. There are two broad categories of qualifiers: Encoding schema and Element refinement.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

QuestionPoint / QuestionPoint
Jointly developed by the Library of Congress and the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), QuestionPoint is a web-based service that will allow users to manage their reference systems. QuestionPoint is an enhanced service of the Collaborative Digital Reference Service. It was launched in June 2002.
Source: National Library of Canada - Virtual Reference Canada
See also Subject(s): Libraries

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reconstructed record / document reconstitué
Refers to the product of an attempt, usually in audio-visual records, to divine the intentions of the records creators and on that basis, using copying and composite techniques, either to alter an existing archival record or to produce a proposed new version for which no complete original may exist.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

record / document
Includes any correspondence, memorandum, book, plan, map, drawing, diagram, pictorial or graphic work, photograph, film, microform, sound recording, videotape, machine readable records, and any other documentary material, regardless of physical form or characteristics, and any copy thereof.
Source: National Archives of Canada Act
See also Subject(s): Records Management

records categories / catégories de documents
For the purpose of records disposition, there are three broad categories of government records: - records common to the internal administration and operations of institutions; - records unique to the specific operational responsibilities of an institution; and - ministerial records.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

Records Disposition Authority (RDA) / autorisation de disposer des documents (ADD)
The instrument that the National Archivist issues to enable government institutions to dispose of records which no longer have operational utility, either by permitting their destruction, by requiring their transfer to the National Archives or by agreeing to their alienation from the control of the Government of Canada.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

reference (or consultation) copy / copie de consultation
Refers to a copy made available to archives users to prevent frequent handling and transportation of either archival records or archival masters; it also serves to make client copies for users. It is usually made either from the copying master or, infrequently, from the archival master. A digital reference copy may be made from the original digital record or from any of its digital copies.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

regulations / règlement
Order to ensure the enforcement of an Act.
Source: Glossary - Canada Gazette
See also Subject(s): Governance

related term (RT) / terme connexe
Term is not a synonym, quasi-synonym, broader or narrower term, but is associated with another term
Source: National Archives of Australia
See also Subject(s): Classification

reliability status / cote de fiabilité
Indicates successful completion of a reliability check; allows regular access to government assets and with a need to know to protected information.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

resource / ressource
A resource is source or supply that can be drawn on to support or fulfill a specific need or to handle a situation. Information is a resource that supports and enables business delivery, fulfills inquiry requests, and adds value to other products and services. Information is a strategic business resource when it is recognized and managed as a valuable business asset, independent of organizational boundaries, to address immediate needs, exploit opportunities to leverage it for business advantage, and enhance its value through knowledge creation and preservation.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

resource discovery / exploration des ressources
The process through which one searches and retrieves an information resource.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Resource Discovery

responsibility / responsabilité
A responsibility is something that one is required to do as part of a job, role or legal obligation.
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

restricted access area / aire à accès restreint
Work area where access is limited to authorized individuals.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

result / résultat
A result is the impact or effect of a program
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

Rights / Droits
The Dublin Core element used to provide a link to information about rights held in and over the resource. Typically a Rights element will contain a rights management statement for the resource, or reference a service providing such information. Rights information often encompasses Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Copyright, and various Property Rights. If the rights element is absent, no assumptions can be made about the status of these and other rights with respect to the resource.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

risk / risque
The chance of a vulnerability being exploited.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

role / rôle
A role is a function performed by someone in a particular situation, process or operation
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

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schema / schéma
A scheme, or schema, is a systematic, orderly combination of elements. A set of rules for encoding information that supports a specific community of users.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

screen magnifier / loupe d’écran
A software program that magnifies a portion of the screen, so that it can be more easily viewed. Screen magnifiers are used primarily by individuals with low vision.
Source: W3C – Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Accessibility

screen reader / lecteur d’écran
A software program that reads the contents of the screen aloud to a user. Screen readers are used primarily by individuals who are blind. Screen readers can usually only read text that is printed, not painted, to the screen.
Source: W3C – Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
See also Subject(s): Accessibility

search engine / moteur de recherche
A search engine is a set of computer programs that finds web pages. There are general search engines that search large portions of the Web and specialized content search engines that target selected areas of the Web, such as the Government of Canada’s search engine searches only federal government Web sites. An alternative to using search engines is to browse structured directories of topics. Web portal sites offer both the search engine and directory approaches to finding information.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals; Resource Discovery

security clearance / cote de sécurité
Indicates successful completion of a security assessment; with a need to know, allows access to classified information. There are three security clearance levels: Confidential, Secret and Top Secret.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

security incident / incident de sécurité
Compromise of an asset, or any act or omission that could result in a compromise; threat or act of violence toward employees.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

Semantic Web / Web sémantique
The Semantic Web is World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee’s idea that the Web as a whole can be made more intelligent and perhaps even intuitive about how to serve a user's needs. Berners-Lee observes that although search engines index much of the Web's content, they have little ability to select the pages that a user really wants or needs. He foresees a number of ways in which developers and authors can use self-descriptions and other techniques so that context-understanding programs can selectively find what users want. 
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

senior executive / cadre supérieur
The Senior Executive is an executive level resource designated by the senior manager of the institution to provide a portfolio-wide focus on the management of information
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

session cookies / témoins volatiles
A session cookie may be created when you visit a site or portion of a site. The cookie exists for the duration of your visit. Depending on the settings in your browser, you may have the option to deny the session cookie; however, if you deny the cookie you may have trouble using the site which relies on that cookie.
Source: Recommendations for Common Look and Feel Standards and Guidelines for Intranets and Extranets (CLFIE)
See also Subject(s): Portals

SGML
See Standard Generalized Markup Language

Signed films and videos / vidéos et films signés
The spoken word is transferred to sign language on screen.
See also Subject(s): Accessibility

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) / Protocole de transfer de courrier simple (SMTP)
A TCP/IP application protocol that is the most widely employed e-mail standard. Does not support transfer of non-text messages or message parts such as images, audio or video, nor word processing or spreadsheet files because their proprietary format coding is non-text. Supports only standard ASCII character set (i.e. no diacritics).
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Electronic Mail

site access clearance / cote spéciale d'accès
Required for access to installations critical to the national interest or to restricted areas for special events.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

Source / Source
The Dublin Core element used to designate a reference to a resource from which the present resource is derived. The present resource may be derived from the Source resource in whole or part. Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

stakeholder / intervenant
Stakeholders are individuals, groups or organizations that have an interest or share in an undertaking or relationship and its outcome - they may be affected by it, impact or influence it, and in some way be accountable for it
Source: Glossary – Framework for the Management of Information in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

stand-alone metadata / métadonnées autonomes
Metadata that is created, maintained and stored independently of the object it describes. The opposite of embedded metadata.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

standard / norme
A level of attainment regarded as a measure of adequacy; requirements and guidelines approved for government-wide use.
Source: Policy for Public Key Infrastructure Management in the Government of Canada
See also Subject(s): Governance

Standard Generalized Markup Language / langage SGML
A standard meta-language (ISO Standard 8879-1986), or syntax, for the specification of an unlimited number of mark-up languages. An SGML document has three elements: the Declaration (describes processing environment needed); the Document Type Definition (DTD) (a defined tag set that forms a template for describing the structure and content of a specific type of document); and the Document stream itself. SGML is independent of any system, device, language or application, and, because it separates document content definition from presentation, it allows information to be accessed or presented in ways not predicted at the time of mark-up. SGML viewing software (e.g. Panorama) parses/interprets the SGML document content according to its DTD instructions. SGML is anticipated to be a key standard in digital library development.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Languages

statutory instrument / textes réglementaires
A regulation, order, commission or other instrument authorized by an Act of Parliament.
Source: Glossary - Canada Gazette
See also Subject(s): Governance

Subject / Sujet
The topic of the content of the resource. Typically, a Subject will be expressed as keywords, key phrases or classification codes that describe a topic of the resource. It is mandatory in the Government of Canada, to select a value from a controlled vocabulary or formal classification scheme such as a thesaurus which is recognized by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative or registered with the National Library of Canada and to explicitly identify the scheme.
Source: Common Look and Feel Metadata Standard Definitions and HTML Examples
See also Subject(s): Metadata

subject cluster / regroupement thématique
A subject cluster is like a portal because it links sites from one subject area and provides a single point of entry to that subject area. The Canada site links to subject clusters such as Travel at Home and Abroad.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

subject headings / vedette-matière
An alphabetical list of words or phrases that represent a concept that is under authority control, e.g., the Library of Congress Subject Headings.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

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taxonomy / taxonomie
A taxonomy is a classification according to a pre-determined system. This results in a catalogue used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion, analysis or information retrieval. In Web portal design, taxonomies are often created to describe categories and subcategories of topics found on the Web site. The Statistics Canada site “Browse by subject” feature is an example of a taxonomy.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification; Portals

technology-dependent record / document dépendant d’une technologie
Refers to a record that is dependent on the mediation of a machine and/or other technology such as software to be experienced or rendered intelligible; for example, audio-visual records and electronic records.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

telephone teletype (TTY) / appareil de télécommunications pour sourds (ATS)
An alternative to the regular telephone used by people who are deaf or hard of hearing. The conversation is typed rather than spoken and appears on the receiving end in written text or on an electronic screen.
See also Subject(s): Accessibility

temporary custody / garde temporaire
Records may be in the temporary custody of non-custodial National Archives staff or of external institutions or individuals for such purposes as acquisition, arrangement, processing, documentation, public consultation, exhibition, loan, etc. In these circumstances, they will be handled according to the custodial standards, policies, procedures and regulations of the NA.
Source: National Archives of Canada Preservation Policy
See also Subject(s): Conservation

thesaurus / thésaurus
A thesaurus is a tool used for vocabulary control.  Using a thesaurus improves search results. A thesaurus is a sub-set of the language we use in daily life. It includes information about the relationships of words and phrases (i.e. broader terms, narrower terms, preferred terms, non-preferred, or related terms). A thesaurus is normally restricted to a specific subject field (e.g. health, education, government documents). Searchers can use terminology they are familiar with to find the most relevant information. The Statistics Canada Online Catalogue uses a thesaurus.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Classification

threat / menace
Any potential event or act, deliberate or accidental, that could cause injury to employees or assets.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

Title / Titre
A name given to the resource. Typically, a Title will be a name by which the resource is formally known.
Source: Common Look and Feel Metadata Standard Definitions and HTML Examples
See also Subject(s): Metadata

trade-mark / marque de commerce
A word, symbol or design, or combination of these, used to distinguish the goods or services of one party from those of another.
Source: Canadian Intellectual Property Office
See also Subject(s): Intellectual Property

transitory record / document éphémère
Transitory records are those records required only for a limited time to ensure the completion of a routine action or the preparation of a subsequent record. Transitory records do not include records required by government institutions or Ministers to control support of document the delivery of programs, to carry out operations, to make decisions or to account for activities of government.
Source: National Archives of Canada – Multi-Institutional Disposition Authorities
See also Subject(s): Records Management

transmission and receipt data / données de transmission et de réception
Include such things as originator, recipients, cc, bcc, subject, date and time. These data are an integral part of an e-mail message and form part of the e-mail record.
Source: Natural Resources Canada – Guidelines on Managing Electronic Mail Messages
See also Subject(s): Electronic Mail

Transmission Control Protocol over Internet Protocol (TC / Protocole de contrôle de la transmission par le protocole d’Internet (TC
Specifically denotes network and transport layer protocols within the Internet 5-layer protocol stack, although is often used to refer to the entire stack. … The Internet non-proprietary suite of protocols allows communications among more hosts and more types of data formats than any other protocol suite.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Portals

Type / Type
The Dublin Core element used to designate the nature or genre of the content of the resource. Type includes terms describing general categories, functions, genres, or aggregation levels for content. Recommended best practice is to select a value from a controlled vocabulary
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

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under the control / relever de
A record is under the control of a government institution when that institution is authorized to grant or deny access to the record, to govern its use and, subject to the approval of the National Archivist, to dispose of it. Regarding the question of physical possession, a record held by an institution, whether at headquarters, regional, satellite or other office, either within or outside Canada, is presumed to be under its control unless there is evidence to the contrary. A record held elsewhere on behalf of an institution is also under its control. Personal or political papers of a minister and ministerial records not relating to the administration or operation of the institution for which the minister is responsible and which are kept separate and apart from institutional files are not under the control of the institution.
Source: Access to Information and Privacy Guidelines

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) / Identificateur de ressources uniformes
The inclusive term for the set of technologies -- currently including URLs, URCs and URNs but extendable -- that have been developed under the auspices of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for naming, addressing, and to some extent describing Web resources.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Portals

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) / adresse URL (localisateur de ressources uniformes)
Electronic address that specified (in order): communication protocol, host domain/server, directory path, file name and file type.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Portals

used for (UF) / employé pour (EP)
Denotes that the term has non-preferred terms or abbreviations, synonyms or quasi-synonyms
Source: National Archives of Australia
See also Subject(s): Classification

user profile / profil d'utilisateur
The description of a particular user's attributes and permissions that the system assigns to that user's logon ID to define their interaction with system resources.
Source: BC Government Information Management Group
See also Subject(s): Security

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value / valeur
Estimated worth, monetary, cultural or other.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

vulnerability / vulnérabilité
An inadequacy related to security that could permit a threat to cause injury.
Source: Government Security Policy
See also Subject(s): Security

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W3C
See World Wide Web Consortium

Warwick Framework / Warwick Framework
An architecture for the exchange of distinct metadata packages involving the aggregation of metadata packages into containers.
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Metadata

Web browser / navigateurs Web
Software that acts as an interface between the user and the World Wide Web. Browsers are also referred to as web clients because in the client/ server model, the browser functions as the client program. Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer are standards for Web browsers.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Portals

Web robot / robot Web
A software robot which trawls the WWW, generating all-encompassing Web indexes. Also known as Web crawlers or Web spiders.
Source: UKOLN Metadata Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

Wide Area Network (WAN) / Grand réseau (WAN), réseau étendu (WAN)
A network of remote LANs linked by bridges, routers, or gateways
Source: BC Government Information Management Group Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

World Wide Web Consortium / Consortium World Wide Web
Organization currently responsible for the development of Web protocols. http://www.w3.org/
Source: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) – Glossary
See also Subject(s): Portals

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X.400: Message Oriented Text Interchange System (ISO 1002 / X.400 : services de messagerie (ISO 1002
Supports encryption, so more secure than SMTP without MIME, and supports non-text message parts. The only protocol from the OSI suite to be currently in common use, mainly in governments.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Electronic Mail

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Z39.50: ANS / Z39.50 : ANS
As of late 1996, also adopted as, ISO 23950. Specifies the rules and procedures of two systems communicating for the purposes of database searching and information retrieval. There are two parts to the standard: the "origin" portion supports the querying of remote systems; the "target" portion translates queries to the logic of the target database system and returns records or results sets. From a searcher's perspective, the standard enables the searching of different systems through use of one familiar user interface.
Source: National Library of Canada – A Glossary of Digital Library Standards, Protocols and Formats
See also Subject(s): Resource Discovery